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Chapters 3 4 5


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Chapters 3 4 5

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3: Ethical Research
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the three ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report: beneficence, autonomy, and justice </li></ul><ul><li>List the information contained in an informed consent form </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss potential problems obtaining informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the purpose of debriefing research participants </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the function of an Institutional Review Board </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast the categories of risk involved in research activities: exempt, minimal risk, and greater than minimal risk </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research with human participants </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how potential risks and benefits of research are evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the ethical issue surrounding misrepresentation of research findings </li></ul>
  3. 3. MILGRAM’S OBEDIENCE EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Study of the phenomenon of obedience to an authority figure </li></ul><ul><li>Examined the effects of punishment on learning (Shock treatment for mistakes) </li></ul><ul><li>Results challenged beliefs about our ability to resist authority </li></ul><ul><li>Important for understanding obedience in real life situations, e.g. the Holocaust </li></ul>
  4. 4. BELMONT REPORT <ul><li>The Belmont Report (1979): Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy (respect for persons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ASSESSMENTS OF RISKS AND BENEFITS <ul><li>Risks in Psychological Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of privacy and confidentiality </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. INFORMED CONSENT <ul><li>Informed Consent Form </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Information Issues: Withholding Information and Deception </li></ul><ul><li>Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in Psychological Research? </li></ul>
  7. 8. THE IMPORTANCE OF DEBRIEFING <ul><li>Opportunity for the researcher to deal with issues of withholding information, deception, and potential harmful effects of the participation </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why deception was necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Provide additional resources, if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure participant leaves the experiment without any unresolved feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an opportunity to explain the purpose of the study and anticipated results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most participants report positive experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research suggests that it is effective </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. ALTERNATIVES OF DECEPTION <ul><li>Role-Playing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks participants how they would respond to a certain situation or to predict how others would respond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulation Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation on role-playing that involves simulation of a real world situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Honest Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants are made completely aware of the purposes of the research </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. JUSTICE AND THE SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS <ul><li>Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice principle requires researchers to address issues of equity </li></ul><ul><li>Any decisions to include or exclude certain people from a study must be justified on scientific grounds </li></ul>
  10. 11. RESEARCHER COMMITMENTS <ul><li>“ Contracts” with Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuality </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of Details to Participant </li></ul><ul><li>Course Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Details that Maintain Trust Between Participants and Researchers </li></ul>
  11. 12. FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND THE INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD <ul><li>Exempt Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research in which there is no risk of harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimal Risk Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the risk of harm is no greater that risk encountered in daily life or routine physical or psychological tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater Than Minimal Risk Research </li></ul><ul><li>IRB Impact on Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased time for approval of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submissions often need to be revised or clarified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very cautious around approval </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. APA ETHICS CODE <ul><li>5 General Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for the rights and dignity of others </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. APA ETHICS CODE <ul><li>Ten Ethical Standards Address Specific Issues Concerning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct of psychologists in teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. RESEARCH WITH HUMAN PARTICIPANTS <ul><li>8.01 Institutional Approval </li></ul><ul><li>8.02 Informed Consent to Research </li></ul><ul><li>8.03 Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research </li></ul><ul><li>8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants </li></ul><ul><li>8.05 Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research </li></ul><ul><li>8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation </li></ul><ul><li>8.07 Deception in Research </li></ul><ul><li>8.08 Debriefing </li></ul>
  15. 16. MISREPRESENTATION <ul><li>8.10 Reporting Research Results </li></ul><ul><li>8.11 Plagiarism </li></ul>
  16. 17. Chapter 4: Studying Behavior
  17. 18. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Define variable and describe the four categories of variables: situational, response, participant, and mediating variables </li></ul><ul><li>Define operational definition of a variable </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different relationships between variables: positive, negative, curvilinear, and no relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast nonexperimental and experimental research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the three elements for inferring causation: temporal order, covariation of cause and effect, and elimination of alternative explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the advantage of using multiple methods of research </li></ul>
  18. 19. VARIABLES <ul><li>Four General Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant or subject variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediating variables </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF VARIABLES <ul><li>Variable is an abstract concept that must be translated into concrete forms of observation or manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Studied empirically </li></ul><ul><li>Help communicate ideas to others </li></ul>
  21. 22. Relationships <ul><li>Positive Linear Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in one variable relate to increases in another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Linear Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in one variable relative to decreases in another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curvilinear Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in one variable relative to both increases and decreases in another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation coefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships and Reduction of Uncertainty </li></ul>
  23. 24. NONEXPERIMENTAL VERSUS EXPERIMENTAL METHODS <ul><li>Nonexperimental Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction of Cause and Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Third-Variable Problem (confounding variable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomization </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. NONEXPERIMENTAL VERSUS EXPERIMENTAL METHODS <ul><li>The causal possibilities in a non-experimental study </li></ul>
  26. 27. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES <ul><ul><li>Independent = Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent = Effect </li></ul></ul>Dependent variable y-axis Independent variable x-axis
  27. 28. Choosing a Method: Advantages of Multiple Methods <ul><li>Artificiality of Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical and Practical Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Predictions of Future Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of Multiple Methods </li></ul>
  28. 29. Critically Evaluating Research   Construct Validity External Validity Evaluate the adequacy of the operational definition. Is the operational definition sufficiently measuring the construct it claims to measure? Evaluate the extent that the results can generalize to other populations and settings. Can the results be replicated with other participants? Can the results be replicated in other settings? Internal Validity Evaluate the extent that it was the independent variable that caused the changes or differences in the dependent variable. Are there alternative explanations (confounds)?
  29. 30. Chapter 5: Methods in Behavioral Research
  30. 31. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Define reliability of a measure of behavior and describe the difference between test-retest, internal consistency, and interrater reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the problem of reactivity of a measure of behavior and discuss ways to minimize reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the properties of the four scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio </li></ul>
  31. 32. RELIABILITY OF MEASURES <ul><li>Test-Retest Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessed by measuring the same individuals two points in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to artificiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to maturation </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. RELIABILITY OF MEASURES <ul><li>Interrater Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between the observations of raters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Accuracy of Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability indexes do not indicate whether a particular measure is an accurate measure of the variable of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure can be highly reliable, but not accurate </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. RESEARCH ON PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES <ul><li>Systematic and detailed research on validity is most often carried out on measures of personality and individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Should use measures of personality that have demonstrable validity and reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Mental Measurement Yearbook </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. REACTIVITY OF MEASURES <ul><li>Measure Is Reactive if Awareness of Being Measured Changes an Individual’s Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of Behavior Vary in Terms of Their Potential Reactivity </li></ul>
  35. 36. VARIABLES AND MEASUREMENT SCALES <ul><li>Nominal Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Interval and Ratio Scales </li></ul><ul><li>The Importance of the Measurement Scales </li></ul>
  36. 37. EXAMPLE OF A NOMINAL SCALE _______Not Attractive _______Attractive EXAMPLE OF A INTERVAL/RATIO SCALE Very Unattractive-----------------Very Attractive