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Neurodiversity in the Classroom 
A Revolutionary New Concept 
for Special Education 
Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. 
www.institut...
Neurodiversity 
An idea which asserts that atypical 
(neurodivergent) neurological 
development is a normal human 
differe...
Agenda for Workshop 
1. Timeline of Neurodiversity 
2. Five Principles of Neurodiversity 
3. Understanding the Strengths o...
Agenda for Workshop 
7. Enhancing the Student’s Social Networks 
8. Nurturing Affirmative Career Aspirations 
9. Implement...
Agenda for Workshop 
11. Writing Positive IEP Objectives 
12. Using Appreciative Inquiry in IEP 
Meetings 
13. Putting It ...
Neurodiversity Timeline 
• 1993 – Jim Sinclair–‘’Don’t Mourn for Us’’ 
• 1998 – Judy Singer – First to Use Word 
• 1998 - ...
Principles of Neurodiversity 
• The Brain is a Rain Forest 
• Cultural Values Dictate Disorders 
• Success = Adapting to t...
Positive Niche Construction 
• Helping to ensure the thriving of a 
child by directly modifying the 
environment in such a...
Positive Niche Construction 
• Strength Awareness 
• Positive Role Models 
• Assistive Technologies/UDL 
• Strength-Based ...
Strengths Summary 
• Autism Spectrum Disorder 
• Gift for detail 
• Enhanced perceptual functioning 
• Scores higher on Ra...
Strengths Summary 
• Learning Disabilities (Dyslexia) 
• Often strong in spatial intelligence 
• Many are 3-D thinkers 
• ...
Strengths Summary 
• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 
• Hunters in a farmer’s world 
• Learn by moving around 
• ...
Evolutionary Advantages of ADHD 
13 
Hunter Child with ADHD 
Constantly on the move Hyperactivity 
Attention on many thing...
14 
ADHD or Creative? 
Child with ADHD Creative Person 
Hyperactivity Vitality 
Distractibility Divergent Mind 
Impulsivit...
15 
Neoteny: retention of juvenile 
characteristics in the adults of a 
species 
“a major evolutionary trend in human 
bei...
Strengths Summary 
• Intellectual Disabilities 
• Capacity for dramatic expression (Down) 
• Emotional warmth (Down, Willi...
Strengths Summary 
• Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 
• Emotional expressiveness 
• Scores higher on creative thinking ...
Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist 
Personal Strengths 
___ Enjoys working independently 
___ Has a good sense of his/her ...
Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist 
Social Strengths 
___ Has leadership ability 
___ Has a good sense of empathy for othe...
Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist 
Literacy Strengths 
___ Enjoys reading books 
___ Has good reading comprehension 
___ ...
Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist 
Dexterity Strengths 
___ Has a hobby building model cars, planes, ships or other 
simi...
Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist 
Creative Strengths 
___ Expresses him/herself dramatically 
___ Has a good imagination...
Identifying Strengths in Students 
• Observation 
• Documentation 
• Cumulative Files 
• Colleagues 
• Parents 
• Students...
Name of Student: 
Age: 
Diagnosis: 
Elements to Be Used in Positive Niche Construction 
Strength Awareness 
Positive Role ...
Name of Student: Jake 
Age: 14 
Diagnosis: dyslexia 
Suggested Interventions to Construct a Positive Niche for 
Jake 
Stre...
Enhancing Social Networks 
• Repair Difficult Relationships 
• Strengthen Weak Relationships 
• Foster New Positive Relati...
27
Difficult 
Relationship 
Positive 
Relationship 
One-Way 
Relationship 
Strong Two-Way 
Relationship 
Weak 
Relationship 
...
Strength-Based IEPs 
• Be comprehensive when initially stating 
child’s strengths 
• Build the language of strengths into ...
Example 1 
Deficit-Based Objective: 
By March. 20xx, when discussing a story, 
Jason will answer 4 out of 10 "why" and 
"h...
Example 2 
Deficit-Based Objective: 
In 12 months, Timmy will follow 2-step 
directions, 1 time per observation period, 
a...
Example 3 
Deficit-Based Objective: 
By November 1, 20XX, when given a verbal 
direction by an adult, Robin will begin to ...
Example 4 
Deficit-Based Objective: 
In 12 months, while at school, Bobbie will use the 
toilet independently when necessa...
