Introduction
Contexts

I.
II.

a)
b)

Historic context about Irish Immigration
Geographic context

III.

How did the Irish...
Introduction
We gonna show you how the Irish migrants integrated in the
United States during the nineteenth century until ...
I.
a)
The Irish are one of the largest ethnic group in the
United States. Before 1820 and the industrial
revolution which has be...


In this main wave in the 19th century, a lot
of Irish migrate in the United States
because of the Great Famine, the pov...
b)
Ireland is a country separated in two : Nothern Ireland which is a part of United Kingdom
and the Republic of Ireland whic...
This country is composed by 50 states leading by a president.
Economic prosperity : in the 19th century, this country was ...
II.


Before 1840, only rich Irishes
who wants to discover the
new continent migrate to the
USA because the trip was
really e...


At first, the Irish migrants were victims of poverty while the American were growing rich because
when the first migran...
Despite of those bad stereotype, the Irish migants had more avantages than the other one.
They spoke English, they were in...
John F. Kennedy showed that the Irish are a part of the America and that it is possible to
admit all the religions in a co...
III.
a) The Irish
workforce

In the 19th century, the United States need cheap
industrial workforce. Besides, the Irish migrant...
b) The catholic religion in
the United States
The majority of the Irish migrants
migrate because of the religion war in
Ir...
c) The Irish migrants in the
American politic


At first, the Irish migrants couldn’t express their politic
opinion. But ...
c) Irish influences on the
American culture


The Irish migrant had a Western European culture which is similar to the Am...
IV. Conclusion

After suffering from difficult conditions of life in
shantytowns without water, or food and after
working ...
Dnl lundi chloé salomé juliette pereira martins madeleine polycarpe
Dnl lundi chloé salomé juliette pereira martins madeleine polycarpe
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Dnl lundi chloé salomé juliette pereira martins madeleine polycarpe

