Dnl hg irish integration in the usa chloe juliette mado


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Dnl hg irish integration in the usa chloe juliette mado

  1. 1. I. II. Introduction Contexts a) Historic context about Irish Immigration b) Geographic context III. How did the Irish migrants integrate in the United States from the 19th centuryuntiltoday ? III. The four main domains of the Irish integration in the United States a) b) c) d) V. The Irish workforce The catholic religion in the United States The Irish migrants in the American politic The Irish influences on the American culture Conclusion
  2. 2. Introduction nos motivations pour le thème  introduire le thème 
  3. 3. The Irish are one of the largestethnic group in the United States. Before 1820 and the industrialrevolutionwhich has begun in the United Kingdom, onlyteachers, rich artisans or otherrichprofessionalscouldafford the Atlantic crossingbecauseitwasreallyexpensive. Theseearlier immigrants generallygot a good fortune in the new continent. However the main wave of Irish immigrants in the United States wasbetween 1820 and 1880 because more poor people couldafford the trip whowaslessexpensive but in horrible conditions. This wavepeakedfrom 1846 to 1851 because of the Great Famine whichforced millions of Irish to leavetheir homeland. Besides, for the majority of them, at first their life in the USA wasn’treallypleasant but thentheygrew up in the society and becamemayor of bigtown.
  4. 4.  In this main wave in the 19th century, a lot of Irish migrate in the United States because of the Great Famine, the poverty, the religion war and bad conditions of life likeepidemics (plague). Theybelievedthat the life wasgoing to bebetter in the new continent, that the Americanweremore tolerant about Catholics and thattheyweregoing to growrichbecause of the myth of the Eldorado: the American Dream. Thanks to the transport revolutionwhodecreased the time of the route and the risk of danger. The migrants left Ireland by the ferry, however the trip wasverydifficultbecause the migrants werepiled up and theydidn’t have enoughfood to feedthemselves. Many of themdidn’t survive to the Atlantic crossing. From 1892, the Irish migrants arrived in the USA in Ellis Island, situatednext to New York.
  5. 5. Ireland is a country separated in two : Nothern Ireland whichis a part of United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland whichisindependant.  Démographicevolutions: in the 19th century, the population growthbeganthanks to the fallwith the mortality rate and was possible thanks to the progress of the medicine, the hygiene and the farming (agriculture) whichavoided the famine. Nonethelessfrom 1846 to 1851, potatoesrotted in the farmland. Thereby the population sufferedfromhunger and about a million died. It was the Great Famine. It caused a Crisis of abnormallyhighdeath rate  Religion : in the 19th century, the catholicswere in minority in a protestant country. So theywereintolerated and not accepted by the protestants. It causedmanyreligiousconflictswhichkilledthousands. Economicsproblems : SomeIrishesdidn’tpaid the rents of lands to the English lords. As a consequence, theywereevicted and had to sleep in the street Emigration : Because of thisproblems, many Irish went to another country to have better condition of life like France, United States or Australia.  
  6. 6. This country iscomposed by 50 states leading by a president. Economicprosperity: in the 19th century, this country wasknown for its good conditions of life. Manyforward countries qualifiedthis as the American Dream or the myth of Eldorado. In 1858, therewas the gold rosh in California. Moreover the USA looked for more workforce. Thereby, the USA governmentfavored the immigration. The country develop the capitalism system and a greateconomicprosperitybeganwithoutunemployment. Emigration : Lots of Irish or Italianwent to the United states hopingbetter life conditions. Thanks to this immigrations, the USA became the fouth permanent settlement. Before 1892, the immigration wasn’treallycontroled but many of the migrant broughtepidemicslikeprague or smallpox . So then, the governmentopened Ellis Island, a place situatednext to New York where the migrants had a medicalexamination to know if theywerecarrying the epidemics. If theywere not, theywereallowed to enter in New York. However, if theycarried a virus, theywererefered in their native country.
