Political ideologies feb_11_2011_d.sainbayar


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What is our ideology? An analysis on Political ideologies of Mongolian parties

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Political ideologies feb_11_2011_d.sainbayar

  1. 1. Political Ideologiestheir origins and impact<br />Presented by: SainbayarDavaabatKnowledge Capitalism – Book Club<br />Session 5<br />Feb 11, 2011<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Бидний улс төрийн үзэл баримтлалюу вэ?<br />Quotes:<br />АН-ын дарга Н.Алтанхуяг: Би тэр либерал, консерватив энэ тэрийг чинь ойлгодоггүй юм.<br />МАХН-ын дарга асан Б.Даш-Ёндон: Манай нам зүүний нам, ардчилсан социалист үзэл санаа баримталдаг нам гээд байгаа ч  бодит амьдрал дээр барууны чиглэлийн нам болчихсон. (Source: www.izn.mn – front page)<br />Ногоон намын дарга Д.Энхбат: Бид зүүн баруун гэхгүй, урагшаа л явна. (via twitter reply to our question)<br />31 March 2011<br />2<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  3. 3. Улс төрийн үзэл баримтлал<br />What is ideology?<br />                 <br />Монголоор: идеологи, үзэл суртал, үзэл санаа, үзэл баримтлал<br />“Ideologies were made necessary by the Age of Enlightenment belief that people could improve their conditions by taking positive action instead of passively accepting life as it came.”<br />Political scientists do not agree with exact definition of the term, but…:<br />Political meaning<br />Interpretation of present and a view of desired future (should be attainable within single generation)<br />Includes specific steps that can be taken to accomplish goals<br />Oriented toward masses<br />Stated and presented in motivational terms.<br />31 March 2011<br />3<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  4. 4. Улс төрийн үзэл баримтлал<br />Political ideologies have two dimensions:<br />Goals: how society should work (or be arranged).<br />Methods: the most appropriate ways to achieve the ideal arrangement.<br />Leaders attempt to mobilize their citizens to accomplish political, economic and social goals of the society.<br />Source of Ideology:<br />Knowledge, as it was commonly understood before the Enlightenment, was to be revealed by a superior wisdom; ordinary people were to understand and conform to such knowledge without questioning or challenging. (i.e. Bruno and Galileo)<br />31 March 2011<br />4<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  5. 5. Source of ideology - Evolution<br />Innovation of machines -> Mass production -> Productivity -> Urbanization -> Industrialization -> Dependent on each other, divorced from their soil -> Scholars, philosophers, politicians tried to comprehend these events and explain, rationalize -> Political ideologies came out -> Unemployment, depression, need to learn new technology -> Capitalists (who has only time to manage their money) -> dissolving of institution of family -> pace of change quickens -> the generation gap widens -> new kind of slavery -> industrial workers/suppliers of cheap raw materials -> competition for limited natural resource intensifies-> RATIONALISM ("any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification“. In more technical terms it is a method or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive”) -> More materialistic less spiritualistic -> Science & technology brought mixed blessing: car vs. pollution, AIDS, nuclear power & Chernobyl <br />31 March 2011<br />5<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  6. 6. Every modern political system is motivational…<br />Political ideology may be viewed as attempts to find a political accommodation to the social and economic conditions created by Industrial Revolution. (not just factory machines. Cybernetics, IT and so on)<br />Madison, Marx, Mussolini and others developed their ideas in response to the conditions confronting them. <br />Two factors most responsible for the political world today:<br />Belief that people can take active steps that will improve their lives <br />The Industrial Revolution (as it continues today)<br />The origin of the term<br />French in early 1800s. Antoine de Tracy: Ideology is Science of ideas. Empirical learning (gained through experience) is the only source of knowledge. Materialism is dominant theme in the concept of ideology.<br />His work Elements of Ideology was translated by Thomas Jefferson in 1817.<br />31 March 2011<br />6<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  7. 7. “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, the point is to change it” Karl Marx<br />Different definitions of what ideology is:<br />Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), in their work The German Ideology, have concluded that the concepts in ideology are completely subjective and used to justify the ruling class of society.<br />Frederick Watkins, The Age of Ideology suggests ideology comes from political extremes. However, he believes Conservatism resists change, therefore it is an anti-ideology.<br />L. T. Sargent: Ideologies are based on the value systems of various societies.<br />Terrence Ball views Ideology in more flexible and academic terms: An agenda of things to discuss, questions to ask, hypotheses to make. Ideology exists whenever politics is motivated by intellectuals rather than random impulses.