Art Appreciation     Topic VIII:Art Movements in the Later 19 th Century    c.1840-c.1914
French Academic Art (c.1840-1900)      Realism (c.1850-1900)    Victorian Art (c.1837-1901)The Pre-Raphaelites (c.1848-191...
The term “Academic Art” can be used to refer to all artinfluenced by the various established Academies, which began toprol...
The Romans of theDecadence by Couture
A Game of Piquet by Meissonier
TheCampaignof France,   1814    byMeissonier
Portrait ofAlexandreDumas fils    byMeissonier
Homage to Delacroix by Fantin-Latour
BlackBashi-Bazouk  byGérôme
Pygmalion   and Galatea    by Gérôme
The Birth of  Venus    byBouguereau
The Wave by Bouguereau
The Realist movement emerged in France in the mid-19thcentury as a reaction against the outdated strictures of academic ar...
Womanwith the Pearl   by Corot
Lady in Blue  by Corot
The Stone Breakers by Courbet
The Origin of the World by Courbet
Ratapoilby Daumier
The Third-Class Carriage by Daumier
The Angelus by Millet
TheBookworm    by Spitzweg
ThreeWomen in Church   by  Liebl
The Boatmen on the Volga        by Repin
During the lengthy reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901),Britain enjoyed an unrivaled period of economic prosperity andpolit...
Male  Nude, arms upstretched    by   Etty
The Sirens and Ulysses by Etty
EmpressJosephine and the Fortune-  Teller    by  Wilkie
TheMonarch of the  Glen   byLandseer
Trafalgar Square  Lions    byLandseer
Flaming  June   byLeighton
The Pre-Raphaelites burst upon the Englishart scene in the mid-19th century. In a youthful act ofrebellion, they vowed to ...
Ophelia  byMillais
TheBlind Girl  byMillais
TheLast ofEngland   by Brown
TheAwakeningConscience    by   Hunt
The Scapegoat by Hunt
Beloved  byRossetti
Lady Lilith  byRossetti
TheBeguilingof Merlin    by Burne- Jones
The Lady of Shallot by Waterhouse
The Impressionist movement originated and achieved its fullestdevelopment in France, although its impact was felt througho...
Olympia   by Manet
A Bar at  the Folies-Bergère   by Manet
Reading by Morisot
TheCradle  byMorisot
Lady at her Toilette by Morisot
Wild Poppies by Monet
Water Lilies by Monet
1897-99
1899
1899
1900
1900
1903
1904
1906
1914
1914
1914-17
TheDancing Class   by Degas
In a Café,   orAbsinthe   by Degas
PrimaBallerina   by Degas
LittleDancer,Aged 14  by Degas
La Loge   by Renior
Le Moulin de la Galette by Renior
The Luncheon of the Boating Party by Renoir
Paris Street, A Rainy Day by Caillebotte
Little Girl in a Blue Armchair by Cassatt
The Bath  byCassatt
The Boating Party by Cassatt
TheThinker   by Rodin
Peasants Resting    by Pissaro
YoungGirl with a Stick   byPissarro
At the Moulin Rouge by Toulouse-Lautrec
In the Salon of the Rue des Moulins        by Toulouse-Lautrec
Marcelle Lender Dancing   the  Bolero    byToulouse- Lautrec
Othello  byCorinth
Charlotte Corinth at HerDressing  Table   by Corinth
The Parrot   Man    byLiebmann
Parrot  Street    byLiebmann
The Bridge by Steer
Walkon theBeach  bySorolla
A Break Away! by Roberts
The Open-Air Breakfast by Chase
Rain Storm, Union Square by Hassam
Neo-Impressionism and Post-Impressionismwere both an extension of Impressionism and a rejection of itslimitations. This ne...
Bathers at Rest by Cézanne
Card Players by Cézanne
Woman  in a Green  Hat   byCézanne
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La      Grande Jatte by Seurat
Potato Eaters by van Gogh
Vase with FourteenSunflowers    by van Gogh
Self- Portrait  withBandaged Ear and  Pipe   byvan Gogh
Starry Night by van Gogh
The Vision after the Sermon by Gaugin
The Spirit of the Dead Watches by Gaugin
Portrait of Félix Fenéon by Signac
Symbolism and Art Nouveau were international artmovements that flourished in the final decades of the 19th century.Symboli...
