Imam Ali (PBUH), a Master
of Leadership
Part 2: Basic Prerequisites of Leadership
Farhad Zargari, MD, PhD
drzargari@gmail....
2
Introduction
Principles of Administration
 The letter 53 of Imam Ali’s (PBUH) book,
Nahj-ul-Balagha, is a précis of the
principles of ...
Combat Corruption and Oppression
 In the letter Imam Ali (PBUH) advises his companion, Maalik to
combat corruption and op...
Combat Corruption and Oppression
 In it he has also explained stages of various classes in a society,
the duties of the g...
The Rights of Leaders and the Followers
 Then Imam discusses the army, of whom it should consist of and
how the ignorant,...
Main Central Theme
 There is a main central theme running all through these
instructions, like one single thread out of w...
Divine Administration of the People for the
People and by the People
 The famous Arab Christian, jurist, poet and philoso...
9
Leadership Definition
Leadership: Definition
 Leadership is one of the most observed & least understood
phenomena.
10
Burns, 1978
Leadership: Definition
 No social and organizational topic has been explored more
obsessively than leadership.
 No behav...
Leadership: Definition
 Most of this variation stems from the fact that leadership is a
complex phenomenon involving the ...
Leadership: Definition
 Like beauty, leadership is hard to define, but you know it when
you see it.
13
Bennis (1989)
Leadership: Definition
 In spite of more than 350 definitions for “Leadership” in the
literature, one basic essence preva...
Leadership: Definition
 Lead actually stems from an Old English word and means to
“go, travel or guide”.
15
Leadership: Definition
 “Leadership is the creative and directive force of morale.
16
Munson, 1921
Leadership: Definition
 “Leadership is the art of imposing one’s will upon others, in such
a manner as to command their o...
Leadership: Definition
 Leadership is the process by which a person exerts influence
over other people and inspires, moti...
Leadership: Definition
 Leadership is the ability to influence other people, with or
without authority.
19
Peter DeLisle
Leadership: Definition
 “The essence of leadership is not giving things or even providing
visions. It is offering oneself...
Leadership: Definition
 “Teaching and leading are distinguishable occupations, but
every great leader is clearly teaching...
Leadership: Definition
 The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers.
22
Peter Drucker
Leadership: Definition
23
Leading people:
Influencing people
Commanding people
Guiding people
Leadership: Definition
24
Why Leadership?
 Machiavelli in The Prince (1514): “It must be realized that there is
nothing more difficult to plan, mor...
Why Leadership?
 Leadership is essential.
26
“LEADERSHIP IS THE ONLY THING
THAT DIFFERENTIATES SOCIETIES
AND ORGANISATION...
Why Leadership?
 Leadership is essential.
27
“EVERYTHING RISES AND
FALLS ON LEADERSHIP”
John Maxwell
“The only safe ship
in a storm is
leadership.”
Wattleton, F.
Why Leadership?
Leadership
 As was demonstrated leadership is a very important task in the
family, organizational and social levels. It d...
30
Letter 53 of Imam Ali
(PBUH)
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE
MERCIFUL
 These are the orders issued by the creature of Allah, Ali, the son
of...
Leadership Prerequisites
 The beginning of letter 53 points out a very basic platform as a
standard for everyone who want...
Leadership Prerequisites
 I order you, Maalik, always to keep the fear of God in your mind,
to give priority to His worsh...
Leadership Prerequisites
 I order you to use your head, heart, hands and tongue to help
the people of Allah because the A...
Leadership Prerequisites
 Allah has further ordered you to keep your desires under control,
to keep yourself under restra...
Leadership Prerequisites
 Let it be known to you, Maalik, that I am sending you as a
governor to a country which has seen...
Leadership Prerequisites
 You must know that a good and virtuous man is known and
recognized by the good that is said abo...
Leadership Prerequisites
 Maalik! You must create in your mind kindness, compassion and
love for your subordinates. Do no...
