Veronica Diaz, PhD
<ul><li>Introductions  </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus /Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Gmail account setup </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Deliverables  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Proposal  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul...
<ul><li>12/3 CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.doodle.ch/participation.html?pollId=sga324davc2wdnfu   </li></ul><ul><li>1...
<ul><li>Create a Gmail account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to google.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to gmail  </li></ul></...
<ul><li>DISCLAIMERS  </li></ul><ul><li>These online office tools are not as robust as MS Office programs </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Simplified MSWord-like Toolbar  </li></ul><ul><li>Share work  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Career aspirations in 5 years  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background in research and statistics </li></ul></ul...
Scientific Understanding of Behavior
<ul><li>Explain the reasons for understanding research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the scientific approach to learn...
<ul><li>Increasingly important in public policy and judicial decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Important when developing and ass...
<ul><li>Organizations are increasingly becoming data-driven organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Analytics in HED </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Limitations of Intuition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuition relies unquestioningly on personal judgment  </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Skepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falsif...
 
<ul><li>Hypotheses generated are not typically testable </li></ul><ul><li>If scientific tests are reported, methodology is...
<ul><li>Description of Behavior [notes] </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the Causes ...
<ul><li>Basic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental questions about the nature of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Comparing Basic and Applied Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither is considered superior to the other </li></ul><...
<ul><li>How to Write a Research Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Research Proposal Guides and Other Resources </li></ul><ul><li>...
Where to Start
<ul><li>Discuss how a hypothesis differs from a prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different sources of ideas for r...
<ul><li>Hypothesis:  A tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it </li></ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>Sources of Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of the World Around Us ...
 
<ul><li>The journal has “instructions to authors” about the submission guidelines and peer-review process.  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>NAU Library:  http://library.nau.edu/   </li></ul><ul><li>Custom tutorials  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.nau....
Some  PsychINFO  search strategies Strategy 1: Use fields such as TI and AU. Example: ( divorce) in TI  requires that a te...
<ul><li>Searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://scholar.google.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional meeting searches...
<ul><li>COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
<ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A summary of the research report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120 words or less </li>...
<ul><li>Method Section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsections depend on complexity of the design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Discussion section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review research from various perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres...
<ul><li>Use as a reference  </li></ul><ul><li>Writing style  </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>APA style tu...
<ul><li>Analytical framework  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
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Chapters 1 And 2

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  • Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • Chapters 1 And 2

