503
TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION
AND MANAGEMENT
22nd JULY 2013 NIRD, HYDERABAD
DR.V.P.SHARMA
The major objectives are to provide information on contemporary status of
TDAM in India. After this You will:
• Have a str...
WHAT IS TRIBE?
According to Oxford Dictionary -
"A tribe is a group of people in a primitive or
barbarous stage of develop...
SOME DEFINITIONS
D.N Majumdar defines tribe as a social group with
territorial affiliation, endogamous with no specializat...
SOME DEFINITIONS
L.M Lewis believes that tribal societies are small in scale
are restricted in the spatial and temporal ra...
Feature of Tribes
T.B Naik has given their features in Indian context:-
• A tribe should have least functional interdepend...
Naik argues that for a community to be a tribe it should
possess all the above mentioned characteristics and a very
high l...
THE SCHEDULED TRIBES
Constitution of India gives recognition to a category of
people designated as the Scheduled Tribes an...
Tribal in India
These 428 communities speaking 106 different languages
have been so far notified as the scheduled tribes i...
Q & A
WHAT IS TRIBE?
WHO ARE SCHEDULED TRIBES
?
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MEANS-The
development that meets the need of the present
without compromising the ability of futur...
Nature and scope of
Human(tribal)development
Tribal in India, geographically and culturally, are at
widely different stage...
Demographic status
There are approximately two hundred million tribal
people in the entire globe, which means, about 4%
of...
Among tribes, there are so many communities.
The major identified tribes in country number
about the 428 scheduled tribes ...
1. Forest hunting type
2. Hill cultivation type
3. Plain agriculture type
4. Simple artisan type
5. Pastoral and cattle he...
The Tribal Panchsheel is a statement comprising of five guiding principles
of governance of scheduled tribes. These are:
I...
IV. We should try to train and build up a team of their own
people to do the work of administration and development.
Some ...
A review of the tribal situation would indicate that
the strategy for development would require an
intensive approach to t...
The community development efforts in the
tribal areas were taken up for supplementation
by stating a few special multipurp...
A number of commissions and committees were
appointed in the recent past to look in to the
problems of developments in the...
Funding of Tribal Development Programmes
The sources of funds made available are :
1. State Plan
2. Special Central Assist...
Participatory Development
Participatory development has long been a widely discussed
concept in development debates.
Thoug...
Participatory Development
Many Third World governments also sought to
incorporate the framework of this development formul...
Participatory development
(PD)
Participatory Development seeks to engage local
populations in development projects. Partic...
Participatory development (PD)
PD has become an increasingly accepted
method of development practice and is
employed by a ...
COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS (CBOs)
The role of CBOs in tribal development is not new in the
country.
Traditionally, CBOs...
COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS
(CBOs
Although community development and rural
development programmes initiated by the
gover...
COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS
(CBOs
CBOs include Self Help Groups (SHG), Village Education
Committees, Watershed Committee...
ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS
(CSOs)
The development of the tribal has been the constitutional
obligation of the Gov...
NON- GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
(NGOs)
Non – governmental organizations (NGOs) refers to a legally
constituted, non-govern...
Characteristics of NGOs
The following are the characteristics of an NGO:
(1) It is an organization initiated and governed ...
Q & A
Lecture 3 :
Funding of Tribal Development Programmes
The sources of funds made available are :
1. State Plan
2. Special Ce...
Schemes & Programmes
The Ministry flows its funds through various programmes and schemes
aimed to support and supplement t...
Nodal agency for TD
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is the nodal Ministry for the overall policy,
planning and coordination...
Nodal agency for TD
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs compliments and supports
the efforts made by the other Ministries by wa...
Ministry of Tribal Affairs
• Responsible to look after :-
• National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
• Scheduled Areas & S...
Q & A
Lecture 4: PLANNING TDM
The first attempt for decentralized planning was made way back
in 1952 with the introduction of Co...
Participatory Planning
It is a process of creating enabling environment for the
people to be able to identify and prioriti...
PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES TO MICRO
PLANNING
As per the provisions of New Panchayat Raj Act, the
planning at Gram Panchayat ...