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Prerequisites of Leadership-Imam Ali (pbuh), a Master of leadership part 2

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Basic Prerequisites of Leadership, principles of administration, Combat Corruption and Oppression, duties of the government, moral, leadership, divine, Rights of Leaders and the Followers, Masih Antaaki, Arab Christian, Burns, Bennis, creative, inspire, Peter DeLisle, Abraham Lincoln, Imam Ali, Peter Drucker, Machiavelli, Maxwell, wickedness, vice, virtue

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Prerequisites of Leadership-Imam Ali (pbuh), a Master of leadership part 2

  1. 1. Imam Ali (PBUH), a Master of Leadership Part 2: Basic Prerequisites of Leadership Farhad Zargari, MD, PhD drzargari@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. 2 Introduction
  3. 3. Principles of Administration  The letter 53 of Imam Ali’s (PBUH) book, Nahj-ul-Balagha, is a précis of the principles of administration and justice as prescribed by Islam. It deals with the duties and obligations of rulers and leaders, their chief responsibilities, the question of priorities of rights and commitments, dispensation of justice, control over secretaries and subordinate staff; distribution of work and duties amongst the various branches of administration, their co-ordination with each other and their co-operation with the center. 3
  4. 4. Combat Corruption and Oppression  In the letter Imam Ali (PBUH) advises his companion, Maalik to combat corruption and oppression amongst the officers, to control markets and imports and exports, to curb evils of profiteering, hoarding, and black-marketing. 4
  5. 5. Combat Corruption and Oppression  In it he has also explained stages of various classes in a society, the duties of the government towards the lowest class, how they are to be looked after and how their conditions are to be improved, the principle of equitable distribution of wealth and opportunities, orphans and their up-bringing, maintenance of the handicapped, crippled and disabled persons and substitutes in lieu of homes for the aged and the disabled. 5
  6. 6. The Rights of Leaders and the Followers  Then Imam discusses the army, of whom it should consist of and how the ignorant, ruthless and corrupt mercenaries should not be allowed to join the army as their profession. He lays great stress upon the honor and the nobility of volunteers who in time of need, offer their voluntary services to defend the Islamic State. Finally, he comments upon the rights of rulers over the ruled and of the ruled over the rulers. 6
  7. 7. Main Central Theme  There is a main central theme running all through these instructions, like one single thread out of which the cloth is woven, and it is the faith to the Almighty Allah. The rule is of Allah, the governors and the governed are both creatures of Allah, and their respective duties are laid down by Allah. The Almighty expects each one of them to fulfil his obligations and to do his duties. The orphans and the depressed are the trust of Allah, the army is the army of Allah, whose soldiers should not behave like haughty and arrogant guerrillas but like honorable and noble knights, everyone is expected to do his duty to the best of his ability. He will be rewarded in this world and Paradise accordingly. 7
  8. 8. Divine Administration of the People for the People and by the People  The famous Arab Christian, jurist, poet and philosopher Abdul Masih Antaaki who died sometime in the beginning of the 20th Century while discussing this letter 53, writes that it is a far superior and better code than the one handed down by Moses and Hamurabi, it explains what a human administration should be like, how it is to be carried out and it justifies the claims of Muslims that Islam wants to introduce a Divine administration of the people for the people and by the people and it wants a ruler to rule not to please himself but to bring happiness to the ruled and no religion before Islam tried to achieve this end, Imam Ali should be congratulated for having introduced these principles during his rule and for have written them down for the future generations. 8
  9. 9. 9 Leadership Definition
  10. 10. Leadership: Definition  Leadership is one of the most observed & least understood phenomena. 10 Burns, 1978
  11. 11. Leadership: Definition  No social and organizational topic has been explored more obsessively than leadership.  No behavior in the workplace has been more analyzed, parsed, or dissected than leadership.  No role has had more expectations heaped upon it than leadership.  No failure earns more heated opprobrium than a leadership failure. 11
  12. 12. Leadership: Definition  Most of this variation stems from the fact that leadership is a complex phenomenon involving the leader, the followers, and the situation. 12
  13. 13. Leadership: Definition  Like beauty, leadership is hard to define, but you know it when you see it. 13 Bennis (1989)
  14. 14. Leadership: Definition  In spite of more than 350 definitions for “Leadership” in the literature, one basic essence prevails in all of them, “influence”. 14
  15. 15. Leadership: Definition  Lead actually stems from an Old English word and means to “go, travel or guide”. 15
  16. 16. Leadership: Definition  “Leadership is the creative and directive force of morale. 16 Munson, 1921
  17. 17. Leadership: Definition  “Leadership is the art of imposing one’s will upon others, in such a manner as to command their obedience, their confidence, their respect, and their loyal cooperation.” 17 United States Military Academy, 1925
  18. 18. Leadership: Definition  Leadership is the process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to help achieve group and organizational goals. 18
  19. 19. Leadership: Definition  Leadership is the ability to influence other people, with or without authority. 19 Peter DeLisle
  20. 20. Leadership: Definition  “The essence of leadership is not giving things or even providing visions. It is offering oneself and one’s spirit” 20 Bolman & Deal, 2001
  21. 21. Leadership: Definition  “Teaching and leading are distinguishable occupations, but every great leader is clearly teaching -- and every great teacher is leading.” 21 Abraham Lincoln
  22. 22. Leadership: Definition  The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. 22 Peter Drucker
  23. 23. Leadership: Definition 23 Leading people: Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people
  24. 24. Leadership: Definition 24
  25. 25. Why Leadership?  Machiavelli in The Prince (1514): “It must be realized that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more uncertain of success, or more dangerous to manage than the establishment of a new order of things…” 25
  26. 26. Why Leadership?  Leadership is essential. 26 “LEADERSHIP IS THE ONLY THING THAT DIFFERENTIATES SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS FROM EACH OTHER OVER THE LONG TERM”
  27. 27. Why Leadership?  Leadership is essential. 27 “EVERYTHING RISES AND FALLS ON LEADERSHIP” John Maxwell
  28. 28. “The only safe ship in a storm is leadership.” Wattleton, F. Why Leadership?
