Handouts March 20, 2014 - Singapore - Singapore Pediatric Society - Multiple Intelligences
Eight Kinds of Intelligence:
Scientific Exploration in Brain Research,
Psychology and Anthropology
Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. (www.institute4learning.com)
Singapore Pediatric Society
The Fullerton Hotel, Singapore
March 20, 2014
The Eight Intelligences
Evidence for MI Theory
• Symbol Systems
• Cultural Value
• Developmental History
• Brain Structures
• Evolutionary Plausibility
• Other Species
Word Smart – exposure
to spoken/written words
of all kinds
Logic Smart – exposure to
counting songs, number rhymes,
pattern songs and stories Picture Smart – exposure to
visual images of all kinds
Music Smart – songs, lullabies, and other
music of all kinds
Body Smart – opportunity to move
and use hands
Nature Smart - exposure to the
natural world (plants, animals,
rocks, clouds, etc.)
People Smart – immersion in a rich
Self Smart – opportunities to
experience emotions and self-
initiated behaviors in a safe setting
Word Smart – word
block play, emergent
literacy activities, lots
of conversation play
Logic Smart – lots of
manipulative play, especially with
materials emphasizing logical,
mathematical or science domains
Picture Smart – art play,
block play, play with other
Music Smart – Music Smart instruments
(including real and toy) to play around
with, music to sing to, sound effects to
Body Smart – manipulative, block
play, spaces to move around or
dance around in, space for simple
Nature Smart - opportunities to
play around pets, play in nature,
play with materials of nature
(rocks, twigs, leaves, etc.).
People Smart – opportunities to play
with other kids, engage in social play
(e.g. playing house, dress up,
construction workers etc.)
Self Smart – spaces for solo play,
materials for challenging oneself
space to express feelings in safe
Word Smart –
Logic Smart – science discovery
Picture Smart – picture
library; drawing center
Music Smart – song-writing center
Body Smart – letter gymnasium,
whole body and hands-on centers
Nature Smart – Nature Smart
People Smart – magic circle, simulated
environments (castle, rocket ship, play
Intrarpersonal – spaces for privacy,
areas for individual work
Advice to Give Parents
• Start by Identifying Strengths
• Encourage ALL Your Child’s Intelligences
• Be Sparing with Technology
• Choose a Developmental Preschool
• See the Gifts in Children with Special Needs
• Provide Simple Experiential Learning Activities
• Supply Proper Nutrition to Nourish the Brain
is a broad, holistic experience that begins early in the life course
During the first 3 years, the early foundations of learning –
including language & visual development, reasoning, memory and
problem solving – are established
Optimal growth and development early in the life course can serve
to prepare children for lifelong learning and later accomplishments
in school and beyond.
“Good health and nutrition are needed to achieve one’s full
educational potential because nutrition affects intellectual
development and learning ability”
- World Health Organization (WHO) Information Series on School Health
Nutrition Can Impact
Early Brain Development & Learning
• Early childhood is a critical period for cognitive,
social and emotional growth.
Key Contributors to Learning
• Key contributors to learning impacted by nutrition include:
Perception Cognition Physical Vitality
• Described as perception through
• A child employs all 5 senses to
form their perception of the world
• Described as the ability to think
and encompasses such intellectual
• Continuous experiences support
cognitive development by
improving neuronal connections
and memory efficiency2,3
̶ These experiences also facilitate
infants to handle more
complicated tasks, promote
cognitive development, and
ultimately help to learn4
• Described as the ability to actively
engage in one’s environment and in
opportunities to learn
• Supported by growth, digestive
health, and immunity
̶ Optimal growth & motor
development allows child to
interact with the world
̶ Proper digestion and absorption
ensures bio-availability of
̶ Healthy immune system
enables greater opportunity to
Role of Nutrients that Support
Structural Impact Functional Benefits
Visual cortex, retina
Supports visual and cognitive
blue UV light
Retina and macula
occipital cortex, and
Supports visual development
and may support brain
Supports brain and memory
High Quality Alpha
Rich source of
essential amino acids
Supports growth outcomes
tolerability similar to breast
milk fed infants.
