Healthcare-pharmacoeconomy-1

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فرهاد زرگری , Healthcare, pharma

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  • A variety of approaches to the social determinants of health exist and all of these are concerned with the organization and distribution of economic and social resources among the population. These are only two lists among the many out there from different global and national organizations
  • Healthcare-pharmacoeconomy-1

    1. 1. 1 HealthcarePharmacoeconomy FARHAD ZARGARI, MD, PHD DECEMBER, 2013
    2. 2. Course Outline  Session One (92-9-25)  Introduction  Healthcare  Health System   2 Pharmaceuticals in Healthcare Session Two     Session Three   NDP R&D  Dr. Zargari
    3. 3. 1 Introduction
    4. 4. The Changing World • “The period 2000-2025 will bring the single greatest worldwide change since we came down from the trees.” David Schneider & Grady Means, Meta Capitalism 4 4 Dr. Zargari
    5. 5. The Changing World • “It used to be that the big ate the small. Now the fast eats the slow.” Geoff Yang, (Institutional Venture Partners) 5 5 Dr. Zargari
    6. 6. The Changing World Future Present Past Where are we ? Where are we going to be ? Where were we ? 6 6 Dr. Zargari
    7. 7. The Changing World • There are THREE kinds of people: • 1- Those who Remember • 2- Those who Think • 3- Those who Dream • Those who Remember • Remember the Past • Those who Think • Try to Grasp the Present • Those who Dream • Dream about Future 7 7 Dr. Zargari
    8. 8. The Changing World Future Present Past Where were we ? 8 Where are we ? Where are we going to be? 8 Dr. Zargari
    9. 9. The Changing World • There are three types of people in the world: • Those who make things happen. • Those who watch things happen. • And those who ask - "What happened?" 9 9 Dr. Zargari
    10. 10. 1-Cognitive 2-Affective 3-Behavioral You Change Yourself First Change Process Outputs Impact Outcomes 10 10 Dr. Zargari
    11. 11. 2 Healthcare
    12. 12. 12  UNDP Dr. Zargari
    13. 13. 13   Increasing Human Physical and Mental Productivity Three Protecting People’s Health Two One Healthcare Ultimate Objectives: Safeguarding “Human Capital” as the Core Engine of Development Sustainable Development Dr. Zargari
    14. 14. 14  Dr. Zargari
    15. 15. 15 Human Capital Theory Aging  Dr. Zargari
    16. 16. 16  WHO WHO Dr. Zargari
    17. 17. 17  – Dr. Zargari
    18. 18. 18  Dr. Zargari
    19. 19. 19 GDP Dr. Zargari
    20. 20. 20   SDH Dr. Zargari
    21. 21. 21   Personal Behavior    Living Conditions Working Conditions Community Behavior  Economic Resources  Social Resources Dr. Zargari
    22. 22. Lists of Social Determinants From World Health Organization From Social Determinants of Health National Conference  Income/Social Status  Early Life  Social Support Networks  Education  Education/Literacy  Employment/Work Conditions  Social Environment  Food Security Gender  Physical Environment   Health Care Services  Life/Coping Skills  Housing  Personal Health Practices  Income and its Distribution  Child Development  Social Safety Net  Gender  Social Exclusion  Culture  Unemployment/ Employment Security 21
    23. 23. 22
    24. 24. 23
    25. 25. 24
    26. 26. 25
    27. 27. 27 “Social justice is a matter of life and death.” World Health Organization Dr. Zargari
    28. 28. 50 50 40 30 20 10 0 25 15 10
    29. 29. 29 Dr. Zargari
    30. 30. 30 Illness Orientation Wellness Orientation Fragmented Care Comprehensive Care Independent Systems Integrated Network
    31. 31. 31 1-Socioeconomic Factors 2-Psychological Factors 3-Environmental Factors 4-Biological Factors 1-Preventive Measures 2-Therapeutic Measures 3-Rehabilitative Measures 1-Modern Medicine 2-Complimentary Medicine Both Sexes All Ages Dr. Zargari
    32. 32. Sustainability 32 Value Creation Health Dr. Zargari
    33. 33. 3 Health System
