SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 22
Download to read offline
Introduction to Social NormsIntroduction to Social Norms
Dr John McAlaney
University of Bradford
Social normsSocial norms
 How we behave as individuals is strongly influenced by
what we perceive to be the norm for our peers
 This is especially true for young adults, where perceived
norms can actually be the single strongest predictor of
behaviours like alcohol and smoking
 However, as demonstrated in the American college
system and more recently in Europe, people very often
misperceive how other people behave
 Young adults in particular markedly overestimate
substance use in their peers
ExampleExample
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Never or
veryrarely
Less than
once a
month
Once a
month
2 - 3 days a
month
1 daya
week
2 days a
week
3 - 4 days a
week
5 - 6 days a
week
Everyday
Frequency of drinking (days per month)
Percentageofresponses
Personal behavior
Perceived norm in other students
Students in the UKStudents in the UK
• Survey of university and college students at 200 UK sites
Behaviour/ attitude Reported norm Perceived norm
Frequency of alcohol consumption
Number of drinks
Twice a month
6 drinks
Three to four days a week
8 drinks
Smoking in last 30 days 30% 50 – 59%
Leaving drinks unattended
Leaving belongings unattended
Riding with a drunk driver
Never
Never
14%
Sometimes
Sometimes
30 – 39%
Cannabis use
Approval of cannabis use
Other drug use
Approval of other drug use
Never
Disapprove
Never
Strongly disapprove
Five to six times a year
Neither
Rarely
Disapprove
Number of sexual partners
Unsafe sex
1
Never
3
Three to four times a year
Causes of misperceptionCauses of misperception
 Pluralistic ignorance – Individuals believe themselves to
be different than their peers, such as a light, infrequent
drinker who observes their peers in a bar and assumes
that they are regular drinkers
 False consensus – Individuals believe their behaviour to
be more common than is the case, such as a heavy
drinker believing that most of their peers also drink
heavily
 Media – TV programmes and news reports may also
reinforce misperceptions
Media coverageMedia coverage
• Third of Brits binge drink once a week… a
quarter of over 45s drink EVERY day’ – The Sun,
UK
• ‘Teens in grip of grog’ – The Herald Sun,
Australia
• ‘Danish teenagers drink three times more than
Russians’ – Danish news website
Types of normTypes of norm
 Descriptive norms refer to beliefs about what other
people actually do – for example the perception of how
many people in your peer group use drugs
 Injunctive norms refer to beliefs about the attitudes
that other people hold – for example the perception of
whether people in your peer group condone drug use
 To date research has focussed primarily on descriptive
norms but projects which incorporate both types are
becoming more common
Traditional approachesTraditional approaches
Traditional approachesTraditional approaches
Traditional approachesTraditional approaches
Social norms approachSocial norms approach
 Traditional forms of drug education often rely on
depicting extreme negative consequences of drug use
 Whilst people may have a high recall rate for these
types of messages there is little evidence that they are
effective in changing behaviour
 The social norms approach uses an alternative
technique based on a very simple premise – if you can
correct the misperceptions that people hold then
alcohol and drug use will fall
Social norms approachSocial norms approach
Social norms approachSocial norms approach
Online and personalised messagesOnline and personalised messages
School activitiesSchool activities
Full report available at www.eudap.net
School activitiesSchool activities
Full report available at www.eudap.net
Social norms approachSocial norms approach
 There are several key differences between the social norms
approach and traditional behaviour change strategies:
 It does not use scare tactics
 It does not contain a moral undertone on how the
population ‘should’ behave
 It is a participatory process which includes members of the
target population
 Overall the approach operates by praising the healthy
behaviour of the majority, rather than focussing on the
negative behaviour of the minority
Efficacy of the approachEfficacy of the approach
 Over a six year period of using the approach the
University of Virginia have noted:
 A 113% increase in students experiencing no alcohol-
related negative consequences
 A 57% decrease in experiencing multiple alcohol-related
negative consequences
 A 24% decrease in students reaching an eBAC of 0.08
when partying
 Further evidence has also been provided by a recent
systematic review by Moreira & Foxcroft (2009)
BehavioursBehaviours
 Social norms research has now been conducted on a
range of behaviours including –
 Smoking
 Drug use
 Sexual health
 Cancer screening
 Bullying
 Body image
 Recycling
 Driving
 Energy conservation
Hotel linen re-useHotel linen re-use
Goldstein et al (2007)Goldstein et al (2007)
 Cards were left in hotel rooms to encourage linen re-
use
 Benefit to the hotel card – 16% reduction
 Social responsibility card – 30% reduction
 Environmental appeal card – 30% reduction
 Social norms card – 44% reduction
 The card with the social norms message was the most
effective, despite the fact that hotel guests had never
met the person who had stayed in the room previously
or observed their towel use
Challenges and limitationsChallenges and limitations
 The social norms approach appears to be effective in
changing behaviour in the majority, but it is not
intended as a substitute for clinical treatment in the
heaviest users of drugs
 It is based on a goal of reduction rather than
eradication, which may not always be popular with
stakeholders
 The precise mechanisms through which misperceptions
can be created and manipulated are still partly
speculative, there is a need for more research
Reactions to the social normsReactions to the social norms
approachapproach
 ‘Idea of the Year’ – New York Times Magazine,2001
 “…we need to use the strengths of the social norms
approach, together with the strengths of other experiences,
to overcome huge behavioural challenges” Robert
Madelin, EU Director General for Health and
Consumer Protection, 2009
 “I am convinced that it is a relatively simple and cost-
effective means of achieving behavioural change. Most
importantly, it is positive rather than negative. It does not
condemn, preach or use scare tactics, and it works!” Dr Bill
Wilson, MSP, 2008