Reference: Trabulsi study
Promotes growth of
Softens stools and promotes
the growth of healthy
MI Inventory – Young Child
Check those statements that apply:
__ is attracted to words (e.g. letter blocks etc.)
__ enjoys talking
__ engages in emergent writing (or is an early writer)
__ engages in emergent reading (or is an early reader)
__ likes to listen to and/or take part in verbal conversations.
__ has a good memory for facts
__ asks lots of ‘’why’’ questions
__ is attracted to numbers (e.g. number blocks etc.)
__ likes to count
__ likes logical patterns (e.g. one red block, two yellow blocks, one red block, two yellow blocks etc.)
__ shows interest in science related topics.
__ does well on Piagetian-type assessments of logical thinking
__ is attracted to pictures and images (e.g. illustrations in a book etc.)
__ is highly imaginative
__ enjoys art-related activities.
__ draws well for age
__ enjoys watching video other visual presentations.
__ likes building with blocks or other construction sets
MI Inventory (cont’d)
__ is good with hands (e.g. building, making things, etc.)
__ puts his/her hands all over something he’s/she’s just seen.
__ enjoys running, jumping, wrestling, or similar activities
__ shows ability in one or more sports
__ has a dramatic way of expressing herself/himself.
__ loves tactile experiences (e.g. finger painting, clay, etc.).
__ is attracted to music (e.g. on TV, radio, CD etc.)
__ loves to sing
__ enjoys interacting with a Music Smart instrument
__ remembers melodies of songs
__ has a good sense of rhythm.
__ has a melodic way of speaking
__ enjoys socializing with peers.
__ shows qualities of a natural leader.
__ likes to play games with other kids.
__ makes friends easily
__ has a good sense of empathy or concern for others.
__ is good at resolving social conflicts
MI Inventory (cont’d)
__ displays a sense of independence or a strong will.
__ does well when left alone to play.
__ has a good sense of self-direction.
__ prefers working alone to working with others.
__ accurately expresses how he/she is feeling.
__ has a good sense of self-esteem.
__ relates very well to animals (e.g. pets).
__ loves to be out in nature
__ has strong feelings for protecting the natural world.
__ is able to identify different kinds of birds, plants, or other living things.
__ enjoys activities in nature such as bird watching, rock or insect collecting, or raising animals.
__ expresses interest in a career relating to nature (e.g. forest ranger, veterinarian etc.).
Armstrong, Thomas. Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to Help Students with Special
Needs Achieve Success in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012.
Armstrong, Thomas. The Power of Neurodiversity: Unleashing the Advantages of Your Differently Wired Brain.
Cambridge, MA: DaCapo/Perseus, 20101
Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd Ed.. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009.
Armstrong, Thomas. 7 Kinds of Smart: Identifying and Developing Your Many Intelligences: Revised and
Updated with Information on 2 New Kinds of Smart. , New York: Plume, 1999.
Armstrong, Thomas. In Their Own Way: Discovering and Encouraging Your Child’s Multiple Intelligences.
New York: Tarcher/Putnam-Penguin, 2000.
Armstrong, Thomas. You’re Smarter Than You Think: A Kids’ Guide to Multiple Intelligences. Minneapolis,
MN: Free Spirit, 2003.
Armstrong, Thomas. The Myth of the A.D.D. Child: 50 Ways to Improve Your Child’s Behavior and Attention
Span without Drugs, Labels, or Coercion. New York: Plume, 1997.
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Gardner, Howard et al. (eds). Building on Children's Strengths: The Experience of Project Spectrum. New York:
Teachers College Press, 1998.
Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory and Practice. New York: Basic Books,
Readings (p. 2)
• Gardner, Howard, et al. (eds). Building on Children's Strengths: The Experience of Project Spectrum
(Project Zero Frameworks for Early Childhood Education, Vol 1). New York: Teachers College
• Gardner, Howard, et al. (eds). Project Spectrum: Early Learning Activities (Project Zero Frameworks
for Early Childhood Education, Vol 2) New York: Teachers College Press, 1998.
• Gardner, Howard, et al. (eds.). Project Spectrum: Preschool Assessment Handbook (Project Zero
Frameworks for Early Childhood Education, Vol 3)
• Project Zero and Reggio ChildrenMaking Learning Visible: Children As Individual and Group
Learners. Reggio Emilia, Italy: Reggio Children.