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Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Continuous Improvement Toolkit
Fishbone Diagram
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Check Sheets
Data
Collection
Process MappingFlowcharting
Flow Process C...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Identifies and organizes the potential causes of a business
problem.
...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Identifies the causes of an undesirable effect of a problem.
 It is ...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Root Causes are Normally:
 Those at the ends of chains of causes.
 Th...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Often used during brainstorming sessions.
 Everyone gains insight in...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Helps to create ideas about the possible causes of a problem
before i...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Potential causes are sometimes called the process input
variables.
 ...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Man – anyone involved with the process
and contributes to the effect....
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Machines – including the equipment and
tools required to do the proce...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Environment (or Mother Nature) – the
conditions in which the process ...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
 Typical Fishbone Diagrams for Manufacturing and Non-
manufacturing Pr...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
How to Construct a Fishbone Diagram:
 Clearly define the effect of the...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
How to Construct a Fishbone Diagram:
 Take time to ensure the appropri...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Ways of Finding More Causes:
 Keep asking questions to encourage every...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Example – The Increased Invoice Errors for a Company:
- Fishbone Diagra...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Example – The Increased Coolant Consumption in a Factory:
- Fishbone Di...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Further Information:
 Different names may be used for the same categor...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Further Information:
 You could also create sub categories under the m...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Further Information:
 Beware of adding causes which are actually solut...
Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com
Further Information:
Example – Making Tea Cause and Effect Matrix:
- Fi...
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Fishbone Diagram

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A Fishbone Diagram is often used to identify and organize the potential causes of a business problem in an easy and understandable format.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Fishbone Diagram