  7. 7.  Before 1840, onlyrichIrisheswhowant s to discover the new continent migrate to the USA because the trip wasreallyexpensive. So the first wave of migrants integratesverywell in the United States becausetheycouldpaidtheirfo od, their house and whattheywantedlike a normal american. The richIrishesdidn’texposedtheir culture and their traditions sotheywereappreciate and considered as an American
  8. 8.  At first, the Irish migrants were victims of poverty while the American were growing rich because when the first migrants arrived; no installation like water, electricity or place to live was planned for them. So they had to live in shantytowns. Many of them lived in a district called "Five points" situated in the South of Manhattan in New York. Charles Dickens describe this district as a place of horrible and dirty buildings where thefts and murders were omnipresent. Irish weren't really accepted by the American. Other Irish migrates lived in basements, cellars or for the luckiest in flat where there is no water, no windows, no electricity and no ventilation. Nevertheless that was dirty and intolerable. Thereby there are a lot of rats and the Irish suffered from typhoid fever, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Because of these epidemics, lots of Irish migrants died and contaminated the American. The alcohol made worst this epidemics and Irish drank all the day. As a consequence, lots of Irish migrant were admitted in hospice and in hospital and other were arrested by the police and condemn to imprisonment or to pay a fine for having disturbing the peace. In New York, in 1859, 55 % of the people arrested were Irish. So many of American were afraid of being attacked by an Irish migrant.  The Irish migrants were also victims of many stereotypes. They were imported from England characterizing the Irish as pugnacious, drunken, semi-savageswerecommon and endured for at least the rest of the nineteenthcentury. Multitudes of cartoons depicting the Irish as small, ugly, simiancreaturesarmedwithliquor and a shillelaghpervaded the press; and suchterms as "paddywagons," "shenanigans," and "shanty Irish" gainedpopularity.
  9. 9. Despite of those bad stereotype, the Irishmigants had more avantages than the other one. They spoke English, they were in great number and they had a culture which was similary to the American one.  Moreover Irish weren't qualified so they accepted to work for a miserable salary and they replaced the American who asked for a higher salary. The migrants served as an industrial workforce. As a consequence Irish and American were in competition. So the majority of the American was afraid that their salary lowered and that they were going to loose there job. The catholic Irish migrant arrived in a protestant country, so they weren’t very accepted because the American thought that they wanted to impose their catholic religion. There were lots of riots. Then the Irish migrants wanted to prove that they could be "good American" by keeping their culture. In any case they spoke English so according to their religion they managed the catholic Church. However the American continued to be intolerant until1960 when John Kennedy was elected as a president because he is a descendant of an Irish migrant.  But in spite of this intolerance, the Irish Migrants became "Good American" and they succeed in keeping their tradition and in sharingit. The American adopted Saint Patrick's Day. The Irish had an influence on the American culture. Over the years, the life condition of the migrantsbecamebetter and they were more ambitious, so to have better salaries they went in the West of the USA. And they concentrated in the urban circles. The Irish migrants participated to the American politic. The Know Nothing Party werealwayscriticizingthembecause of their influence during the elections. Thereby the local political life wasinfluenced by the Irish migrants and municipalitieslike Boston or New York werelead by them. 
  10. 10. John F. Kennedy showedthat the Irish are a part of the America and thatitis possible to admit all the religions in a country. Fromthis time, the Irish weretotallyaccepted in the United States withtheir culture. Today, the United States are composed of people from all nationalities, that’s the melting pot. This country has a rich culture and adopted Irish customs. The Irish ethnic group is one of the mostprosperous in the United States. The Irish have a good economic situation, nowthey are qualified, have a higheducationallevel and a highsalary. For the majority, they are marriedwith American. Now the American celebrate St Patrick’sday, hereis a picture
  11. 11. a) The Irish workforce In the 19th century, the United States need cheap industrialworkforce. Besides, the Irishmigrants didn’task a good salary. The Irish accepted all type of job to arise the needs of theirfamilies. So theystood in for the American workerwhowanthighsalary and for the strikers. All the American wereafraid of loosingtheir job, of havingstarvationwage and of loosing the assured of the tradeunionismthatthey have won. Theyalsothought the Irish weren’t capable to workone’sway to the top in the society and thattheyweregoing to form a permanent proletariat in the United States whichcouldruin anAmerican principlewhichwas the upward social mobilitythanks to personnal efforts. Nonetheless the Irishesholdmajority of the jobs, and theyserved as industrialworkforce. It has permitted the arrival of larges companies in particular in the field of siderurgy, coal, motor, textile. The United States became one of the biggesteconomic power in the world.