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Prejudice
 Prejudice Prejudice
Prejudice
 
Chapter 7 - Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
Chapter 7 - Deviance, Crime, and Social ControlChapter 7 - Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
Chapter 7 - Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
 
Norms, sanctions and values
Norms, sanctions and valuesNorms, sanctions and values
Norms, sanctions and values
 
Lecture 2, introduction to sociology
Lecture 2,  introduction to sociologyLecture 2,  introduction to sociology
Lecture 2, introduction to sociology
 
Psychology of gender
Psychology of genderPsychology of gender
Psychology of gender
 
Norms and values.pptx
Norms and values.pptxNorms and values.pptx
Norms and values.pptx
 
4 social norms; types and formation
4 social norms; types and formation4 social norms; types and formation
4 social norms; types and formation
 
Characteristics of culture
Characteristics of cultureCharacteristics of culture
Characteristics of culture
 
Research methods in sociology
Research methods in sociologyResearch methods in sociology
Research methods in sociology
 
social norm
social normsocial norm
social norm
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Culture and Identity
Culture and IdentityCulture and Identity
Culture and Identity
 
Crime and deviance
Crime and devianceCrime and deviance
Crime and deviance
 
Norms
NormsNorms
Norms
 
ethical and social research
ethical and social researchethical and social research
ethical and social research
 
Sociological research
Sociological researchSociological research
Sociological research
 
Social research
Social researchSocial research
Social research
 
social change
 social change social change
social change
 
Theoretical perspectives in sociology
Theoretical perspectives in sociologyTheoretical perspectives in sociology
Theoretical perspectives in sociology
 
Crime and deviance
Crime and devianceCrime and deviance
Crime and deviance
 

Viewers also liked

Ethics in Islam - Fundamental of Ethics
Ethics in Islam - Fundamental of EthicsEthics in Islam - Fundamental of Ethics
Ethics in Islam - Fundamental of EthicsMOHD GHADAFI SHARI
 
Allen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPT
Allen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPTAllen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPT
Allen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPTpearsonedhealthprof
 
Ethics vs morals
Ethics vs moralsEthics vs morals
Ethics vs moralsrrkslg
 
Culture, norms and values 1
Culture, norms and values 1Culture, norms and values 1
Culture, norms and values 1fatima d
 
Norms, Values and Sanctions
Norms, Values and SanctionsNorms, Values and Sanctions
Norms, Values and Sanctionssteviesteve7000
 
factors influencing ethical behaviors
factors influencing ethical behaviorsfactors influencing ethical behaviors
factors influencing ethical behaviorsuonenifsha
 
clothing for different culture and religion
clothing for different culture and religionclothing for different culture and religion
clothing for different culture and religionLily Bhagat
 