Oedipusand theSphinx  byMoreau
Orpheus   byMoreau
GuardianSpirit of  the Waters   by Redon
SmilingSpider  byRedon
TheCyclops   by Redon
Island of the Dead by Böcklin
Self-Portrait  with Death   byBöcklin
The Poor Fishermenby Puvis de Chavannes
Hope byWatts
JubileeMemorialto Queen Victoria    by Gilbert
“Eros”  a.k.a.   TheAngel ofChristian Charity    by Gilbert
Night by Hodler
Skeletons Fighting for aSmoked Herring by Ensor
Christ’s Entry into Brussels by Ensor
TheScream  byMunch
The Climax   byBeardsley
The FourSeasons: Winter  and Spring   by Mucha
Summer  andAutumn   by Mucha
The Arts:Dance  byMucha
Although their subsequent reputations areoften eclipsed by the major figures of the art worldin France, a number of painte...
Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of      the Artist’s Mother by Whistler
Portrait  ofMadame   X  bySargent
The Swimming Hole by Eakins
TheGrossClinic  byEakins
Between Rounds   by Eakins
Fog Warning by Homer (1885)
Watching the Breakers by Homer (1891)
The Sponge Diver by Homer (1898-99)
The Gulf Stream by Homer (1899)
Girl withPeaches   by Serov
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century
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Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century

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Art Appreciation Topic VIII: Art Movements in the Later 19th Century

  1. 1. Art Appreciation Topic VIII:Art Movements in the Later 19 th Century c.1840-c.1914
  2. 2. French Academic Art (c.1840-1900) Realism (c.1850-1900) Victorian Art (c.1837-1901)The Pre-Raphaelites (c.1848-1910) Impressionism (c.1870-c.1900)Postimpressionism (c. 1880-c.1910) Neoimpressionism (c.1885-1900) Symbolism (c.1885-1910) The Nabis (c.1890-1900) Art Nouveau (c.1890-1914)
  3. 3. The term “Academic Art” can be used to refer to all artinfluenced by the various established Academies, which began toproliferate throughout Europe during the early 18th century, but it isoften meant to refer to artists influenced by the standards of theFrench Académie des beaux-arts. The French Academy had atremendous influence on the Salons in 19th century Paris betweenc.1840-c.1900. As the main forum for academic art, the Paris Salons were heldin the Salon dApollon in the Palais du Louvre. These state-sponsoredexhibitions were enormously influential in establishing officiallyapproved styles and molding public taste, and they helped consolidatethe Royal Academy’s dictatorial control over the production of fine art.For much of the 19th century, the Salon had a conservative outlook,which discouraged new trends. French academic art used to be viewedas the rather dull art of the establishment, but in recent years opinionhas shifted somewhat. The most prestigious form of academic art was “historypainting,” which encompassed religious, mythological, and allegoricalsubjects as well as history. Landscapes, portraits, and genre scenes(paintings of everyday life) were deemed to be less important, whilemodern subjects were frowned upon. The question of “finish” was evenmore crucial. Academic artists favored a detailed, enamel-like finishthat appeared realistic even when viewed close up.