AI-IEP Protocol: Questions for 
Discussion at IEP meetings p. 1 
First, Success 
1) To the student: Tell us about some of ...
AI-IEP Protocol: Questions for 
Discussion at IEP meetings p. 2 
Second, Goals 
5) To the student: 
* What do you think yo...
References p. 1 
• Armstrong, Thomas. “Describing Strengths in Children Identified as ‘Learning Disabled’ Using 
Howard Ga...
References p. 2 
•Crammond, Bonnie. ‘’Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Creativity: What is the 
Connection?’’ ...
References p. 3 
•Kolb, Bryan, etc. ‘’Age, Experience and the Changing Brain’’, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review, 
Marc...
References, p. 4 
•Simeonova, D. I. et al. ‘’Creativity in familial bipolar disorder.,’’ Journal of Psychiatric Research, ...
Contact Information 
• Email: thomas@institute4learning.com 
• Website: www.institute4learning.com 
• Blog: http://institu...
MI Inventory for Students 
Check those statements that apply: 
Word Smart 
__ I believe I am a good writer. 
__ I like to ...
MI Inventory (cont’d) 
Picture Smart 
__ I can see visual images in my mind pretty clearly. 
__ I tend to daydream a lot. ...
MI Inventory (cont’d) 
Music Smart 
__ I believe I have a pleasant singing voice. 
__ I can usually tell when a musical no...
MI Inventory (cont’d) 
Self Smart 
__ I feel like I’m pretty independent and/or am strong-willed. 
__ I have a pretty real...
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December 3, 2014 Neurodiversity in the Classroom - Plymouth, MN - Handouts

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These are handouts for a full-day workshop I did on December 3, 2014 in Plymouth, Minnesota for a group of educators on the topic of neurodiversity and its applications to the classroom.

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December 3, 2014 Neurodiversity in the Classroom - Plymouth, MN - Handouts

  1. 1. Neurodiversity in the Classroom A Revolutionary New Concept for Special Education Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. www.institute4learning.com Grants and Research Office (GRO) Intermediate 287 & Northeast Metro 916 Plymouth, Minnesota December 3, 2014
  2. 2. Neurodiversity An idea which asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological development is a normal human difference that is to be recognized and respected as any other human variation. 2
  3. 3. Agenda for Workshop 1. Timeline of Neurodiversity 2. Five Principles of Neurodiversity 3. Understanding the Strengths of Students with Special Needs 4. Importance of Positive Role Models 5. Using Assistive Technologies/UDL 6. Developing Strength-Based Learning Strategies 3
  4. 4. Agenda for Workshop 7. Enhancing the Student’s Social Networks 8. Nurturing Affirmative Career Aspirations 9. Implementing Positive Environmental Modifications 10. Creating Positive Niche Construction Charts 4
  5. 5. Agenda for Workshop 11. Writing Positive IEP Objectives 12. Using Appreciative Inquiry in IEP Meetings 13. Putting It All Together 14. Resources and Closing: Leonardo da Vinci’s IEP Meeting 5
  6. 6. Neurodiversity Timeline • 1993 – Jim Sinclair–‘’Don’t Mourn for Us’’ • 1998 – Judy Singer – First to Use Word • 1998 - Harvey Blume – First Use in Print • 2004 – Amy Harmon – New York Times • 2005 – Autistic Pride (Neurodiversity) Day • 2005 – Neurodiversity.Com • 2006 ˃ Media, Schools, Business, Scholars 6
  7. 7. Principles of Neurodiversity • The Brain is a Rain Forest • Cultural Values Dictate Disorders • Success = Adapting to the Environment • Success = Changing the Environment • Niche Construction Modifies the Brain 7
  8. 8. Positive Niche Construction • Helping to ensure the thriving of a child by directly modifying the environment in such a way that it enhances that child’s chances for success. 8
  9. 9. Positive Niche Construction • Strength Awareness • Positive Role Models • Assistive Technologies/UDL • Strength-Based Learning Strategies • Enhanced Social Resource Network • Affirmative Career Aspirations • Positive Environmental Modifications 9
  10. 10. Strengths Summary • Autism Spectrum Disorder • Gift for detail • Enhanced perceptual functioning • Scores higher on Raven’s Progressive Matrices • Systemizers rather than empathizers • Savant abilities (10% of all with ASD) • Special Interests 10
  11. 11. Strengths Summary • Learning Disabilities (Dyslexia) • Often strong in spatial intelligence • Many are 3-D thinkers • Entreprenurial proclivities • Holistic thinkers • Mechanical Aptitude 11
  12. 12. Strengths Summary • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Hunters in a farmer’s world • Learn by moving around • Warning signs are actually creative traits • Excel at novelty-seeking • Have neotenous characteristics important for evolution (such as playfulness) 12
  13. 13. Evolutionary Advantages of ADHD 13 Hunter Child with ADHD Constantly on the move Hyperactivity Attention on many things Distractibility Responds quickly to stimuli Impulsivity