Legal and ethical issues in critical care nursing
Legal and ethical issues in critical care nursingLegal and ethical issues in critical care nursing
Legal and ethical issues in critical care nursingNursing Path
 
Ch 5 social responsibility and managerial ethics
Ch 5 social responsibility and managerial ethicsCh 5 social responsibility and managerial ethics
Ch 5 social responsibility and managerial ethicsNardin A
 
Ch 1 mgt3201 business ethics
Ch 1 mgt3201 business ethicsCh 1 mgt3201 business ethics
Ch 1 mgt3201 business ethicscacing2
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Ethics in Islam - Fundamental of Ethics
Ethics in Islam - Fundamental of EthicsEthics in Islam - Fundamental of Ethics
Ethics in Islam - Fundamental of Ethics
 
Allen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPT
Allen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPTAllen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPT
Allen: Engaging Students in Medical Law and Ethics PPT
 
Ethics and morality
Ethics and moralityEthics and morality
Ethics and morality
 
Ethics vs morals
Ethics vs moralsEthics vs morals
Ethics vs morals
 
Norms[1]
Norms[1]Norms[1]
Norms[1]
 
Norms
NormsNorms
Norms
 
Chapter 3 culture
Chapter 3 cultureChapter 3 culture
Chapter 3 culture
 
moral values
moral valuesmoral values
moral values
 
Sanctions
SanctionsSanctions
Sanctions
 
Culture, norms and values 1
Culture, norms and values 1Culture, norms and values 1
Culture, norms and values 1
 
Norms, Values and Sanctions
Norms, Values and SanctionsNorms, Values and Sanctions
Norms, Values and Sanctions
 
factors influencing ethical behaviors
factors influencing ethical behaviorsfactors influencing ethical behaviors
factors influencing ethical behaviors
 
clothing for different culture and religion
clothing for different culture and religionclothing for different culture and religion
clothing for different culture and religion
 
Ethics in sports management
Ethics in sports managementEthics in sports management
Ethics in sports management
 
Legal and ethical issues in critical care nursing
Legal and ethical issues in critical care nursingLegal and ethical issues in critical care nursing
Legal and ethical issues in critical care nursing
 
02 value and ethics
02 value and ethics02 value and ethics
02 value and ethics
 
Ch 5 social responsibility and managerial ethics
Ch 5 social responsibility and managerial ethicsCh 5 social responsibility and managerial ethics
Ch 5 social responsibility and managerial ethics
 
Ethics
EthicsEthics
Ethics
 
Ch 1 mgt3201 business ethics
Ch 1 mgt3201 business ethicsCh 1 mgt3201 business ethics
Ch 1 mgt3201 business ethics
 
Ethics
EthicsEthics
Ethics
 

Similar to Introduction to Social Norms and Their Impact on Behavior

Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16   Prevention Of Substance AbuseChapter 16   Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance AbuseJustin Gatewood
 
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docx
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docxThe Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docx
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docxwrite5
 
substance use in children and young adults
substance use in children and young adultssubstance use in children and young adults
substance use in children and young adultsHimanshi Walia
 
81-240-1 Chapter 06
81-240-1 Chapter 0681-240-1 Chapter 06
81-240-1 Chapter 06mpalaro
 
Join the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docx
Join the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docxJoin the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docx
Join the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docxchristiandean12115
 
Perception Final plans book
Perception Final plans bookPerception Final plans book
Perception Final plans bookJocelyn Martinez
 
Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...
Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...
Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...Dr. J
 
Sub m mw actual
Sub m mw actualSub m mw actual
Sub m mw actualmwalsh2015
 
What works in prevention: education and awareness
What works in prevention: education and awarenessWhat works in prevention: education and awareness
What works in prevention: education and awarenessWorkingwithsubstanceabuse
 
DRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWN
DRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWNDRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWN
DRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWNRomitBishayi
 
Role of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptx
Role of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptxRole of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptx
Role of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptxANJANAPNATURALSCIENC
 