    34. 34. Health System Definition  Health systems can be understood in many ways. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health systems as “all the organizations, institutions, and resources that are devoted to producing health actions.” Dr. Zargari 34
    35. 35. Health System Definition  Health care system is that part of any state concerned with regulating access to, financing, and organizing the delivery of health care to the population. Moran, 1991 Access Health Delivery Financing Organizing Dr. Zargari 35
    36. 36. Health System Definition  All the activities whose primary purpose is to promote, maintain, or restore the health of the society. Dr. Zargari 36
    37. 37. Health System Definition  Health systems encompass all levels:       central, regional, district, community, and household. Health sector projects engage with all levels and elements of the health system and frequently encounter constraints that limit their effectiveness. Dr. Zargari 37
    38. 38. Health System Functions  The World Health Report 2000 (WHO 2000) identifies the four key functions of the health system:      (1) stewardship (often referred to as governance or oversight), (2) financing, (3) human and physical resources, (4) organization and management of service delivery, Next slide illustrates the relationship between the four functions of health systems. Dr. Zargari 38
    39. 39. Relations Between Functions and Objectives of a Health System Stewardship (oversight) Creating resources (investment And training) Responsiveness (to non-medical expectations) Delivering services (provision) Financing (collecting, pooling And purchasing) Functions of the System Health Fair (financial) contribution Objectives of the System Source: Adapted with permission from WHO (2001) Dr. Zargari 39
    40. 40. 4 Pharmaceuticals in Healthcare
    41. 41. • ANY CHEMICAL THAT AFFECTS THE PROCESSES OF A LIVING ORGANISM • A MEDICINE OR OTHER SUBSTANCE WHICH HAS A PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT WHEN INGESTED OR OTHERWISE INTRODUCED INTO THE BODY. • Dr. Zargari
    42. 42. • CHEMICAL NAME, THE DRUG’S CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE • GENERIC NAME (NONPROPRIETARY NAME) • TRADE NAME (PROPRIETARY NAME), THE DRUG HAS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK Dr. Zargari
    43. 43. Dr. Zargari 43
    44. 44. 19.8% 19.1% Mining, Crude Oil Production Pharmaceuticals Tobacco Food Consumer Products Household and Personal Products Telecommunications Industrial Machinery Building Materials, Glass Aerospace and Defense Shipping Network and Other Communications Equipment Banks: Commercial and Savings Beverages Metals Health Care: Insurance and Managed Care Energy Chemicals Specialty Retailers Mail, Package, and Freight Delivery Trading Computers, Office Equiment Food and Drug Stores Food Production Insurance: Property and Casualty (Stock) Engineering, Construction Source: Fortune Global 2010 12.3% 11.9% 9.9% 7.5% 7.1% 6.5% 6.2% 6.1% 5.4% 5.2% 4.2% 3.7% 3.7% 3.5% 3.2% 3.1% 2.8% 2.8% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.0% 1.9% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% 22% Dr. Zargari 44
    45. 45. 20.0 . 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 List by the United Nations (2011) Dr. Zargari 45
    46. 46. 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Dr. Zargari 46
    47. 47. Dr. Zargari 47
    48. 48. GDP Dr. Zargari
    49. 49. Dr. Zargari
    50. 50. - - - Dr. Zargari 50
    51. 51. Loss of Exclusivity Dr. Zargari 51
    52. 52. . 2016 OTC . 2011 Dr. Zargari
    53. 53. * • - • - • R&D - • - • Dr. Zargari 53
    54. 54. * COUNTRY PHARMA SHARE OF GDP TOTAL GDP(MILLION USD) 0.2-0.5 514,060 New Zeland Japan Australia Solomon Islands Korea Republic Vietnam Cambodia Nepal China Fiji LaoPDR Malysia India Singapore Iran Dr. Zargari

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