  14. 14. 14 ADHD or Creative? Child with ADHD Creative Person Hyperactivity Vitality Distractibility Divergent Mind Impulsivity Spontaneity Hyper-Focus Passion Poor Executive Function Creative Imagination
  15. 15. 15 Neoteny: retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults of a species “a major evolutionary trend in human beings" is ‘greater prolongation of childhood and retardation of maturity.’“ J.B.S. Haldane
  16. 16. Strengths Summary • Intellectual Disabilities • Capacity for dramatic expression (Down) • Emotional warmth (Down, Williams, Fragile X, Willi-Prader) • Specific capacities such as: • Musical intelligence (Williams) • Verbal capacity (Williams) • Caring for others (Willi-Prader) • Hands-on abilities (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome etc.) 16
  17. 17. Strengths Summary • Emotional and Behavioral Disorders • Emotional expressiveness • Scores higher on creative thinking test (bipolar) • Creative capabilities (art, drama, music, creative writing) • Strengths in humanistic disciplines (e.g. philosophy, poetry, the arts etc.) 17
  18. 18. Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist Personal Strengths ___ Enjoys working independently ___ Has a good sense of his/her personal strengths and weaknesses ___ Learns from past mistakes ___ Has persistence in carrying out assignments or activities ___ Is courageous in dealing with adversity and/or the unknown ___ Keeps a personal diary or journal ___ Has a good sense of humor ___ Possesses a sense of responsibility ___ Has strong opinions about controversial topics ___ Marches to the beat of a different drummer ___ Handles stressful events well (e.g. is resilient) ___ Has good character (e.g. honesty, integrity, fairness) ___ Has the ability to set realistic goals for him/herself ___ Has a sense of confidence or high self-esteem ___ Has good self-discipline ___ Has personal ambitions in life ___ Displays good common sense ___ Possesses personal vitality, vigor, or energy Communication Strengths ___ Explains ideas or concepts well to others ___ Asks good questions ___ Is a good storyteller ___ Is a good joke teller ___ Has good listening skills ___ Handles verbal feedback (especially negative feedback) well ___ Has good articulation ability ___ Is able to effectively use non-verbal cues to communicate with others ___ Is persuasive in getting someone to do something ___ Has good assertive skills without being pushy Emotional Strengths ____ Is emotionally sensitive to perceiving the world around him/her ____ Has an optimistic attitude toward life ____ Can tell how he/she is feeling at any given moment ____ Can easily pick up on the emotional state of another person ____ Is able to handle strong internal feelings in a constructive manner ____ Receives gut feelings about things From: Thomas Armstrong, Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to 18 Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. "Reproduced with permission. Learn more about ASCD at www.ascd.org."
  19. 19. Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist Social Strengths ___ Has leadership ability ___ Has a good sense of empathy for others ___ Enjoys socializing with others ___ Is good at helping others ___ Is kind or affectionate towards others ___ Has at least one good friend ___ Prefers working with others ___ Likes to play board games and/or card games with others ___ Has skill in refereeing disputes conflicts between classmates ___ Is polite and has good manners ___ Is able to work out his/her own conflicts with others ___ Works well in groups ___ Volunteers his/her time in some worthy cause ___ Belongs to at least one club or social group (e.g. Scouts.) ___ Has a good relationship with at least one family member ___ Is friendly to others ___ Is good at sharing with others ___ Follows class rules ___ Has a good relationship with at least one teacher in the school ___ Has good personal hygiene ___ Trusts others without being taken in ___ Is liked by his peers Cognitive Strengths ___ Has good organizational skills ___ Has good study skills ___ Is able to use cognitive strategies (e.g. self-talk) in solving problems ___ Is able to pay close attention to details ___ Has a good short-term and/or long-term memory ___ Is able to think ahead ___ Is able to become totally absorbed in an activity ___ Can easily divide his attention between two or more activities Cultural Strengths ___ Has traveled to other countries ___ Speaks more than one language ___ Is tolerant of others who have cultural, ethnic, or racial differences ___ Has pride in his/her own cultural, ethnic, or racial background ___ Likes to find out about historical events around the world ___ Enjoys learning about different cultural traditions From: Thomas Armstrong, Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to 19 Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. "Reproduced with permission. Learn more about ASCD at www.ascd.org."