  1. 1. Introduction Contexts I. II. a) b) Historic context about Irish Immigration Geographic context III. How did the Irish migrants integrate in the United States from the 19th century until today ? III. The four main domains of the Irish integration in the United States a) b) c) d) V. The Irish workforce The catholic religion in the United States The Irish migrants in the American politic The Irish influences on the American culture Conclusion
  2. 2. Introduction We gonna show you how the Irish migrants integrated in the United States during the nineteenth century until today. We’ve chosen this subject because we think that’s very important to associate the history and his result today to understand the actual world. To understand better the subject, we are going to explain the historic and the geographic context and then we gonna speak about the integration in general and the four main domains of the Irish integration in the United States : economic, politic, religious and cultural. And finally, we are going to conclude this subject.
  3. 3. I.
  4. 4. a)
  5. 5. The Irish are one of the largest ethnic group in the United States. Before 1820 and the industrial revolution which has begun in the United Kingdom, only teachers, rich artisans or other rich professionals could afford the Atlantic crossing because it was really expensive. These earlier immigrants generally got a good fortune in the new continent. However the main wave of Irish immigrants in the United States was between 1820 and 1880 because more poor people could afford the trip who was less expensive but in horrible conditions. This wave peaked from 1846 to 1851 because of the Great Famine which forced millions of Irish to leave their homeland. Besides, for the majority of them, at first their life in the USA wasn’t really pleasant but then they grew up in the society and became mayor of big town.
  6. 6.  In this main wave in the 19th century, a lot of Irish migrate in the United States because of the Great Famine, the poverty, the religion war and bad conditions of life like epidemics (plague). They believed that the life was going to be better in the new continent, that the American were more tolerant about Catholics and that they were going to grow rich because of the myth of the Eldorado: the American Dream. Thanks to the transport revolution who decreased the time of the route and the risk of danger. The migrants left Ireland by the ferry, however the trip was very difficult because the migrants were piled up and they didn’t have enough food to feed themselves. Many of them didn’t survive to the Atlantic crossing. From 1892, the Irish migrants arrived in the USA in Ellis Island, situated next to New York.
  7. 7. b)
  8. 8. Ireland is a country separated in two : Nothern Ireland which is a part of United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which is independant.  Démographic evolutions : in the 19th century, the population growth began thanks to the fall with the mortality rate and was possible thanks to the progress of the medicine, the hygiene and the farming (agriculture) which avoided the famine. Nonetheless from 1846 to 1851, potatoes rotted in the farmland. Thereby the population suffered from hunger and about a million died. It was the Great Famine. It caused a Crisis of abnormally high death rate  Religion : in the 19th century, the catholics were in minority in a protestant country. So they were intolerated and not accepted by the protestants. It caused many religious conflicts which killed thousands. Economics problems : Some Irishes didn’t paid the rents of lands to the English lords. As a consequence, they were evicted and had to sleep in the street Emigration : Because of this problems, many Irish went to another country to have better condition of life like France, United States or Australia.  
  9. 9. This country is composed by 50 states leading by a president. Economic prosperity : in the 19th century, this country was known for its good conditions of life. Many forward countries qualified this as the American Dream or the myth of Eldorado. In 1858, there was the gold rosh in California. Moreover the USA looked for more workforce. Thereby, the USA government favored the immigration. The country develop the capitalism system and a great economic prosperity began without unemployment. Emigration : Lots of Irish or Italian went to the United states hoping better life conditions. Thanks to this immigrations, the USA became the fouth permanent settlement. Before 1892, the immigration wasn’t really controled but many of the migrant brought epidemics like prague or smallpox . So then, the government opened Ellis Island, a place situated next to New York where the migrants had a medical examination to know if they were carrying the epidemics. If they were not, they were allowed to enter in New York. However, if they carried a virus, they were refered in their native country.
  10. 10. II.
  11. 11.  Before 1840, only rich Irishes who wants to discover the new continent migrate to the USA because the trip was really expensive. So the first wave of migrants integrates very well in the United States because they could paid their food, their house and what they wanted like a normal american. The rich Irishes didn’t exposed their culture and their traditions so they were appreciate and considered as an American
  12. 12.  At first, the Irish migrants were victims of poverty while the American were growing rich because when the first migrants arrived; no installation like water, electricity or place to live was planned for them. So they had to live in shantytowns. Many of them lived in a district called "Five points" situated in the South of Manhattan in New York. Charles Dickens describe this district as a place of horrible and dirty buildings where thefts and murders were omnipresent. Irish weren't really accepted by the American. Other Irish migrates lived in basements, cellars or for the luckiest in flat where there is no water, no windows, no electricity and no ventilation. Nevertheless that was dirty and intolerable. Thereby there are a lot of rats and the Irish suffered from typhoid fever, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Because of these epidemics, lots of Irish migrants died and contaminated the American. The alcohol made worst this epidemics and Irish drank all the day. As a consequence, lots of Irish migrant were admitted in hospice and in hospital and other were arrested by the police and condemn to imprisonment or to pay a fine for having disturbing the peace. In New York, in 1859, 55 % of the people arrested were Irish. So many of American were afraid of being attacked by an Irish migrant.  The Irish migrants were also victims of many stereotypes. They were imported from England characterizing the Irish as pugnacious, drunken, semi-savages were common and endured for at least the rest of the nineteenth century. Multitudes of cartoons depicting the Irish as small, ugly, simian creatures armed with liquor and a shillelagh pervaded the press; and such terms as "paddy-wagons," "shenanigans," and "shanty Irish" gained popularity.
