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MO Figure 
Action Potentials 
Mike Hollingshead/Science Source
Figure 1 
Membrane ion channels 
Include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca2+) ion 
channels.
Figure 2 
Membrane 
potential 
Electrical potential 
difference across the cell 
membrane caused by 
different concentrati...
Figure 2a
Figure 2b
Figure 3 
The action 
potential 
Small changes in 
membrane potential 
(graded potentials) can 
be depolarizing or 
hyperp...
Figure 4 
The action 
potential 
During an action 
potential, membrane 
potential changes as a 
result of ion flow through...
Figure 4
Figure 5 
The action 
potential 
The membrane 
depolarization during an 
action potential triggers 
action potentials in 
...
Figure 5a
Figure 5b
Figure 5c
Figure 6 
Saltatory 
conduction 
Some axons are myelinated by 
insulating glial cells. Ion 
channels are only present at t...
Figure 6
Figure 6a
Figure 6b
MO Figure 
Neurons and Synaptic 
Communication 
Photo Researchers, Inc./Science Source
Figure 1
Figure 2 
Postsynaptic 
potentials 
A signal from a presynaptic 
neuron may induce an 
inhibitory (IPSP) or excitatory 
(E...
Table 2a 
Neurotransmitters
Table 2b
Table 2c
Figure 3 
GABA 
g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter 
that triggers opening of Cl- channels in the...
MO Figure 
Structure and Function of the 
Vertebrate Nervous System 
Bartolommeo Eustachi, Tabulae Anatomicae, 
2nd editio...
Figure 1 
The nervous system 
Subdivided into the central nervous system (CNS) and 
peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Figure 2 
White and gray matter 
CNS contains both white and gray matter. White matter 
consists of myelinated axons. Gray...
Figure 2a
Figure 2b
Figure 3 
The peripheral 
nervous system (PNS) 
Includes sensory and motor neurons and the autonomic 
nervous system (ANS)...
Figure 4 
The autonomic 
nervous system 
Contains antagonistic sympathetic and parasympathetic 
divisions.
Figure 5 
Regions of the brain 
Subdivided into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions.
Figure 6 
The cerebral cortex 
Includes the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
Figure 7
MO Figure 
The Human Brain: 
Language, Memory, and fMRI 
Photo via Wikimedia Commons. Originally published by Fowlers & We...
Figure 1 
Brain language centers 
Broca’s area is important for speech. Wernicke’s area is 
important for language compreh...
Figure 2 
Functional MRI (fMRI) 
© 2008 Nature Publishing Group deCharms, R. Applications of real-time fMRI. Nature Review...
Figure 3 
Functional MRI (fMRI) 
These images were 
collected during a visual 
memory test. Red/yellow 
areas indicate reg...
Figure 4 
Protein and 
brain activity 
fMRI revealed that high-protein 
breakfasts (HP, dark 
blue) reduce brain activity ...
Figure 5 Aplysia 
Martin Shields/Science Source. 
This sea slug with large, easily accessible neurons, is a good 
model or...
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Action potentials animal systems

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Action Potential

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Action potentials animal systems

  1. 1. MO Figure Action Potentials Mike Hollingshead/Science Source
  2. 2. Figure 1 Membrane ion channels Include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca2+) ion channels.
  3. 3. Figure 2 Membrane potential Electrical potential difference across the cell membrane caused by different concentrations of K+, Na+, and Cl- ions on each side of the membrane. Membrane potential of neurons is usually between -60 and -80 mV.
  4. 4. Figure 2a
  5. 5. Figure 2b
  6. 6. Figure 3 The action potential Small changes in membrane potential (graded potentials) can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing. A depolarizing potential that exceeds a threshold becomes an action potential.
  7. 7. Figure 4 The action potential During an action potential, membrane potential changes as a result of ion flow through voltage-gated Na+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, and the Na+/K+ pump.
  8. 8. Figure 4
  9. 9. Figure 5 The action potential The membrane depolarization during an action potential triggers action potentials in adjacent regions of an axon. Depolarization spreads down the length of the axon as a result.
  10. 10. Figure 5a
  11. 11. Figure 5b
  12. 12. Figure 5c
  13. 13. Figure 6 Saltatory conduction Some axons are myelinated by insulating glial cells. Ion channels are only present at the nodes of Ranvier between glia. Electrical current jumps from node to node, increasing the speed of neural transmission.
  14. 14. Figure 6
  15. 15. Figure 6a
  16. 16. Figure 6b
  17. 17. MO Figure Neurons and Synaptic Communication Photo Researchers, Inc./Science Source
  18. 18. Figure 1
  19. 19. Figure 2 Postsynaptic potentials A signal from a presynaptic neuron may induce an inhibitory (IPSP) or excitatory (EPSP) potential in the postsynaptic neuron. An IPSP causes a hyperpolarization and makes a new action potential less likely to form. An EPSP causes a depolarization and increases the likelihood of a new action potential.
  20. 20. Table 2a Neurotransmitters
  21. 21. Table 2b
  22. 22. Table 2c
  23. 23. Figure 3 GABA g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that triggers opening of Cl- channels in the postsynaptic neuron, which hyperpolarizes its membrane.
  24. 24. MO Figure Structure and Function of the Vertebrate Nervous System Bartolommeo Eustachi, Tabulae Anatomicae, 2nd edition. Amsterdam, 1722.
  25. 25. Figure 1 The nervous system Subdivided into the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS).
  26. 26. Figure 2 White and gray matter CNS contains both white and gray matter. White matter consists of myelinated axons. Gray matter consists of unmyelinated axons, dendrites, and cell bodies.
  27. 27. Figure 2a
  28. 28. Figure 2b
  29. 29. Figure 3 The peripheral nervous system (PNS) Includes sensory and motor neurons and the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
  30. 30. Figure 4 The autonomic nervous system Contains antagonistic sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
  31. 31. Figure 5 Regions of the brain Subdivided into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions.
  32. 32. Figure 6 The cerebral cortex Includes the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
  33. 33. Figure 7
  34. 34. MO Figure The Human Brain: Language, Memory, and fMRI Photo via Wikimedia Commons. Originally published by Fowlers & Wells.
  35. 35. Figure 1 Brain language centers Broca’s area is important for speech. Wernicke’s area is important for language comprehension.
  36. 36. Figure 2 Functional MRI (fMRI) © 2008 Nature Publishing Group deCharms, R. Applications of real-time fMRI. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9, 720–729 (2008) doi:10.1038/nrn2414. Used with permission. Colors indicate sites of brain activity.
  37. 37. Figure 3 Functional MRI (fMRI) These images were collected during a visual memory test. Red/yellow areas indicate regions with increased activity, and blue indicates decreased activity. Yellow indicates moderate activity. © 2009 Nature Publishing Group Dickerson, B. and Eichenbaum, H. The Episodic Memory System: Neurocircuitry and Disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 35, 86–104 (2009) doi:10.1038/npp.2009.126. Used with permission.
  38. 38. Figure 4 Protein and brain activity fMRI revealed that high-protein breakfasts (HP, dark blue) reduce brain activity in regions associated with food motivation and reward pathways compared to normal-protein breakfasts (NP, light blue).
  39. 39. Figure 5 Aplysia Martin Shields/Science Source. This sea slug with large, easily accessible neurons, is a good model organism in neurobiology to study the links between specific neurons and behavior.

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