  12. 12. b) The catholic religion in the United States The majority of the Irish migrants migratebecause of the religion war in Ireland betweencatholic and protestant. So the Catholic one arrived in the United States, a country where the people are for the majority protestant. Many of American were afraid that the catholic wanted to change their religion and that they wanted to impose their worship. There were lots of riots between the two religion like in 1834 when a protestant burnt the convent of Urselines in the Massachusetts or in 1844 when another American burnt a catholic church in Philadelphia because of a dispute to know the version of the Bible which was going to be used in school, the protestant one or the catholic one. Finally, the Irish found their real place in the American worship and lead the Catholic churches.
  13. 13. c) The Irish migrants in the American politic  At first, the Irish migrants couldn’t express theirpolitic opinion. But afterhaving the American nationalitywith the right of naturalization, theywereallowed to vote during the local election and the presidential one. From 1870, the Irish migrants weremainlyconcentrated in big city like Boston, Philadelphia or New York. In these place, the Irish migrant formedpoliticorganisations to conquermunicipalities. The Irish migrants were for the American right-hand people and alsosafe pair of hands. The American could count on the Irish. The catholicchurchwhichwanted to be more considered and to have bigger building voted for the Irish politic party during the local election. Because of the large cohort of Irish people in thesecities and because of thosereasons, lots of Irish migrant becamemayor of bigcities.  Then, the Irish didn’twant to succeed in the politicthanks to theirnationality and theirworship. Theywanted to beelected for theirideas. That’s the case of John F. Kennedy in 1920, a descendant of Irish migrants. He saidthathewas the democratic candidate in the presidentialelection but thathewascathlolicinstead of being the catholic candidate.
  14. 14. c) Irish influences on the American culture  The Irish migrant had a Western European culture whichissimilarto the American one. Howevertheyhad lots of Irish traditions, customs thattheywanted to keep. Over the years, the American learnt more aboutthemand acceptthem. Theyadoptedsome traditions and consideredthese as an Irish’s cultural heritage. The American love celebrating Saint Patrick’sdaywhichis the most important day for the catholic Irish becausethatis an annualcelebration of catholicism in Ireland. This feasthad a catholic signifiance. At the root, only the catholiccelebrated butnowitis a part of the American culture becausewhen the Irish catholicwere in the United States theycontinued to celebratethisfeast. The Irish alsobroughttheirculinary traditions like the Irish coffee. All of these Irish American customs formed a cultural pluralism in the United States and the Irish formedtheirethnicidentity.  Saint Patrick’sdayis a cultural and religiousholidaycelebrated on March the 17th from the earlyseventeenth. This dayis a public holiday in Ireland and in Nothern Ireland but itisalsocelebrated by the Irish disporaespecially in Britain, in theUnited States, in Canada, in Australia, in Argentina and in New Zeland. Originally the color of thisfeastwas the blue but over the yearsitbecame the green. And thisday, the Irish wear green clothes and normallywith a shamrockbecauseitis the symbol of St patrick’sday and of the Ireland.
  15. 15. IV. Conclusion Aftersufferingfromdifficult condition of life in shantytownswithout water, or food and afterworking for a miserablesalary, the Irish catholicmigrants whoat first sufferedfromintolerance of the American protestant beganleading the catholicchurch. Theywere more accepted. And thanks to theirgreatnumber and to the English language, theyformedpolitic organisations and conqueredmunicipalitieslike Boston or New York. The American criticizedthembecause of their influence in the local politic. Over the years, the Irish beganbeingacceptedwiththeir culture. And the American adoptedsome Irish customs like St Patrick’sday. The Irish left a cultural legacy in the United States. Thanks to the election of John F. Kennedy whois a decendant of Irish migrants, the Irish American people weretotallyaccepted and itshowedthat all the religion couldbeadmitted in a country. Now the Irish American people have good economic condition and theycelebrateeachyear Saint Patrick’sdaywiththeir American friends.