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The art and science of leadership-Part One

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“EVERYTHING RISES AND FALLS ON LEADERSHIP”
John Maxwell

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The art and science of leadership-Part One

  1. 1. The Art and Science of Leadership Part One Farhad Zargari, MD, PhD
  2. 2. What is Leadership?
  3. 3. Leadership Definition Leadership is one of the most observed & leastLeadership is one of the most observed & least understood phenomena.understood phenomena. 3
  4. 4. Leadership Definition  No social and organizational topic has been explored more obsessively than leadership.  No behavior in the workplace has been more analyzed, parsed, or dissected than leadership.  No role has had more expectations heaped upon it.  No failure earns more heated opprobrium than a leadership failure. WOW !WOW ! 4
  5. 5. Leadership Definition 5 Most of this variation stems from the fact thatMost of this variation stems from the fact that leadership is a complex phenomenon involvingleadership is a complex phenomenon involving the leader, the followers, and the situation.the leader, the followers, and the situation.
  6. 6. Leadership Definition 6
  7. 7. Leadership Definition 7 In spite of moreIn spite of more than 350than 350 definitions fordefinitions for “Leadership” in“Leadership” in the literature,the literature, one basicone basic essence prevailsessence prevails in all of them,in all of them, “influence”.“influence”.
  8. 8. Leadership Definition 8 Lead actually stems from an Old EnglishLead actually stems from an Old English word and means to “go, travel or guide”.word and means to “go, travel or guide”.
  9. 9. Leadership Definition 9 “Leadership is the creative and directive force of morale. Munson, 1921
  10. 10. Leadership Definition 10 “Leadership is the art of imposing one’s will upon others, in such a manner as to command their obedience, their confidence, their respect, and their loyal cooperation.” United States Military Academy, 1925
  11. 11. Leadership Definition Leadership is the process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to help achieve group, organizational, and national goals. 11
  12. 12. Leadership Definition 12 Leadership is the ability to influence other people, with or without authority. Peter DeLisle
  13. 13. Leadership Definition 13 “The essence of leadership is not giving things or even providing visions. It is offering oneself and one’s spirit” Bolman & Deal, 2001 1 The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. Peter Drucker2
  14. 14. Leadership Definition “Teaching and leading are distinguishable occupations, but every great leader is clearly teaching -- and every great teacher is leading.” Abraham Lincoln 14
  15. 15. Leadership Definition 15 Leading people means:Leading people means: Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people
  16. 16. Leadership Definition 16 Leadership has a broad impact.
  17. 17. Leadership Machiavelli in The PrinceMachiavelli in The Prince (1514): “It must be realized(1514): “It must be realized that there is nothing morethat there is nothing more difficult to plan, moredifficult to plan, more uncertain of success, or moreuncertain of success, or more dangerous to manage than thedangerous to manage than the establishment of a new orderestablishment of a new order of things…”of things…” 17
  18. 18. Leadership 18 ““LEADERSHIP IS THE ONLYLEADERSHIP IS THE ONLY THING THAT DIFFERENTIATESTHING THAT DIFFERENTIATES SOCIETIES ANDSOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS FROM EACHORGANISATIONS FROM EACH OTHER OVER THE LONG TERM”.OTHER OVER THE LONG TERM”.
  19. 19. Leadership 19 ““EVERYTHING RISES AND FALLSEVERYTHING RISES AND FALLS ON LEADERSHIP”ON LEADERSHIP” John Maxwell
  20. 20. Leadership? “The only safe ship in a storm is leadership.” Wattleton, F. 20
  21. 21. Nahj-ul-Balagha, The Book of Imam Ali (PBUH)
  22. 22. ABook of Inspiration and Wisdom 22
  23. 23. Imam Ali Imam Ali (PBUH) - 600-661 AD is the most distinguishedImam Ali (PBUH) - 600-661 AD is the most distinguished personality of Islam after Prophet Muhammad, peace andpersonality of Islam after Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be on him. He was a great companion to the Prophet ofblessings be on him. He was a great companion to the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and dedicated himself to the advancement of Islam.Islam (PBUH) and dedicated himself to the advancement of Islam. His entire life was devoted to righteousness and justice. He was aHis entire life was devoted to righteousness and justice. He was a great judge, a great philanthropist and the most pious person ofgreat judge, a great philanthropist and the most pious person of his time. Much has been written and continues to be written abouthis time. Much has been written and continues to be written about the life, character and attributes of Imam Ali.the life, character and attributes of Imam Ali. 23
  24. 24. Imam Ali 24 Although Imam Ali(PBUH) was born in Arabia, his personality is not confined to the Muslim world. Rather he is a universal source of wisdom, knowledge, faithfulness, inspiration, visioning, justice, and eloquence. 1
  25. 25. The Book of Imam Ali - Nahj-ul-Balagha 25
  26. 26. The Book of Imam Ali - Nahj-ul-Balagha The importance of the Nahj-ul-BalaghaThe importance of the Nahj-ul-Balagha lies in two dimensions:lies in two dimensions: 1-It speaks about the fundamentals of Islam such as God, prophet hood, the human being, Islamic views of humanity, and many other aspects of Islamic Ideology. 2-It refers broadly to the social issues in general, morality, social rights, duties of government, problems of hypocrites, etc. Accordingly, this book can be a source of inspiration and prosperous living for us today. 26
  27. 27. Rule with Honesty, Fairness, and Equality Imam Ali (PBUH) in his period of government (Khalifate) displayed aImam Ali (PBUH) in his period of government (Khalifate) displayed a leadership model based on social justice and real acknowledgementleadership model based on social justice and real acknowledgement of human rights.of human rights. 27
