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Nose And Paranasal Sinusefinal


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Nose And Paranasal Sinusefinal

  1. 1. Nose & Para nasal sinus PROF. DR MASOOD AHMED MBBS,MPHIL,PHD
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nose & Paranasal sinus: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe histological features of vestibular, respiratory and olfactory mucosa of nose </li></ul><ul><li>Describe histological features of mucous membrane Para nasal sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>Identify under microscope the histological features of various parts of mucous membrane of nose and para nasal sinuses . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomy of the nose <ul><li>Vestibular part </li></ul><ul><li>From anterior nostrils to inferior concha </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory part </li></ul><ul><li>From inferior concha to the posterior nostril and up to the superior concha </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory part </li></ul><ul><li>Above the superior concha up to the roof of nose and adjoining part of septum </li></ul>
  5. 5. Anatomy of the nose <ul><li>Skeleton of nose is made up of bone and cartilages covered by mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Surface lining of the three parts of the nose has different structure depending on the function </li></ul>
  6. 6. Para nasal sinuses <ul><li>Para nasal sinuses are empty spaces with in the skull bones around the nose. </li></ul><ul><li>They open into the nose. </li></ul><ul><li>They are lined by respiratory mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Named as frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethemoid </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nasal cavities
  8. 8. Vestibular part <ul><li>Covered by skin </li></ul><ul><li>Having coarse hairs called vibrissae </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as initial filter to stop the entry of particulate material into the nose </li></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous and sweat gland help in moistening and warming the the dried air </li></ul>
  9. 9. Respiratory mucosa <ul><li>Five type of cells present in epithelial lining </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliated columnar cells, goblet cells, APUD cells, basal stem cells and brush cells with microvilli (sensory function) </li></ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane adherent to underlying periosteum and perichondrium </li></ul>
  10. 10. Respiratory Mucus Membrane <ul><li>Respiratory part of nose and Para nasal sinuses are Lined by respiratory mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Psudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina propria containing mucous and serous glands </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous thin walled veins specially over the inferior concha </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nasal Conchae
  12. 12. Nasal Conchae – spicule of bone covered with Resp Epith w/ a lamina propria w/ many veins
  13. 13. Diagram of the Olfactory Epithelium <ul><li>Psudostratified columnar cells with three didifferent type of cells </li></ul><ul><li>L.P containing loose CT, BV and small serous glands and bundle of axons </li></ul>
  14. 14. OLFACTORY MUCOSA <ul><li>Psudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Three type of cells </li></ul><ul><li>True bipolar olfactory cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sustentacular supporting cells & </li></ul><ul><li>Basal stem cells </li></ul>
  15. 15. SEM of the surface of the Olfactory Epithelium <ul><li>From each Bipolar cells arise 12 non motile modified cilia from olfactory nobe </li></ul><ul><li>From basal end arise axone </li></ul><ul><li>Pierce basement membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Group of axons pierce cribriform plate </li></ul>
  16. 16. Olfactory mucosa <ul><li>Supporting cells </li></ul><ul><li>Wider at upper end </li></ul><ul><li>Long microvilli arising from this surface </li></ul><ul><li>Junctional complexes present between two cells </li></ul><ul><li>Serous glands called BOWMANS GLAND present in L.P </li></ul>
  17. 17. please note <ul><li>Mucous secretion traps the particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia sweep the mucous towards pharynx to swallow </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous veins and mucous help in air conditioning (warming and moistening) </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory epithelium is yellowish in colour </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting cells have lipofucine pigment , may be phagocytic in function </li></ul><ul><li>Bowmans gland secretion dissolve the content and help in olfaction </li></ul>