Implementation Plan
Implementation Plan is as important as formulation of plan for the fact that
the objectives of a plan ...
PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND
EVALUATION
Development programmes are implemented through a project approach
in order to achi...
Monitoring
A continuous / Periodic review and surveillance by
Management, at every level of the implementation of an
activ...
SUMMING UP
„Tribal Development Administration and Management‟ following Blocks
containing Units therein are discussed here...
SUMMING UP
Block-3 : Institutional and Administrative Arrangements at State
Level
Unit-1 : Tribal Research and Training In...
Tribal development management  lecture  by Dr. V.P.Sharma , NIRD, 2013
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Tribal development management lecture by Dr. V.P.Sharma , NIRD, 2013

  1. 1. 503 TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT 22nd JULY 2013 NIRD, HYDERABAD DR.V.P.SHARMA
  2. 2. The major objectives are to provide information on contemporary status of TDAM in India. After this You will: • Have a strong perspective and in depth understanding of tribal society and culture, ethos, demography, levels of development and contemporary socio-economic issues • Be able to assess relative merits of various approaches and strategies of tribal development • Be well equipped to ensure mobilization and capacity building of stakeholders • Have adequate skills to prepare and implement integrated development plan and projects for tribal development • Be competent in project management and financial management • Develop good understanding of tribal development administration with focus on ethics and values • Develop good communication skills and capacity in document preparation and presentation Lecture objectives
  3. 3. WHAT IS TRIBE? According to Oxford Dictionary - "A tribe is a group of people in a primitive or barbarous stage of development acknowledging the authority of a chief and usually regarding themselves as having a common ancestor.
  4. 4. SOME DEFINITIONS D.N Majumdar defines tribe as a social group with territorial affiliation, endogamous with no specialization of functions ruled by tribal officers hereditary or otherwise, united in language or dialect recognizing social distance with other tribes or castes. According to Ralph Linton tribe is a group of bands occupying a contiguous territory or territories and having a feeling of unity deriving from numerous similarities in a culture, frequent contacts and a certain community of interests.
  5. 5. SOME DEFINITIONS L.M Lewis believes that tribal societies are small in scale are restricted in the spatial and temporal range of their social, legal and political relations and possess a morality, a religion and world view of corresponding dimensions. Characteristically too tribal languages are unwritten and hence the extent of communication both in time and space is inevitably narrow. At the same time tribal societies exhibit a remarkable economy of design and have a compactness and self-sufficiency lacking in modern society.
  6. 6. Feature of Tribes T.B Naik has given their features in Indian context:- • A tribe should have least functional interdependence within the community. • It should be economically backward (i.e. primitive means of exploiting natural resources, tribal economy should be at an underdeveloped stage and it should have multifarious economic pursuits). • There should be a comparative geographical isolation of its people. • They should have a common dialect. • Tribes should be politically organized and community panchayat should be influential. • A tribe should have customary laws.
  7. 7. Naik argues that for a community to be a tribe it should possess all the above mentioned characteristics and a very high level of acculturation with outside society debars it from being a tribe. Thus this term usually denotes a social group bound together by kin and duty and associated with a particular territory. Feature of Tribes
  8. 8. THE SCHEDULED TRIBES Constitution of India gives recognition to a category of people designated as the Scheduled Tribes and makes special provisions for their political representation and their economic and social welfare. Definition Census 1981, scheduled tribe and scheduled caste- The Under Article 341(i) and 342(i) of constitution of India will be notified by public notification by the President of India . According to Home Ministry notification N0-SRO 2477A, dated the 29th October, 1956 and the schedule tribe and scheduled Caste orders (amendment) Act 1976(N0-108 of 1976) dated 18 September 1976 thus notified.
  9. 9. Tribal in India These 428 communities speaking 106 different languages have been so far notified as the scheduled tribes in 19 states and 6 union territories. They have their own socio- cultural and economic milieu. In fact, the largest concentration of tribal people, anywhere in the world and except perhaps Africa is in India. About 50% of the tribal population of the country is concentrated in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar and Orissa. Besides, there is a sizeable tribal population in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and West Bengal.