  28. 28. Set of instructions In his government, Imam Ali (PBUH) appointed one of hisIn his government, Imam Ali (PBUH) appointed one of his faithful disciples as the ruler of Egypt, Maalik al-Ashtar, whofaithful disciples as the ruler of Egypt, Maalik al-Ashtar, who was a famous companion to Imam and was specially taught thewas a famous companion to Imam and was specially taught the principles of administration and jurisprudence by Imam.principles of administration and jurisprudence by Imam. The following instructions in the form of a letter (letter 53 ofThe following instructions in the form of a letter (letter 53 of Nahj-ul-Balagha) were written to him by Imam Ali when he leftNahj-ul-Balagha) were written to him by Imam Ali when he left for Egypt. The letter is a comprehensive set of political, social,for Egypt. The letter is a comprehensive set of political, social, economic and moral instructions for a governor to rule witheconomic and moral instructions for a governor to rule with honesty, fairness, and equality.honesty, fairness, and equality. 28
  29. 29. Leadership As was demonstrated leadership is a very importantAs was demonstrated leadership is a very important factor in the dynamics of family, organization andfactor in the dynamics of family, organization and society. It deeply influences the micro and macrosociety. It deeply influences the micro and macro environments. In all levels it has a significant impact onenvironments. In all levels it has a significant impact on the final outcomes and extensively shapes the future ofthe final outcomes and extensively shapes the future of the individual as well as the community. For this reasonthe individual as well as the community. For this reason the pre-qualifications of taking the leadership roles arethe pre-qualifications of taking the leadership roles are of great importance and should not be compromisedof great importance and should not be compromised under any conditions. The most basic requirement inunder any conditions. The most basic requirement in this regard is honesty, being ethical and just in day-to-this regard is honesty, being ethical and just in day-to- day behavior and acting decently based on establishedday behavior and acting decently based on established principles towards the people in spite of being inprinciples towards the people in spite of being in “power”. That’s why as we will see in the next chapter“power”. That’s why as we will see in the next chapter this platform has been emphasized by a leadershipthis platform has been emphasized by a leadership master, Imam Ali.master, Imam Ali. 29
  30. 30. Letter 53 of Nahj-ul-Balagha
  31. 31. Leadership Prerequisites The beginning of letter 53 points out aThe beginning of letter 53 points out a very basic platform as a standard forvery basic platform as a standard for everyone who wants to take leadershipeveryone who wants to take leadership roles. This platform includes all theroles. This platform includes all the leadership essential prerequisites andleadership essential prerequisites and will be covered in this chapter.will be covered in this chapter. 31
  32. 32. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL 32 These are the orders issued by the creature of Allah, Ali, the son of Abu Taalib to Maalik, the son of Ashtar when he appointed Maalik as the Governor of Egypt to collect Zakat (alms) - is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth- there, to combat the enemies of Islam and Egypt, to work for the welfare of its people and to look after its prosperity. Letter 53 of Nahj-ul-Balagha
  33. 33. Leadership Prerequisites 33 I order you, Maalik, always to keep the fear of God in your mind, to give priority to His worship and to give preference to obeying His Commands over every other thing in life, to carefully and faithfully follow the commandments and interdictions as are given by the Holy Book and the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s) because the success of a man to attain happiness in this world and in the next depends upon these qualities, and a failure to achieve these attributes brings about total failure in both the worlds. Conform to God 1
  34. 34. Leadership Prerequisites 34 I order you to use your head, heart, hands and tongue to help the people of Allah because the Almighty God holds Himself responsible to help those who sincerely try their best to help Him. Love the People 2
  35. 35. Leadership Prerequisites 35 Allah has further ordered you to keep your desires under control, to keep yourself under restraint when excessive and unreasonable yearnings and cravings try to drive you towards vice and wickedness. Your inner 'self' tries to incite and drag you towards disgrace and infamy unless the Merciful Lord comes to your help. Control Your Desires and Wishes 3
  36. 36. Leadership Prerequisites 36 Let it be known to you, Maalik, that I am sending you as a governor to a country which has seen many rulers before you. Some of them were compassionate, sympathetic and good, while others were tyrannical, oppressive and cruel. People will judge your government as critically as you have judged the activities of other regimes and they will criticize you in the same way as you have rejected or approved other rulers. Judge the Prior Rulers Fairly 4
  37. 37. Leadership Prerequisites 37 Make your mind the source and fountain-head of good thoughts, good intentions and good deeds. This can only be attained by keeping a strict control on your desires and yearnings, however much they may try to incite and coerce you. Remember that the best way to do justice to your inner self and to keep it out of harm is to restrain it from vice and from things which the 'self' inordinately and irrationally desires Keep Away from Evils 5
  38. 38. Leadership Prerequisites 38 Maalik! You must create in your mind kindness, compassion and love for your subordinates. Do not behave towards them as if you are a insatiable and greedy beast and as if your success lies in demolishing them Avoid Viciousness 6

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