  1. 1. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Continuous Improvement Toolkit Fishbone Diagram
  2. 2. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Check Sheets Data Collection Process MappingFlowcharting Flow Process Charts 5S Value Stream Mapping Control Charts Mistake Proofing Tree Diagram* Understanding Performance Fishbone Diagram Design of Experiment Implementing Solutions** Creating Ideas Brainstorming Attribute Analysis Deciding & Selecting Decision Tree Force Field Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Voting Planning & Project Management* Value Analysis Kaizen Events Quick Changeover Managing Risk FMEA PDPC RAID Log* Observations Focus Groups Understanding Cause & Effect Pareto Analysis IDEF0 5 Whys Matrix DiagramKano Analysis KPIs Lean Measures Importance-Urgency Mapping Waste Analysis Fault Tree Analysis Relationship Mapping* Benchmarking** SCAMPER** C&E Matrix Confidence Intervals Pugh Matrix SIPOC* Prioritization Matrix Stakeholder Analysis Critical-to Tree Paired Comparison Improvement Roadmaps Interviews QFD Graphical Analysis Lateral Thinking Hypothesis Testing Visual Management Ergonomics Reliability Analysis Cross Training How-How Diagram** Flow Time Value Map ANOVA Gap Analysis* Traffic Light Assessment TPN Analysis Decision Balance Sheet Suggestion systems Risk Assessment* AutomationSimulation Break-even Analysis Service Blueprints DMAIC Process Redesign Run Charts TPM Control Planning Chi-Square SWOT Analysis Capability Indices Policy Deployment Data collection planner* Affinity DiagramQuestionnaires Probability Distributions Bottleneck Analysis** MSA Descriptive Statistics Cost of Quality* Process Yield Histograms & Boxplots Just in Time Pick Chart Portfolio Matrix Four Field Matrix Root Cause Analysis Data Snooping Morphological AnalysisSampling Spaghetti Diagram Pull OEE Mind Mapping* Project Charter PDCA Designing & Analyzing Processes CorrelationScatter Plots Regression Gantt Charts Activity NetworksRACI Matrix PERT/CPMDaily Planning MOST Standard work Document controlA3 Thinking The Continuous Improvement Map Multi vari Studies
  3. 3. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Identifies and organizes the potential causes of a business problem.  Uses an easy and understandable format.  Used to identify the sources of process variation.  It is also called Ishikawa Diagram and Cause and Effect Diagram. - Fishbone Diagram
  4. 4. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Identifies the causes of an undesirable effect of a problem.  It is also possible to identify the hierarchy of causes including the possible root causes.  Brings attention to the primary factors affecting the quality of a product or service.  These factors need to be optimized in order to reduce the amount of process variation.  The outcome can provide initial information to later problem solving tools. - Fishbone Diagram
  5. 5. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Root Causes are Normally:  Those at the ends of chains of causes.  They do not have any sub-causes. - Fishbone Diagram Effect / Problem Primary Cause Cause Sub Cause
  6. 6. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Often used during brainstorming sessions.  Everyone gains insight into the cause and effect  This makes the solution easier to find later on. - Fishbone Diagram
  7. 7. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Helps to create ideas about the possible causes of a problem before it happens.  An effective cause prevention tool.  Helps to identify the potential factors causing an effect to prevent future problems.  Can also be used in product design and to plan new processes. - Fishbone Diagram
  8. 8. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Potential causes are sometimes called the process input variables.  They are normally grouped into categories for easier sharing and reference.  These are often called the 6 Ms. - Fishbone Diagram
  9. 9. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Man – anyone involved with the process and contributes to the effect.  Methods – how the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as: • Policies. • Procedures. • Rules. • Common practices. - Fishbone Diagram
  10. 10. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Machines – including the equipment and tools required to do the process.  Materials – The material needed to produce the product or provide the service, including: • Raw materials. • Parts. • Papers. • Packing. • Consumables. - Fishbone Diagram
  11. 11. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Environment (or Mother Nature) – the conditions in which the process operates such as: • Location. • Time. • Temperature. • Culture.  Measurements – including the data that are used to evaluate the performance of the process. - Fishbone Diagram
  12. 12. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com  Typical Fishbone Diagrams for Manufacturing and Non- manufacturing Processes: - Fishbone Diagram MachinesManpower Materials Measurement Methods Environment Manufacturing EquipmentPeople Policies and Procedures Environment Administration and Services
  13. 13. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com How to Construct a Fishbone Diagram:  Clearly define the effect of the problem.  Write it down at the center right of a large piece of paper.  Determine the major categories of causes.  Write them on the branches of the diagram.  Use brainstorming to log all possible causes under the appropriate branches.  Use 5 Whys to search for root causes then add them to the diagram. - Fishbone Diagram
  14. 14. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com How to Construct a Fishbone Diagram:  Take time to ensure the appropriateness of the recorded information.  Update the chart as new causes become apparent.  Mark or assign numbers near to the key causes to show their relative priority.  Collect data and investigate to verify the key causes are actual.  Plan and implement actions to address the key causes. - Fishbone Diagram
  15. 15. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Ways of Finding More Causes:  Keep asking questions to encourage everyone to participate.  Involve other people, especially those who have experience in the process.  Leave the chart on the wall for few days and encourage passers-by to contribute.  Take a break or do something to take the team’s mind off the current thoughts. - Fishbone Diagram
  16. 16. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Example – The Increased Invoice Errors for a Company: - Fishbone Diagram Invoice Faults ManMeasureMaterial Environment Equipment Method Cumbersome process Manual data entry Inadequate printers System incompatible System not integrated Noisy office Poor ergonomics Poor technical support Low moralePoor audit system Inadequate validation process Inadequate paper supply Paper quality Increased workload
  17. 17. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Example – The Increased Coolant Consumption in a Factory: - Fishbone Diagram High Coolant Consumption ManMeasureMaterial Environment Machine Method Adjusting Concentration settings Blocked hoses Trench gets other materials Machine leakage Machine breakdown Adding WBLF to the tank directly Evaporation in hot seasons Poor communication between shiftsWBLF not measure on time Rounding measurementWBLF not measured per line separately Biocide level Antifoam level Lack of training
  18. 18. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Further Information:  Different names may be used for the same category. • Procedures could be used instead of Methods. • Equipment could be used instead of Machines.  You may even create your own branches that suit your needs.  An affinity diagram could be used to create the branches of the diagram from the titles of the affinity sets.  Don’t overload categories. • Establish another category if needed. - Fishbone Diagram
  19. 19. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Further Information:  You could also create sub categories under the main categories.  For example, under Man there might be: • Poor Communication • Absenteeism • Lack of Training • …  You should, however, avoid writing real names of persons. - Fishbone Diagram
  20. 20. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Further Information:  Beware of adding causes which are actually solutions.  A Cause and Effect Matrix could be used to prioritize the causes of the problem.  Prioritizing and selecting the key causes will minimizes the need for more statistical evaluation of inputs that are unlikely to have an impact on the output. - Fishbone Diagram Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 X1   X2  X3   X4  
  21. 21. Continuous Improvement Toolkit . www.citoolkit.com Further Information: Example – Making Tea Cause and Effect Matrix: - Fishbone Diagram Cause / Effect Taste Volume Temperature The boil kettle   6 Adding water    13 Adding tea  9 Adding sugar  3 Adding milk    11 Stirring  3 25 7 13 Symbol    Value 9 3 1 Relationship Strong Medium Weak

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