Moving forward by changing the narrative ucc
Moving forward by changing the narrative uccMoving forward by changing the narrative ucc
Moving forward by changing the narrative uccTim Bingham
 
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16Michelle Meyer
 
Action research on drug safety assestment
Action research on drug safety assestmentAction research on drug safety assestment
Action research on drug safety assestmentReymart Bargamento
 
RESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptx
RESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptxRESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptx
RESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptxbonface29
 
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9Michelle Cottrell
 
Using web based applications for substance abuse prevention
Using web based applications for substance abuse preventionUsing web based applications for substance abuse prevention
Using web based applications for substance abuse preventionTom Wilson
 
Earn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docx
Earn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docxEarn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docx
Earn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docxmadlynplamondon
 
Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...
Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...
Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...Mat Southwell
 

Similar to Introduction to Social Norms and Their Impact on Behavior (20)

Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16   Prevention Of Substance AbuseChapter 16   Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
 
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docx
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docxThe Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docx
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.docx
 
substance use in children and young adults
substance use in children and young adultssubstance use in children and young adults
substance use in children and young adults
 
81-240-1 Chapter 06
81-240-1 Chapter 0681-240-1 Chapter 06
81-240-1 Chapter 06
 
Join the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docx
Join the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docxJoin the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docx
Join the SociologyCriminology Club along with Alpha Kappa Del.docx
 
Perception Final plans book
Perception Final plans bookPerception Final plans book
Perception Final plans book
 
Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...
Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...
Kyle molina harm reduction midterm project unm crp 275 community change in a ...
 
Sub m mw actual
Sub m mw actualSub m mw actual
Sub m mw actual
 
What works in prevention: education and awareness
What works in prevention: education and awarenessWhat works in prevention: education and awareness
What works in prevention: education and awareness
 
DRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWN
DRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWNDRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWN
DRUG ADDICTION AMONGST YOUTH IN LOCKDOWN
 
Investing in youth tobacco control
Investing in youth tobacco controlInvesting in youth tobacco control
Investing in youth tobacco control
 
Role of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptx
Role of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptxRole of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptx
Role of education to Curb-Drug abuse and Alcoholism.pptx
 
Moving forward by changing the narrative ucc
Moving forward by changing the narrative uccMoving forward by changing the narrative ucc
Moving forward by changing the narrative ucc
 
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16
 
Action research on drug safety assestment
Action research on drug safety assestmentAction research on drug safety assestment
Action research on drug safety assestment
 
RESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptx
RESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptxRESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptx
RESEARCH__METHODS[1].pptx
 
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9
SOC 204 Goldberg Ch 16 Week 9
 
Using web based applications for substance abuse prevention
Using web based applications for substance abuse preventionUsing web based applications for substance abuse prevention
Using web based applications for substance abuse prevention
 
Earn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docx
Earn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docxEarn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docx
Earn 4.0 Contact HoursAbstrActIndividuals who have.docx
 
Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...
Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...
Respect presentation - \'Grassroots strategies to overcome legal barriers to ...
 

More from Public Health England

Novel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD report
Novel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD reportNovel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD report
Novel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD reportPublic Health England
 
Drug use by young people in England in 2010
Drug use by young people in England in 2010Drug use by young people in England in 2010
Drug use by young people in England in 2010Public Health England
 
Drug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City Schools
Drug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City SchoolsDrug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City Schools
Drug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City SchoolsPublic Health England
 
Presentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task Group
Presentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task GroupPresentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task Group
Presentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task GroupPublic Health England
 
Local authority spending on young people’s substance misuse
Local authority spending on young people’s substance misuseLocal authority spending on young people’s substance misuse
Local authority spending on young people’s substance misusePublic Health England
 

More from Public Health England (20)

DEF briefing papers
DEF briefing papersDEF briefing papers
DEF briefing papers
 
Novel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD report
Novel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD reportNovel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD report
Novel Psychoactive Substances - ACMD report
 
opiate and crack users
opiate and crack usersopiate and crack users
opiate and crack users
 
Drug Misuse Declared
Drug Misuse DeclaredDrug Misuse Declared
Drug Misuse Declared
 