  29. 29. Leadership  As was demonstrated leadership is a very important task in the family, organizational and social levels. It deeply influences the micro and macro environments. In all levels it has a significant impact on the outcomes and shapes the future of the individual as well as the community. For this reason the pre-qualifications of taking the leadership roles are of great importance and should not be compromised. Among all these qualifications there are some basic requirements which are mainly of an inner aptitude kind, being honest, ethical and just in our daily behavior and acting decently based on established principles toward the people in spite of being in “power”. That’s why Imam Ali (PBUH) has emphasized on these qualities at the beginning of his letter. 29
  30. 30. 30 Letter 53 of Imam Ali (PBUH)
  31. 31. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL  These are the orders issued by the creature of Allah, Ali, the son of Abu Taalib to Maalik, the son of Ashtar when he appointed Maalik as the Governor of Egypt to collect Zakat (or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth) there, to combat the enemies of Islam and Egypt, to work for the welfare of its people and to look after its prosperity. 31
  32. 32. Leadership Prerequisites  The beginning of letter 53 points out a very basic platform as a standard for everyone who wants to take leadership roles. This platform includes all the leadership essential prerequisites and will be covered in this chapter. 32 1
  33. 33. Leadership Prerequisites  I order you, Maalik, always to keep the fear of God in your mind, to give priority to His worship and to give preference to obeying His Commands over every other thing in life, to carefully and faithfully follow the commandments and interdictions as are given by the Holy Book and the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s) because the success of a man to attain happiness in this world and in the next depends upon these qualities, and a failure to achieve these attributes brings about total failure in both the worlds. 33 1- Conform to God 1
  34. 34. Leadership Prerequisites  I order you to use your head, heart, hands and tongue to help the people of Allah because the Almighty God holds Himself responsible to help those who sincerely try their best to help Him. 34 2- Love the People 1
  35. 35. Leadership Prerequisites  Allah has further ordered you to keep your desires under control, to keep yourself under restraint when excessive and unreasonable yearnings and cravings try to drive you towards vice and wickedness. Your inner 'self' tries to incite and drag you towards disgrace and infamy unless the Merciful Lord comes to your help. 35 3- Control Your Desires and Wishes 1
  36. 36. Leadership Prerequisites  Let it be known to you, Maalik, that I am sending you as a governor to a country which has seen many rulers before you. Some of them were compassionate, sympathetic and good, while others were tyrannical, oppressive and cruel. People will judge your government as critically as you have judged the activities of other regimes and they will criticize you in the same way as you have rejected or approved other rulers. 36 4-Judge the Prior Rulers Fairly 1
  37. 37. Leadership Prerequisites  You must know that a good and virtuous man is known and recognized by the good that is said about him and the praise which Allah has destined him to receive from others. Therefore, make your mind the source and fountain-head of good thoughts, good intentions and good deeds. This can only be attained by keeping a strict control on your desires and yearnings, however much they may try to incite and coerce you. Remember that the best way to do justice to your inner self and to keep it out of harm is to restrain it from vice and from things which the 'self' inordinately and irrationally desires. 37 5-Keep Away from Evils 1
  38. 38. Leadership Prerequisites  Maalik! You must create in your mind kindness, compassion and love for your subordinates. Do not behave towards them as if you are a insatiable and greedy beast and as if your success lies in demolishing them 38 6-Avoid Brutality 1

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