  10. 10. Q & A WHAT IS TRIBE? WHO ARE SCHEDULED TRIBES ?
  11. 11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MEANS-The development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Human development means- unacceptability of biases and discrimination on the basis of nationality, class, creed, colour and gender. Lecture 2- Sustainable Human Development
  12. 12. Nature and scope of Human(tribal)development Tribal in India, geographically and culturally, are at widely different stages of social as well as economic development and their problems differ from area to area within their own groups. The tribesman lives not only for himself alone, but also he is an integral part of the community to which he belongs.
  13. 13. Demographic status There are approximately two hundred million tribal people in the entire globe, which means, about 4% of the global population. They are found in many regions of the world and majority of them are the poorest amongst poor. According to 1981 Census, the population of Scheduled Tribes in the country was 5.16 crores, consisting about 7.76% of total Indian population, which means one tribesman for every 13 Indians.
  14. 14. Among tribes, there are so many communities. The major identified tribes in country number about the 428 scheduled tribes in India though the total number of tribal communities are reported to be 642 and several of them have become extinct or merged with other communities as the tendency for fusion and fission among tribal population is a continuous process. Thus, if the sub-tribes and state tribes will be taken into consideration, the number will be many more. Demography
  15. 15. 1. Forest hunting type 2. Hill cultivation type 3. Plain agriculture type 4. Simple artisan type 5. Pastoral and cattle herder type 6. Folk artist type 7. Agriculture and other labour type 8. Skilled and white collar job type(vidyarthi1976) Economic classification of tribe
  16. 16. The Tribal Panchsheel is a statement comprising of five guiding principles of governance of scheduled tribes. These are: I. People should develop along the lines of their own genius and we should avoid imposing anything on them. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional art and culture. II. Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected. III. We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to do the work of administration and development. Some technical people from outside will, no doubt, be needed, especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory. Tribal Development Efforts after Independence
  17. 17. IV. We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to do the work of administration and development. Some technical people from outside will, no doubt, be needed, especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory. V. We should judge results not by statistics of the amount of money spent, but by the quality of human character that is evolved. Tribal Development Efforts after Independence
  18. 18. A review of the tribal situation would indicate that the strategy for development would require an intensive approach to the tribal problems in terms of their geographic and demographic concentration, if the faster development of the community is to take place. Tribal Development Policies and Programmes
  19. 19. The community development efforts in the tribal areas were taken up for supplementation by stating a few special multipurpose tribal development projects covering a few blocks in 1954. The Community Development Efforts
  20. 20. A number of commissions and committees were appointed in the recent past to look in to the problems of developments in the tribal areas in the country and they have recommended a number of measures to remove the socio-economic imbalances and also to break down their old psychological barrier, which existed in the tribal areas. Commissions and Committees
  21. 21. Funding of Tribal Development Programmes The sources of funds made available are : 1. State Plan 2. Special Central Assistance 3. Sectoral Programmes of Central Ministries/Departments 4. Institutional Finance.
  22. 22. Participatory Development Participatory development has long been a widely discussed concept in development debates. Though its intellectual origins may be traced to the notion of development conceived and popularized by Mahatma Gandhi in India even decades before independence, various institutions and agencies in the advanced capitalist countries tried to offer a recipe for development in the post-war period under various themes like “community development programme,” “rural development,” etc. for the Third World.
  23. 23. Participatory Development Many Third World governments also sought to incorporate the framework of this development formula into their socio-economic programmes and policies. The concept of participatory development got further momentum when the global *financial institutions and agencies such as the World Bank promoted “Basic Needs & Approach in Development”.
  24. 24. Participatory development (PD) Participatory Development seeks to engage local populations in development projects. Participatory development (PD) has taken a variety of forms since it emerged in the 1970s, when it was introduced as an important part of the “basic needs approach” to development. Most manifestations of PD seek “to give the poor a part in initiatives designed for their benefit” in the hopes that development projects will be more sustainable and successful if local populations are engaged in the development process.