  4. 4. The Romans of theDecadence by Couture
  5. 5. A Game of Piquet by Meissonier
  6. 6. TheCampaignof France, 1814 byMeissonier
  7. 7. Portrait ofAlexandreDumas fils byMeissonier
  8. 8. Homage to Delacroix by Fantin-Latour
  9. 9. BlackBashi-Bazouk byGérôme
  10. 10. Pygmalion and Galatea by Gérôme
  11. 11. The Birth of Venus byBouguereau
  12. 12. The Wave by Bouguereau
  13. 13. The Realist movement emerged in France in the mid-19thcentury as a reaction against the outdated strictures of academic art,and it signaled a definitive break from the artistic traditions of the past.The movement was spearheaded by Gustave Courbet and Jean-FrançoisMillet. In the late 1840s, a circle of writers, artists and intellectualsheld regular meetings at a Parisian bar, the Brasserie Andler. Theydubbed their meeting place the “Temple of Realism,” and it was thisnickname that Courbet adopted for his art. Although they appear anything but revolutionary today, thepaintings of Courbet provoked a storm of protest at the Salon, largelybecause they contravened normal academic practice. Instead oftackling noble themes, Realist artists painted the harsh conditions ofrural life. While such scenes were expected to be small and picturesqueto provide a sense of escapism, the peasant pictures of Courbet andMillet were on a large scale normally reserved for major historicalthemes or religious subjects, and they focused on the hardship ofmodern working conditions. The Realists attracted equal scorn for their figures, which oftenfeatured double chins and rolls of fat or wizened caricatures. For thedelicate sensibilities of critics accustomed to the idealized forms inacademic art, this was not realism but a deliberate quest for ugliness.
  14. 14. Womanwith the Pearl by Corot
  15. 15. Lady in Blue by Corot
  16. 16. The Stone Breakers by Courbet
  17. 17. The Origin of the World by Courbet
  18. 18. Ratapoilby Daumier
  19. 19. The Third-Class Carriage by Daumier
  20. 20. The Angelus by Millet
  21. 21. TheBookworm by Spitzweg
  22. 22. ThreeWomen in Church by Liebl
  23. 23. The Boatmen on the Volga by Repin
  24. 24. During the lengthy reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901),Britain enjoyed an unrivaled period of economic prosperity andpolitical influence, and the arts in Britain scaled new heights. Theleading painters of the Victorian age became rich and famous,and many Victorians felt they were living during a golden age in thearts. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were knowledgeable artcollectors, and there was a growing interest in art on the part ofthe middle classes as well. Britain’s Royal Academy, whichremained the chief marketplace for artists, regularly attractedmore than a quarter of a million visitors to its annual exhibition andthe academic tradition remained one of the surest routes tosuccess. New trends emerged in the field of genre painting, whichenjoyed a surge in popularity even before Victoria came to thethrone. The Victorian public loved pictures that contained a moralor told a story, but the tone of the resulting art could varyconsiderably. Art could have a patriotic theme, but the Victorianswere equally fond of moral or sentimental subjects. Above all, theyenjoyed seeing reflections of their own society.
  25. 25. Male Nude, arms upstretched by Etty
  26. 26. The Sirens and Ulysses by Etty
  27. 27. EmpressJosephine and the Fortune- Teller by Wilkie
  28. 28. TheMonarch of the Glen byLandseer
  29. 29. Trafalgar Square Lions byLandseer
  30. 30. Flaming June byLeighton
  31. 31. The Pre-Raphaelites burst upon the Englishart scene in the mid-19th century. In a youthful act ofrebellion, they vowed to counter the stiflingpredictability of academic art by seeking to recapturethe honest simplicity of the early Italian painters whohad flourished before Raphael, hence “Pre-Raphaelite.”The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed in 1848 bya group of seven young artists who sealed their pact byadding the initials “PRB” to their paintings. The Pre-Raphaelites tackled a wide variety ofthemes. They shared the Victorian appetite for colorand romance of the Middle Ages, taking themes fromArthurian legend. However, they were also interested incovering modern issues and social problems, such asemigration, prostitution, and religious reform. The group often focused on a moral or a story,many of which were drawn from literary sources. Theyavoided classical authors, but Shakespeare, Keats andTennyson were popular choices.