    1. 1. Veronica Diaz, PhD
    2. 2. <ul><li>Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus /Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Gmail account setup </li></ul><ul><li>Google docs overview </li></ul><ul><li>Work in Google docs </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters 1, 2, Appendix A </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RP Draft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RP Final </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 anatomy questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical frame review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course exam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Readings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cozby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles (proposal research and CD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grading </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverables and points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Course management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/drvdiaz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Docs </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>12/3 CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.doodle.ch/participation.html?pollId=sga324davc2wdnfu </li></ul><ul><li>10/29 CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.doodle.ch/participation.html?pollId=2sx94reescy9hv4v </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Create a Gmail account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to google.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to gmail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign in or sign up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Go to http://tinyurl.com/6p3kvp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in your gmail account </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Google Docs tour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.google.com/google-d-s/tour1.html </li></ul></ul>Source: Shelley Rodrigo http://maricopatech.wetpaint.com/page/Google+Docs
    6. 6. <ul><li>DISCLAIMERS </li></ul><ul><li>These online office tools are not as robust as MS Office programs </li></ul><ul><li>Does not yet interface (upload or download) in MS Office 2007 file formats </li></ul><ul><li>Need to set up a Gmail account to use </li></ul><ul><li>TIPS </li></ul><ul><li>If you need polished formatting, develop content in Google Docs then download to Office to do final formatting and printing </li></ul><ul><li>Can insert comments, tables, headers/footers, etc. </li></ul>Source: Shelley Rodrigo http://maricopatech.wetpaint.com/page/Google+Docs
    7. 7. <ul><li>Simplified MSWord-like Toolbar </li></ul><ul><li>Share work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborators-people can make changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewers-view only mode </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directions on how to share docs with others </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking revisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;history&quot; of changes that are made, can revert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exporting different file types </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates drafting process </li></ul>Source: Shelley Rodrigo http://maricopatech.wetpaint.com/page/Google+Docs
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Career aspirations in 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background in research and statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergraduate major </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Scientific Understanding of Behavior
    10. 10. <ul><li>Explain the reasons for understanding research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the scientific approach to learning about behavior, and contrast it with pseudoscientific research </li></ul><ul><li>Define and give examples of the four goals of scientific research: description, prediction, determination of cause, and explanation of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Define and describe basic and applied research </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Increasingly important in public policy and judicial decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Important when developing and assessing the effectiveness of goal oriented programs </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Organizations are increasingly becoming data-driven organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Analytics in HED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrollment management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early-Alert </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Limitations of Intuition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuition relies unquestioningly on personal judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erroneous conclusions about cause and effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illusory correlation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News media, Books, Government officials, Religious figures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations of Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many believe statements based on authority; scientific approach rejects this notion and requires much more evidence before conclusions can be drawn </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Skepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falsifiability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Credentials </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Verifiability </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Hypotheses generated are not typically testable </li></ul><ul><li>If scientific tests are reported, methodology is not scientific and validity of data is questionable </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive evidence is anecdotal and does not cite scientific references </li></ul><ul><li>Claims tend to be vague, and appeal to pre-conceived ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Claims ignore conflicting evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Claims are never revised </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Description of Behavior [notes] </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the Causes of Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal precedence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covariation of the cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative explanations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation of Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining “why” something is happening or not </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Basic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental questions about the nature of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical issues often concern basic phenomena such as cognition, emotion, motivation, learning, psychobiology, personality development, and social behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have no practical application. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted to address issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal justice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Comparing Basic and Applied Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither is considered superior to the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied research is often guided by theories and findings of basic research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings in applied settings often require modification of existing theories and spur more basic research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic research is crucial to public policy </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>How to Write a Research Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Research Proposal Guides and Other Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Dissertation Proposal Workshop </li></ul>
    20. 21. Where to Start
    21. 22. <ul><li>Discuss how a hypothesis differs from a prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different sources of ideas for research, including common sense, observation, theories, past research, and practical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the two functions of a theory </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the fundamentals of conducting library research in psychology, including the use of PsycINFO </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the information included in the abstract, introduction, method, results, and discussion sections of research articles </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Hypothesis: A tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction: A statement that makes an assertion concerning what will occur in a particular research investigation </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>Sources of Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of the World Around Us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize and explain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generate new knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modified by new research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminology: Who We Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants (APA preferred) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informants </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>The journal has “instructions to authors” about the submission guidelines and peer-review process. </li></ul><ul><li>The article is written by the researchers that conducted the study. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the title and author information, the article includes abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion and reference sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts in the author’s field </li></ul><ul><li>review the theoretical basis, methodology, statistical analyses and interpretation of findings. </li></ul><ul><li>The editor and/or reviewers decide whether or not to accept the article for publication. </li></ul><ul><li>The intended audience is scholars that have knowledge in or are interested in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>The article is not written for profit. </li></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><li>NAU Library: http://library.nau.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Custom tutorials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.nau.edu/jaggers/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Nature of Journals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where researchers publish the results of their studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Abstracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PsycINFO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic index of all abstracts from 1800s to present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PsycFIRST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic index of all abstracts published in last 3 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Know the journals in your field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://homepages.wmich.edu/~abeach/HEjournals.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.kennesaw.edu/cetl/resources/journals.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERIC: www.eric.ed.gov/ journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CC Review: http://crw.sagepub.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSCC: http://www.cscconline.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Snowball research </li></ul>
    26. 28. Some PsychINFO search strategies Strategy 1: Use fields such as TI and AU. Example: ( divorce) in TI requires that a term appear in the title Strategy 2: Use AND to limit search Example: divorce AND child requires both terms to be included Strategy 3: Use OR to expand search. Example: divorce OR breakup includes both terms. Strategy 4: Use NOT to exclude search terms. Example: shyness NOT therapy excludes shyness with therapy Strategy 5: Use the wildcard asterisk (*) Example: child* finds any word that begins with these letters
    27. 29. <ul><li>Searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://scholar.google.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional meeting searches </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR PROPOSAL </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A summary of the research report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120 words or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the hypothesis, procedure, and the broad pattern of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be easiest to write this at the end </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines the problems investigated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past research and theories relevant to the problems described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal hypotheses or specific expectations are introduced and connected to past research </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. <ul><li>Method Section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsections depend on complexity of the design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment or testing materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will your study address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think you’ll find (educated guess) </li></ul></ul>
    31. 33. <ul><li>Discussion section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review research from various perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present methodological weaknesses and/or strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how the results compare with past results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include suggestions for practical applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include suggestions for future research on the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings presented three ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description in narrative form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description in statistical language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material in table or graphs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>Use as a reference </li></ul><ul><li>Writing style </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>APA style tutorial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://gseacademic.harvard.edu/~instruct/articulate/APA/player.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample paper </li></ul>
    33. 35. <ul><li>Analytical framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review a few </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic ideas on common google doc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create your own and share with Veronica </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.educause.edu/PressReleases/TopTenITIssuesinHigherEducatio/118610 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.aascu.org/media/pm/pdf/topten2008.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.aascu.org/policy_matters/topten2008.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Review/TopTenITIssues2006/40631 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.nea.org/he/hottoc.html </li></ul></ul>

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