  25. 25. Participatory development (PD) PD has become an increasingly accepted method of development practice and is employed by a variety of organizations. It is often presented as an alternative to mainstream “top-down” development.
  26. 26. COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS (CBOs) The role of CBOs in tribal development is not new in the country. Traditionally, CBOs played a major role in taking care of the needs of people particularly those who live in the rural and tribal areas. However, the planned development initiated by the Government with the advent of independence took care of the major responsibilities of delivering goods and services to the people thereby marginalizing the importance of CBOs..
  27. 27. COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS (CBOs Although community development and rural development programmes initiated by the government have emphasized participation of people – The top down approach that followed and the welfare orientation of the programme could not enlist adequate people‟s participation in the government sponsored development programmes.
  28. 28. COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS (CBOs CBOs include Self Help Groups (SHG), Village Education Committees, Watershed Committees, Vana Samraksha Samithies (VSS), Water Users Associations (WUA), Mothers Committees, Co-operative Societies, User Groups, etc. All these organizations are pro poor and they have ample potential to create an enabling environment that promotes community driven development.
  29. 29. ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS (CSOs) The development of the tribal has been the constitutional obligation of the Government. Coupled with the provisions spelt out in the Indian Constitution and intervention packages, the Government had instituted numerous Commissions and Committees from time to time to assess the tribal situation in the country. It was soon realized that all the activities and programmes relating to the tribal development cannot be done single- handedly by the Government. Civil society organizations (CSOs) can contribute in a positive way to the development of tribal and in the protection of their indigenous knowledge base.
  30. 30. NON- GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) Non – governmental organizations (NGOs) refers to a legally constituted, non-governmental organization created by the natural or legal persons with no participation or representation of government. NGO‟s are a group of persons organized on the basis of voluntary membership without state control, for the furtherance of some common interests of its members.
  31. 31. Characteristics of NGOs The following are the characteristics of an NGO: (1) It is an organization initiated and governed by its own members on democratic principles without any external control. (2) It is registered under an appropriate act to give a corporate status to a group of individuals so that they get a legal personality, and individual liability may give place to group liability. (3) It has a general body and a regularly constituted managing committee, representing all interested men, women, professionals, public men, etc. (4) It has definite aims and objectives and a programme in socio-economic fulfillment of these objectives. (5) It has considerable autonomy, flexible planning and management of its programmes and services. (6) It has a sense of commitment to human development/welfare. (7) It plans and implements its own programmes thorough its own voluntary and paid workers. (8) It maintains its accounts and is accountable to people and the government as far as it receives grant.
  32. 32. Q & A
  33. 33. Lecture 3 : Funding of Tribal Development Programmes The sources of funds made available are : 1. State Plan 2. Special Central Assistance 3. Sectoral Programmes of Central Ministries/Departments 4. Institutional Finance.
  34. 34. Schemes & Programmes The Ministry flows its funds through various programmes and schemes aimed to support and supplement the efforts of other Central Ministries, the State Governments and the voluntary organizations to fill the critical gaps between STs and non-STs. These Schemes are broadly categorized into Central Sector Schemes, Centrally Sponsored Schemes and the Special Area Programmes. The Central Sector Schemes are fully funded by the Ministry while Centrally Sponsored Schemes are the ones which are partly funded by the Ministry and partly by the States. Under the Special Area Programmes, 100 per cent grant is provided by the Ministry to meet the cost of such projects for tribal development and their economic up- liftment.
  35. 35. Nodal agency for TD The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is the nodal Ministry for the overall policy, planning and coordination of programmes for development of Scheduled Tribes (STs). Each Central Ministry/ Department is, however, the nodal Ministry or Department concerning its sector, assuming the primary responsibility for promoting the interests of Scheduled Tribes. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, for instance, takes care of their needs pertaining to health sector and education sector is taken care of by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development.
  36. 36. Nodal agency for TD The Ministry of Tribal Affairs compliments and supports the efforts made by the other Ministries by way of various developmental interventions in critical sectors through specially tailored schemes. These schemes meant for economic, educational and social development of STs, are administered by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and implemented through the State Governments/Union Territory Administrations and voluntary organizations.