  13. 13. Despite of those bad stereotype, the Irish migants had more avantages than the other one. They spoke English, they were in great number and they had a culture which was similary to the American one.  Moreover Irish weren't qualified so they accepted to work for a miserable salary and they replaced the American who asked for a higher salary. The migrants served as an industrial workforce. As a consequence Irish and American were in competition. So the majority of the American was afraid that their salary lowered and that they were going to loose there job. The catholic Irish migrant arrived in a protestant country, so they weren’t very accepted because the American thought that they wanted to impose their catholic religion. There were lots of riots. Then the Irish migrants wanted to prove that they could be "good American" by keeping their culture. In any case they spoke English so according to their religion they managed the catholic Church. However the American continued to be intolerant until 1960 when John Kennedy was elected as a president because he is a descendant of an Irish migrant.  But in spite of this intolerance, the Irish Migrants became "Good American" and they succeed in keeping their tradition and in sharing it. The American adopted Saint Patrick's Day. The Irish had an influence on the American culture. Over the years, the life condition of the migrants became better and they were more ambitious, so to have better salaries they went in the West of the USA. And they concentrated in the urban circles. The Irish migrants participated to the American politic. The Know Nothing Party were always criticizing them because of their influence during the elections. Thereby the local political life was influenced by the Irish migrants and municipalities like Boston or New York were lead by them. 
  14. 14. John F. Kennedy showed that the Irish are a part of the America and that it is possible to admit all the religions in a country. From this time, the Irish were totally accepted in the United States with their culture. Today, the United States are composed of people from all nationalities, that’s the melting pot. This country has a rich culture and adopted Irish customs. The Irish ethnic group is one of the most prosperous in the United States. The Irish have a good economic situation, now they are qualified, have a high educational level and a high salary. For the majority, they are married with American. Now the American celebrate St Patrick’s day, here is a picture
  15. 15. III.
  16. 16. a) The Irish workforce In the 19th century, the United States need cheap industrial workforce. Besides, the Irish migrants didn’t ask a good salary. The Irish accepted all type of job to arise the needs of their families. So they stood in for the American worker who want high salary and for the strikers. All the American were afraid of loosing their job, of having starvation wage and of loosing the assured of the trade unionism that they have won. They also thought the Irish weren’t capable to work one’s way to the top in the society and that they were going to form a permanent proletariat in the United States which could ruin an American principle which was the upward social mobility thanks to personnal efforts. Nonetheless the Irishes hold majority of the jobs, and they served as industrial workforce. It has permitted the arrival of larges companies in particular in the field of siderurgy, coal, motor, textile. The United States became one of the biggest economic power in the world.
  17. 17. b) The catholic religion in the United States The majority of the Irish migrants migrate because of the religion war in Ireland between catholic and protestant. So the Catholic one arrived in the United States, a country where the people are for the majority protestant. Many of American were afraid that the catholic wanted to change their religion and that they wanted to impose their worship. There were lots of riots between the two religion like in 1834 when a protestant burnt the convent of Urselines in the Massachusetts or in 1844 when another American burnt a catholic church in Philadelphia because of a dispute to know the version of the Bible which was going to be used in school, the protestant one or the catholic one. Finally, the Irish found their real place in the American worship and lead the Catholic churches.
  18. 18. c) The Irish migrants in the American politic  At first, the Irish migrants couldn’t express their politic opinion. But after having the American nationality with the right of naturalization, they were allowed to vote during the local election and the presidential one. From 1870, the Irish migrants were mainly concentrated in big city like Boston, Philadelphia or New York. In these place, the Irish migrant formed politic organisations to conquer municipalities. The Irish migrants were for the American right-hand people and also safe pair of hands. The American could count on the Irish. The catholic church which wanted to be more considered and to have bigger building voted for the Irish politic party during the local election. Because of the large cohort of Irish people in these cities and because of those reasons, lots of Irish migrant became mayor of big cities.  Then, the Irish didn’t want to succeed in the politic thanks to their nationality and their worship. They wanted to be elected for their ideas. That’s the case of John F. Kennedy in 1920, a descendant of Irish migrants. He said that he was the democratic candidate in the presidential election but that he was cathlolic instead of being the catholic candidate.
  19. 19. c) Irish influences on the American culture  The Irish migrant had a Western European culture which is similar to the American one. However they had lots of Irish traditions, customs that they wanted to keep. Over the years, the American learnt more about them and accept them. They adopted some traditions and considered these as an Irish’s cultural heritage. The American love celebrating Saint Patrick’s day which is the most important day for the catholic Irish because that is an annual celebration of catholicism in Ireland. This feast had a catholic signifiance. At the root, only the catholic celebrated but now it is a part of the American culture because when the Irish catholic were in the United States they continued to celebrate this feast. The Irish also brought their culinary traditions like the Irish coffee. All of these Irish American customs formed a cultural pluralism in the United States and the Irish formed their ethnic identity.  Saint Patrick’s day is a cultural and religious holiday celebrated on March the 17th from the early seventeenth. This day is a public holiday in Ireland and in Nothern Ireland but it is also celebrated by the Irish dispora especially in Britain, in theUnited States, in Canada, in Australia, in Argentina and in New Zeland. Originally the color of this feast was the blue but over the years it became the green. And this day, the Irish wear green clothes and normally with a shamrock because it is the symbol of St patrick’s day and of the Ireland.
  20. 20. IV. Conclusion After suffering from difficult conditions of life in shantytowns without water, or food and after working for a miserable salary, the Irish catholic migrants who at first suffered from intolerance of the American protestant began leading the catholic church. They were more accepted. And thanks to their great number and to the English language, they formed politic organisations and conquered municipalities like Boston or New York. The American criticized them because of their influence in the local politic. Over the years, the Irish began being accepted with their culture. And the American adopted some Irish customs like St Patrick’s day. The Irish left a cultural legacy in the United States. Thanks to the election of John F. Kennedy who is a decendant of Irish migrants, the Irish American people were totally accepted and it showed that all the religion could be admitted in a country. Now the Irish American people have good economic condition and they celebrate each year Saint Patrick’s day with their American friends.

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