Drug Deaths in 2010
Drug Deaths in 2010Drug Deaths in 2010
Drug Deaths in 2010
 
Drinking 2010
Drinking 2010Drinking 2010
Drinking 2010
 
Drug use by young people in England in 2010
Drug use by young people in England in 2010Drug use by young people in England in 2010
Drug use by young people in England in 2010
 
ASB and Possession stats 2011
ASB and Possession stats 2011ASB and Possession stats 2011
ASB and Possession stats 2011
 
EU Youth’s Attitudes to Drugs
EU Youth’s Attitudes to DrugsEU Youth’s Attitudes to Drugs
EU Youth’s Attitudes to Drugs
 
Drug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City Schools
Drug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City SchoolsDrug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City Schools
Drug Education and Early Intervention in Nottingham City Schools
 
LSE's PSHE Project
LSE's PSHE ProjectLSE's PSHE Project
LSE's PSHE Project
 
PSHE Mapping Study
PSHE Mapping StudyPSHE Mapping Study
PSHE Mapping Study
 
Effective visitors
Effective visitorsEffective visitors
Effective visitors
 
Prevention and reduction - schools
Prevention and reduction - schoolsPrevention and reduction - schools
Prevention and reduction - schools
 
PSHE Review
PSHE ReviewPSHE Review
PSHE Review
 
Principles of Good Drug Education
Principles of Good Drug EducationPrinciples of Good Drug Education
Principles of Good Drug Education
 
Alcohol in Europe
Alcohol in EuropeAlcohol in Europe
Alcohol in Europe
 
Presentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task Group
Presentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task GroupPresentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task Group
Presentation to Richmond upon Thames Drug Misuse Task Group
 
Early Intervention
Early InterventionEarly Intervention
Early Intervention
 
Local authority spending on young people’s substance misuse
Local authority spending on young people’s substance misuseLocal authority spending on young people’s substance misuse
Local authority spending on young people’s substance misuse
 

Recently uploaded

HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...kumarpriyanshu81
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...pragatimahajan3
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrancejulius27264
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024St.John's College
 
647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi
647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi
647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfijoemmbrillantes
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLspmdoc
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfExecutive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfTechSoup
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17Celine George
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
HackerOne X IoT Lab Bug Bounty 101 with Encryptsaan & IoT Lab at KIIT Univers...
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF  NAT...
LEVERAGING SYNERGISM INDUSTRY-ACADEMIA PARTNERSHIP FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NAT...
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
Basic cosmetics prepared by my student Mr. Balamurugan, II Maths, 2023-2024
 
647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi
647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi
647291105-Ppt-Arts-10-4th-Quarter-1.pdfi
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdfExecutive Directors Chat  Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
Executive Directors Chat Initiating Equity for Impact.pdf
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 3) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 

