Voting elections and campaigns

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Voting elections and campaigns

  1. 1. Voting, Elections and Campaigns
  2. 2. Patterns in Voter Turnout• turnout - the proportion of the voting- age public that votes• Education and Income – Higher education  more likely to vote – Higher income  more likely to vote• Age – Over 30  more likely to vote
  3. 3. Patterns in Voter Turnout• Gender – About the same or women slightly more likely to vote• Race and Ethnicity – Whites tend to vote more regularly; may be education/income effects – Hispanic Americans less likely to vote than African Americans• Interest in Politics – More interested  more likely to vote
  4. 4. Why Is Voter Turnout So Low?• Too Busy• Difficulty of Registration – burden of registration on individual• Difficulty of Absentee Voting• Number of Elections – as in too many elections
  5. 5. Patterns in Vote Choice• Party Identification• Issues – retrospective judgment – evaluation of party in power – prospective judgment – evaluation of a candidate’s pledge
  6. 6. Types of Elections– primary elections – who will represent party in general election– closed primaries – only party’s registered voters can participate– open primaries – anyone is allowed to vote, even from other parties– crossover voting – participation in the other party’s primary– raiding – organized attempt to influence other party results
  7. 7. Types of Elections– runoff primary – occurs when there is no majority– general election – election to public office– initiative – citizens propose legislation– referendum – legislature proposes legislation– recall – remove an incumbent from office
  8. 8. Nomination Campaign• Begins at candidacy and ends at the party convention – Primaries versus Caucuses • primaries direct election, caucuses party meetings • front-loading – the tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar – The Party Conventions • nomination usually settled well in advance – Delegate Selection • delegates are usually more elite than average Americans
  9. 9. The Key Players• The Candidate• The Campaign Staff – volunteers are central to campaigns.• The Candidate’s Professional Staff – campaign manager – coordinates the campaign – finance chair – fund-raising – pollster – public opinion surveys – direct mailer – direct mail fund-raising – communications director – media strategy – press secretary – communicates with journalists – Internet team – web resources
  10. 10. The Electoral College• The Electoral College in the Nineteenth Century – confusion in 1800 – modified by the Twelfth Amendment – separate elections for president and vice president• The Electoral College in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries – Bush versus Gore (2000) – reapportionment – the reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives allocated to each state after each decennial census. – shifts in population could alter the political map
  11. 11. Congressional Elections• The Incumbency Advantage – people in office tend to remain in office. High rate of re- election, even when approval of Congress remarkably low…why? – Redistricting • redistricting – redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states as well as population shifts within a state. • gerrymandering – drawing of boundaries to product a particular electoral outcome – The Impact of Scandals • Most incumbents implicated in scandals retire or resign
  12. 12. Congressional Elections• Presidential Coattails – Successful presidential candidates carry into office congressional candidates of the same party in the same election• Midterm Elections – elections that take place in the middle of a presidential term – the incumbent party usually loses seats in midterm elections• The 2008 Congressional Elections – Democratic majority in both houses, plus the Presidency
  13. 13. The Media’s Role in the Campaign Process• Paid Media – political advertisements – positive ads – negative ads – contrast ads – inoculation ads• Free Media – news stories – controlled by editors, not candidates• The New Media – Internet – more information, more quickly – “rapid response” – first use of internet in 1992 – social networking sites

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