Chapters 7 8


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  • Chapters 7 8

    1. 1. Chapter 7: Survey Research
    2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Identify factors to consider when writing questions for interviews and questionnaires, including defining research objectives and question wording </li></ul><ul><li>Describe different ways to construct questionnaire responses, including closed-ended questions, open-ended questions, and rating scales </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the ways that samples are evaluated for potential bias, including sampling frame and response rate </li></ul>
    3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Compare the two ways to administer surveys: written questionnaire and oral interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Define interviewer bias </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a panel study </li></ul><ul><li>Describe simple random sampling stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Describe haphazard sampling, purposive sampling, and quota sampling </li></ul>
    4. 4. WHY CONDUCT SURVEYS? <ul><li>Provides a methodology for ask people to tell about themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Way to study relationships among variables and ways that attitudes and behaviors change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Important complement to experimental research findings </li></ul>
    5. 5. CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK <ul><li>Must be tied to your research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes and beliefs: should more money be spent on mental health issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts and demographics: personal facts and characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors: current or future behavior </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK <ul><li>Question Wording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems that stem from difficulty understanding the question: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vague or imprecise terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical sentence structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phrasing that overloads working memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedding the question within misleading information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Constructing Questions <ul><li>Important considerations when writing questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity (avoid jargon, technical terms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-barreled questions (asking two things at once) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded questions (remove judgments, modifiers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative wording (do you feel the city should not approve the shelter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yea-saying and nay-saying </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS <ul><li>Closed- Versus Open-Ended Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Response Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic rating scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic differential scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal scale for children    </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labeling Response Alternatives </li></ul>
    9. 9. Finalizing the Questionnaire <ul><li>Formatting the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should appear attractive and professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neatly typed and free from errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use point scales consistently (*) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refining Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot questions with others </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. ADMINISTERING SURVEYS <ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal administration to groups or individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Computerized experience-sampling” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. ADMINISTERING SURVEYS <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: Interviewer bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Showing approval disapproval of responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer expectations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Survey Designs to Study Change over Time <ul><li>Questions Are the Same Each Time Surveyed </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks Changes Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Panel Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Two wave” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Three wave” </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. SAMPLING FROM A POPULATION <ul><li>Sample Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A larger sample size reduces the size of the confidence interval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two basic techniques for sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each member of the population has a specifiable probability/chance of being chosen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonprobability sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown probability/chance of any member being chosen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Probability sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple random sampling – equal probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified random sampling – divided into subgroups (strata) and random samples are taken from each strata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster sampling – identify clusters and sample from three clusters </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Nonprobability Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haphazard sampling – convenience sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposive sampling – sample meets predetermined criterion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quota sampling – sample reflects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. EVALUATING SAMPLES <ul><li>Representative of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual population from which the sample is drawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of participant that will be excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- % of respondents who complete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Using Convenience Samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less costly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be representative </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. Chapter 8: Experimental Design
    18. 20. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Describe the relationship between a confounding variable and the internal validity of an experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the post-test only design and the pretest-posttest design, including the advantages and disadvantages of each design </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast and independent groups design with a repeated measures design </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of using a repeated measures design </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a matched pairs design, including reasons to use this design </li></ul>
    19. 21. CONFOUNDING AND INTERNAL VALIDITY <ul><li>Confounding Variable: confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so one cannot determine which is responsible for the effect </li></ul>
    20. 22. BASIC EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Posttest-Only Design </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain two equivalent groups of participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduce the independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest-Posttest Design </li></ul><ul><li>A pretest is given before the experimental manipulation is introduced to make sure groups are equivalent at the beginning of the experiment </li></ul>
    22. 24. Pretest-Posttest Design <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality (dropout factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Assess equivalency of groups with small sample size </li></ul><ul><li>Can use to select participants for the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming and awkward to administer </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitize participants to what is being studied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces external validity </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. ASSIGNING PARTICIPANTS EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS <ul><li>Independent Groups Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants participate in only one group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeated Measures Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants Are in All Conditions </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN <ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated Measures Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely sensitive to statistical differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions are identical because person is own control group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Practice effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Fatigue effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Contrast effect </li></ul></ul></ul>