  32. 32. Ophelia byMillais
  33. 33. TheBlind Girl byMillais
  34. 34. TheLast ofEngland by Brown
  35. 35. TheAwakeningConscience by Hunt
  36. 36. The Scapegoat by Hunt
  37. 37. Beloved byRossetti
  38. 38. Lady Lilith byRossetti
  39. 39. TheBeguilingof Merlin by Burne- Jones
  40. 40. The Lady of Shallot by Waterhouse
  41. 41. The Impressionist movement originated and achieved its fullestdevelopment in France, although its impact was felt throughout the West. Itwas never a school in the narrowest sense of the word, with a precisemanifesto and a common style. The Impressionists set out to paint the effects of light. To this end,they used visible brushstrokes of pure color, painting scenes of daily lifearound Paris. People at the time thought Impressionist pictures lookedunfinished and the subject matter pointless. But the new artists spelled theend of a tradition that had held sway since the Renaissance. Visually, the Impressionists were inspired by the boldness andsimplicity of Japanese woodblock prints, which had only reached the West,and their use of pure, bright colors, the lack of modeling in their figures,and their casual attitude to the laws of perspective. They were alsoinfluenced by developments in the world of photography. In their revolt against academic art, the Impressionists developedtheir own subject matter, celebrating modern life and painting scenes ofeveryday urban and suburban pastimes, chores and landscapes. At somestage, all of the Impressionist painters experimented with plein-air(outdoor) painting, completing entire pictures on the spot. This enabledthem to capture the most fleeting sensations of light and weatherconditions. To achieve this, they had to work quickly. They conveyed theirforms with short, broken brushstrokes and vivid flecks of color. Every itemwas condensed to its simplest form.
  42. 42. Olympia by Manet
  43. 43. A Bar at the Folies-Bergère by Manet
  44. 44. Reading by Morisot
  45. 45. TheCradle byMorisot
  46. 46. Lady at her Toilette by Morisot
  47. 47. Wild Poppies by Monet
  48. 48. Water Lilies by Monet
  49. 49. 1897-99
  50. 50. 1899
  51. 51. 1899
  52. 52. 1900
  53. 53. 1900
  54. 54. 1903
  55. 55. 1904
  56. 56. 1906
  57. 57. 1914
  58. 58. 1914
  59. 59. 1914-17
  60. 60. TheDancing Class by Degas
  61. 61. In a Café, orAbsinthe by Degas
  62. 62. PrimaBallerina by Degas
  63. 63. LittleDancer,Aged 14 by Degas
  64. 64. La Loge by Renior
  65. 65. Le Moulin de la Galette by Renior
  66. 66. The Luncheon of the Boating Party by Renoir
  67. 67. Paris Street, A Rainy Day by Caillebotte
  68. 68. Little Girl in a Blue Armchair by Cassatt
  69. 69. The Bath byCassatt
  70. 70. The Boating Party by Cassatt
  71. 71. TheThinker by Rodin
  72. 72. Peasants Resting by Pissaro
  73. 73. YoungGirl with a Stick byPissarro
  74. 74. At the Moulin Rouge by Toulouse-Lautrec
  75. 75. In the Salon of the Rue des Moulins by Toulouse-Lautrec
  76. 76. Marcelle Lender Dancing the Bolero byToulouse- Lautrec
  77. 77. Othello byCorinth
  78. 78. Charlotte Corinth at HerDressing Table by Corinth
  79. 79. The Parrot Man byLiebmann
  80. 80. Parrot Street byLiebmann
  81. 81. The Bridge by Steer
  82. 82. Walkon theBeach bySorolla
  83. 83. A Break Away! by Roberts
  84. 84. The Open-Air Breakfast by Chase
  85. 85. Rain Storm, Union Square by Hassam
  86. 86. Neo-Impressionism and Post-Impressionismwere both an extension of Impressionism and a rejection of itslimitations. This new generation of painters started on the fringesof Impressionism, but many of them began to react against itspreoccupation with surface appearances. They pushed beyond thequest for naturalism and sought to express feelings and ideasthrough a radically new use of color, brushstroke, and content. The two recognizable “schools” were based on thetheories of Seurat (Neo-Impressionism) and Gaugin (Post-Impressionism). Seurat’s work is characterized by the use of dotsof pure color and an attempt to make the approach to light andcolor more rational and scientific--which he termed “Divisionism”or “Pointillism.” Gaugin renounced naturalism to explore a bold,symbolic use of color and line. The subjects of Neo-impressionist and Post-impressionistpaintings were as varied as the painters’ styles. In theirdetermination to find a simpler, more authentic mode ofrepresentation, Neo-impressionists and Post-impressionistsreinvented the art of painting by emphasizing geometric shapes,distorting forms, and applying unnatural coloring.