  37. 37. Ministry of Tribal Affairs • Responsible to look after :- • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes • Scheduled Areas & Scheduled Tribes Commission • Issuing directions regarding initiating and executing scheme(s) essential for the welfare of the STs in any State/UT • Implementation of the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 (22 of 1955) • Implementation of the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (33 of 1989) • Implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (33 of 1989)
  38. 38. Q & A
  39. 39. Lecture 4: PLANNING TDM The first attempt for decentralized planning was made way back in 1952 with the introduction of Community Development Programme in India for which a vast decentralized network of development administration was created by dividing the whole country in to more than 5,000 blocks. Preparation of production plans at village level and aggregating them at block level to formulate block plans was done by the development functionaries in consultation with the local people. Since then the concept of decentralized planning could be seen in one form or another in all Five Year Plan documents. This exercise was discontinued after withdrawal of Central Fund during sixties.
  40. 40. Participatory Planning It is a process of creating enabling environment for the people to be able to identify and prioritize their felt needs and problems; and prepare an action plan by incorporating a set of alternative cost effective solutions/actions, and implement the same with the available resources to achieve the predetermined objectives of the plan. It ensures a deep sense of commitment, accountability, transparency and ownership and thereby the expected outcomes and impacts can be shared in proportionate to their extent of participation.
  41. 41. PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES TO MICRO PLANNING As per the provisions of New Panchayat Raj Act, the planning at Gram Panchayat level envisages the involvement of people in the process of planning and implementation of development programmes. The projects under RKVY need to be incorporated as a separate chapter in the village / GP planning.
  42. 42. Implementation Plan Implementation Plan is as important as formulation of plan for the fact that the objectives of a plan can be fully achieved only when it is implemented in true spirit and vigor. Participatory implementation approach is widely accepted in development discourse as a pre-requisite for not only enhancing the effective involvement of the beneficiaries/target groups but also achieving anticipated outcome of the project. The effective participation of beneficiaries in the implementation process therefore facilitates even distribution of benefits of the projects among the target groups.
  43. 43. PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION Development programmes are implemented through a project approach in order to achieve the pre-determined objectives of the programme and also cover the targeted groups and areas in a phased manner. Every project has specified resources, target group and a time frame. A project can be a single activity or a set multiple activities that can be executed simultaneously or one after another. The purpose of a programme or a project is to convert a set of RESOURCES into desired RESULTS.
  44. 44. Monitoring A continuous / Periodic review and surveillance by Management, at every level of the implementation of an activity to ensure that input deliveries, work schedules, targeted outputs and other required actions are proceeding according to plan. Another way of defining Monitoring is that it is a process of measuring, recording, collecting, processing and communicating information to assist project management decision-making. To be precise and brief, “monitoring system is an information system for management decision making”.
  45. 45. SUMMING UP „Tribal Development Administration and Management‟ following Blocks containing Units therein are discussed here. Block-1 : Principles and Practices Unit-1 : Tribal Panchsheel Unit-2 : Sustainable Human Development Unit-3 : Participatory Development Unit-4 : Role of NGOs, CSOs and CBOs Block-2 : Institutional and Administrative Arrangements at National Level Unit-1 : Ministry of Tribal Affairs Unit-2 : National Commission for Scheduled Tribes Unit-3 : National Scheduled Tribe Finance and Development Corporation Unit-4 : Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation (TRIFED)
  46. 46. SUMMING UP Block-3 : Institutional and Administrative Arrangements at State Level Unit-1 : Tribal Research and Training Institutes Unit-2 : Tribal Development Department Unit-3 : Tribes Advisory Council Unit-4 : Tribal Cooperative Development Corporations Unit-5 : Tribal Development Finance Corporation Block-4 : Planning for Tribal Development Unit-1 : Planning Concepts and Approaches Unit-2 : Participatory Approaches to Micro Planning Unit-3 : Participatory Implementation Unit-4 : Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

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