Introduction to Social Norms and Their Impact on Behavior

  • 1. Introduction to Social NormsIntroduction to Social Norms Dr John McAlaney University of Bradford
  • 2. Social normsSocial norms  How we behave as individuals is strongly influenced by what we perceive to be the norm for our peers  This is especially true for young adults, where perceived norms can actually be the single strongest predictor of behaviours like alcohol and smoking  However, as demonstrated in the American college system and more recently in Europe, people very often misperceive how other people behave  Young adults in particular markedly overestimate substance use in their peers
  • 3. ExampleExample 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Never or veryrarely Less than once a month Once a month 2 - 3 days a month 1 daya week 2 days a week 3 - 4 days a week 5 - 6 days a week Everyday Frequency of drinking (days per month) Percentageofresponses Personal behavior Perceived norm in other students
  • 4. Students in the UKStudents in the UK • Survey of university and college students at 200 UK sites Behaviour/ attitude Reported norm Perceived norm Frequency of alcohol consumption Number of drinks Twice a month 6 drinks Three to four days a week 8 drinks Smoking in last 30 days 30% 50 – 59% Leaving drinks unattended Leaving belongings unattended Riding with a drunk driver Never Never 14% Sometimes Sometimes 30 – 39% Cannabis use Approval of cannabis use Other drug use Approval of other drug use Never Disapprove Never Strongly disapprove Five to six times a year Neither Rarely Disapprove Number of sexual partners Unsafe sex 1 Never 3 Three to four times a year
  • 5. Causes of misperceptionCauses of misperception  Pluralistic ignorance – Individuals believe themselves to be different than their peers, such as a light, infrequent drinker who observes their peers in a bar and assumes that they are regular drinkers  False consensus – Individuals believe their behaviour to be more common than is the case, such as a heavy drinker believing that most of their peers also drink heavily  Media – TV programmes and news reports may also reinforce misperceptions
  • 6. Media coverageMedia coverage • Third of Brits binge drink once a week… a quarter of over 45s drink EVERY day’ – The Sun, UK • ‘Teens in grip of grog’ – The Herald Sun, Australia • ‘Danish teenagers drink three times more than Russians’ – Danish news website
  • 7. Types of normTypes of norm  Descriptive norms refer to beliefs about what other people actually do – for example the perception of how many people in your peer group use drugs  Injunctive norms refer to beliefs about the attitudes that other people hold – for example the perception of whether people in your peer group condone drug use  To date research has focussed primarily on descriptive norms but projects which incorporate both types are becoming more common
  • 11. Social norms approachSocial norms approach  Traditional forms of drug education often rely on depicting extreme negative consequences of drug use  Whilst people may have a high recall rate for these types of messages there is little evidence that they are effective in changing behaviour  The social norms approach uses an alternative technique based on a very simple premise – if you can correct the misperceptions that people hold then alcohol and drug use will fall
  • 12. Social norms approachSocial norms approach
  • 13. Social norms approachSocial norms approach
  • 14. Online and personalised messagesOnline and personalised messages
  • 15. School activitiesSchool activities Full report available at www.eudap.net
  • 16. School activitiesSchool activities Full report available at www.eudap.net
  • 17. Social norms approachSocial norms approach  There are several key differences between the social norms approach and traditional behaviour change strategies:  It does not use scare tactics  It does not contain a moral undertone on how the population ‘should’ behave  It is a participatory process which includes members of the target population  Overall the approach operates by praising the healthy behaviour of the majority, rather than focussing on the negative behaviour of the minority
  • 18. Efficacy of the approachEfficacy of the approach  Over a six year period of using the approach the University of Virginia have noted:  A 113% increase in students experiencing no alcohol- related negative consequences  A 57% decrease in experiencing multiple alcohol-related negative consequences  A 24% decrease in students reaching an eBAC of 0.08 when partying  Further evidence has also been provided by a recent systematic review by Moreira & Foxcroft (2009)
  • 19. BehavioursBehaviours  Social norms research has now been conducted on a range of behaviours including –  Smoking  Drug use  Sexual health  Cancer screening  Bullying  Body image  Recycling  Driving  Energy conservation
  • 20. Hotel linen re-useHotel linen re-use Goldstein et al (2007)Goldstein et al (2007)  Cards were left in hotel rooms to encourage linen re- use  Benefit to the hotel card – 16% reduction  Social responsibility card – 30% reduction  Environmental appeal card – 30% reduction  Social norms card – 44% reduction  The card with the social norms message was the most effective, despite the fact that hotel guests had never met the person who had stayed in the room previously or observed their towel use
  • 21. Challenges and limitationsChallenges and limitations  The social norms approach appears to be effective in changing behaviour in the majority, but it is not intended as a substitute for clinical treatment in the heaviest users of drugs  It is based on a goal of reduction rather than eradication, which may not always be popular with stakeholders  The precise mechanisms through which misperceptions can be created and manipulated are still partly speculative, there is a need for more research
  • 22. Reactions to the social normsReactions to the social norms approachapproach  ‘Idea of the Year’ – New York Times Magazine,2001  “…we need to use the strengths of the social norms approach, together with the strengths of other experiences, to overcome huge behavioural challenges” Robert Madelin, EU Director General for Health and Consumer Protection, 2009  “I am convinced that it is a relatively simple and cost- effective means of achieving behavioural change. Most importantly, it is positive rather than negative. It does not condemn, preach or use scare tactics, and it works!” Dr Bill Wilson, MSP, 2008