  87. 87. Bathers at Rest by Cézanne
  88. 88. Card Players by Cézanne
  89. 89. Woman in a Green Hat byCézanne
  90. 90. Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Seurat
  91. 91. Potato Eaters by van Gogh
  92. 92. Vase with FourteenSunflowers by van Gogh
  93. 93. Self- Portrait withBandaged Ear and Pipe byvan Gogh
  94. 94. Starry Night by van Gogh
  95. 95. The Vision after the Sermon by Gaugin
  96. 96. The Spirit of the Dead Watches by Gaugin
  97. 97. Portrait of Félix Fenéon by Signac
  98. 98. Symbolism and Art Nouveau were international artmovements that flourished in the final decades of the 19th century.Symbolism sought to restore the role of imagination and ideas in the arts,while Art Nouveau had a more decorative function. Symbolism, which developed in France but spread to most ofEurope, emerged as a reaction to against the naturalist movements—Realism and Impressionism—which had dominated the progressive artscene after the 1850s. By concentrating only on what the artist saw,naturalists had largely ignored the imagination, intellect, and emotions.Symbolism, part of the “Aesthetic” or “art for art’s sake” movement, aimedto rectify this by producing pictures that evoked certain moods andfeelings. They aspired to communicate ideas like music or poetry, onlythrough the use of line, color and form. Symbolists did not use readily-defined images, but opted instead for those that were richly evocative. Although Art Nouveau shared with Symbolism the element offantasy, it was primarily preoccupied with decorative effect, and had itsstrongest impact on the applied arts. Art Nouveau can be seen as aresponse to the Arts and Crafts movement, but it also was influenced byother styles, including Japanese prints and the revival of interest inancient Celtic patterns. It was a concerted attempt to create aninternational, modern style based on decoration. It is characterized byhighly stylized, flowing lines, and organic, plant-inspired motifs.
  99. 99. Oedipusand theSphinx byMoreau
  100. 100. Orpheus byMoreau
  101. 101. GuardianSpirit of the Waters by Redon
  102. 102. SmilingSpider byRedon
  103. 103. TheCyclops by Redon
  104. 104. Island of the Dead by Böcklin
  105. 105. Self-Portrait with Death byBöcklin
  106. 106. The Poor Fishermenby Puvis de Chavannes
  107. 107. Hope byWatts
  108. 108. JubileeMemorialto Queen Victoria by Gilbert
  109. 109. “Eros” a.k.a. TheAngel ofChristian Charity by Gilbert
  110. 110. Night by Hodler
  111. 111. Skeletons Fighting for aSmoked Herring by Ensor
  112. 112. Christ’s Entry into Brussels by Ensor
  113. 113. TheScream byMunch
  114. 114. The Climax byBeardsley
  115. 115. The FourSeasons: Winter and Spring by Mucha
  116. 116. Summer andAutumn by Mucha
  117. 117. The Arts:Dance byMucha
  118. 118. Although their subsequent reputations areoften eclipsed by the major figures of the art worldin France, a number of painters from other countriesat the end of the century enjoyed successful careersoutside the progressive artistic centers of the day. The latter part of the 19th century saw artistsin mainland Europe searching for new means ofexpression that would explode into the revolutionarymovements of the early 20th, but elsewhere,particularly in Britain and the U.S., French Realismand Impressionism were still exerting a stronginfluence. Artists from all over the world made theirway to France to study and work, taking the ideas ofRealism and Impressionism back to their nativecountries. Although these styles were no longer at theforefront in European centers of art, they made animpact elsewhere as they were adopted bycomparatively conservative traditions, paving theway for Modernism in many countries.
  119. 119. Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Artist’s Mother by Whistler
  120. 120. Portrait ofMadame X bySargent
  121. 121. The Swimming Hole by Eakins
  122. 122. TheGrossClinic byEakins
  123. 123. Between Rounds by Eakins
  124. 124. Fog Warning by Homer (1885)
  125. 125. Watching the Breakers by Homer (1891)
  126. 126. The Sponge Diver by Homer (1898-99)
  127. 127. The Gulf Stream by Homer (1899)
  128. 128. Girl withPeaches by Serov

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