<br />31 March 2011<br />7<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  8. 8. “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, the point is to change it” Karl Marx<br />Declaration of Independence vs. Communist Manifesto<br />Political <br />Inalienable rights, exploiting & exploited classes <br />Both calls for revolution<br />Difference between Ideology and Philosophy<br />Profound vs. shallow<br />Individual vs. mass<br />Introspection vs. action<br />31 March 2011<br />8<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  9. 9. The Spectrum of Political Attitudes<br />31 March 2011<br />9<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />The terms left and right comes from the French. Those who supported the policies of the monarch were seated to his right and those who proposed change in the system were seated to his left.<br />Right: authority, elitism, property rights, irrationalism, nationalism<br />Left: personal liberty, human equality, human rights, rationalism, internationalism<br />
  10. 10. The Spectrum of Political Attitudes<br />31 March 2011<br />10<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />Radical – discontent with status quo. Profound change in existing order, advocating something new and different (Ardchilsannam?)<br />Liberal – Less dissatisfied, but want to change significantly (Classical liberals: focus on individual and property rights; Contemporary liberals: human rights. Both share belief in: Equality, intelligence, & competence of people.)<br />Moderate – Reluctant to change, a bit more change than conservatives.<br />Conservative - Have little confidence in human morality or intelligence. <br />Reactionary – Replace current institutions by those of previous eras, rejecting modern values. <br />
  11. 11. The Spectrum of Political Attitudes<br />31 March 2011<br />11<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />Radical:French political scientist Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–78). Radicals favor revolutionary change.<br />Liberalism: Optimism about people’s ability to solve their problems through use of reason.<br />Classical liberalism: John Locke (1962-1704) – All human beings are moral, competent and intelligent. Thomas Jefferson: The government governs best which governs least. Private property is held in high esteem. <br />Contemporary liberalism: believes legitimate role of the state to address economic and social issues such as unemployment, health care, and education while simultaneously expanding civil rights. Under social liberalism, the good of the community is viewed as harmonious with the freedom of the individual.<br />Conservative: promotes the traditional institutions and supports minimal and gradual change in society. Emphasizes stability and continuity. Edmund Burke: “The rich, the able and the well-born govern.”<br />
  12. 12. Value and Change<br />31 March 2011<br />12<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  13. 13. The Spectrum of Political Attitudes<br />31 March 2011<br />13<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  14. 14. The Spectrum of Political Attitudes<br />31 March 2011<br />14<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  15. 15. The Spectrum of Political Attitudes<br />31 March 2011<br />15<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  16. 16. Hans Slomp projection of the European political spectrum<br />31 March 2011<br />16<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  17. 17. Манай намуудын Улс төрийн үзэл баримтлал(надад олдсон зарим өгүүлбэрүүд…)<br />Монгол Ардын Нам бол Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Намын зүй ёсны эхлэл ба үргэлжлэл бөгөөд Монгол Улсын тусгаар тогтнол, эрх чөлөө, шударга ёс, эв нэгдэл, үндэсний язгуур эрх ашгийг эрхэмлэн дээдэлсэн, нийгмийн ардчиллын үзэл баримтлал бүхий зүүн төвийн нам мөн. <br />Экологийн баримжаатай нийгэм, эдийн засгийн тогтвортой хөгжлийнүзэл баримтлал нь Монголын Ногоон Намын улс төрийн үзэл баримтлал юм.<br />(www.greenparty.mn)<br />ИЗН нь хүний эрх, эрх чөлөөг эрхэмлэн дээдэлж, хувийн өмчид суурилсан эдийн засаг, иргэн төвтэй нийгмийг хөгжүүлэх бодлогыг тууштай хэрэгжүүлэгч баруун төвийн байр суурь бүхий либерал үзэл баримтлалтай орчин үеийн нам юм. (www.izn.mn)<br />Ардчилал, хүний эрх, эрх чөлөөний үзэл санаанд тулгуурласан нийгмийн хөгжилд монголын ард түмнийг анхлан уриалан дуудсан улс төрийн хүчнүүдийн нэгдэл болох Ардчилсан Нам.<br />31 March 2011<br />17<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  18. 18. Зарим дүгнэлт<br />Монголчууд бид улстөрийн үзэл баримтлалын талаар:<br />Хаа хаанаатoдорхой ойлголтгүй<br />Oйлголтын зөрүүтэй:<br />Жишээ нь:<br />Ардчилсан нам бол БАРУУНЫ НАМ гэсэн ташаа ойлголт (яагаад гэвэл Баруун Европ гэдэг ойлголтоос болж)<br />МАХН бол ЗҮҮНИЙ НАМ (яагаад гэвэл Зүүн Европ, хуучин социалист лагертай холбож ойлгодог тул)<br />Үзэл баримтлалдаа үнэнч байж чаддаггүй<br />Өнөөдрийн эрх ашгаас хамаарч тогтсон үзэл баримтлалаасаа ухардаг<br />Намуудын бодлогод ялгарал байхгүй - зарчимгүй улстөр<br />Ер нь барууны үзэлтэй нам Монголд бий юу?<br />Монголын намуудад үзэл баримтлал гээч юм бий юу? :)<br />31 March 2011<br />18<br />Knowledge Capitalism Club<br />
  19. 19. Source<br />Wikipedia.org<br />Leon P. Baradat - Political Ideologies: Their origins and impact 8th edition, <br />31 March 2011<br />19<br />