  20. 20. Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist Literacy Strengths ___ Enjoys reading books ___ Has good reading comprehension ___ Enjoys doing word puzzles or playing word games ___ Is a good writer in one or more genres (e.g. poetry, stories, reports, letters) ___ Is a good speller ___ Has a large vocabulary ___ Enjoys listening to audio books or to someone telling a story or reading out loud Logical Strengths ___ Does well in science class ___ Can estimate things easily ___ Enjoys working with numbers and/or statistics ___ Is good at solving math problems ___ Has a chemistry set or other science kit that he/she works with at home ___ Has an interest in astronomy, chemistry, physics, or biology ___ Enjoys logical or number games or puzzles like Rubik’s cube or Sudoku ___ Can easily calculate numbers in his/her head Visual-Spatial Strengths ___ Has an aptitude for fixing machines ___ Likes to create three-dimensional structures with building materials ___ Is good at doing jigsaw puzzles or other visual puzzles ___ Is able to read maps well ___ Reports being able to visualize images clearly ___ Gets information more easily through pictures than words ___ Is sensitive to the visual world around him/her Physical Strengths ___ Has a good sense of balance ___ Learns material best when moving around ___ Likes to ride his/her bike, skateboard, and/or other self-powered personal vehicle ___ Is good at playing team sports like baseball, soccer, basketball, or football ___ Is good at playing individual sports like tennis, swimming, gymnastics, or golf ___ Is in good physical health ___ Likes to dance ___ Is physically strong ___ Is a fast runner or has other athletic abilities ___ Likes to exercise (e.g. weights, aerobics, jogging, treadmill) ___ Has good physical endurance ___ Has good physical flexibility From: Thomas Armstrong, Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to 20 Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. "Reproduced with permission. Learn more about ASCD at www.ascd.org."
  21. 21. Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist Dexterity Strengths ___ Has a hobby building model cars, planes, ships or other similar projects ___ Displays good handwriting ___ Likes to juggle or do magic tricks ___ Enjoys hand crafts like knitting, crocheting, embroidery, or needlepoint ___ Likes to make things with his/her hands ___ Has good tactile ability ___ Enjoys arts and crafts like origami, collage, and/or paper maché ___ Enjoys woodworking, carpentry, carving, and/or metal work ____Has good eye-hand coordination Nature Strengths ___ Has good rapport with animals ___ Is good at taking care of plants in the classroom or at home ___ Is sensitive to weather patterns ___ Takes care of a pet at home or at school ___ Is concerned about the welfare of the planet (e.g. is ecologically-minded) ___ Likes to go hiking and/or camping in nature ___ Enjoys studying nature (e.g. insects, plants, birds, rocks, and/or animals) ___ Likes to hunt or fish ___ Has a good sense of direction Musical Strengths ___ Is sensitive to the rhythms of music ___ Enjoys playing a musical instrument ___ Knows the music and lyrics of many songs ___ Has a particular interest in one or more musical genres (e.g. rock, classical, jazz) ___ Enjoys listening to music ___ Has a good sense of hearing auditory acuity ___ Has a good sense of pitch ___ Has a good singing voice ___ Makes up his/her own tunes or melodies with or without/lyrics High Tech Strengths ___ Likes to spend time using a computer, tablet, or smart phone ___ Has a facility for playing video games ___ Likes to surf the Internet ___ Knows how to set up audio-visual or computer equipment ___ Likes to text on the phone ___ Enjoys social networking (e.g. blog, website, Facebook) ___ Enjoys using a still camera or video camera to record events or express him/herself ___ Has several his/her own favorite movies or TV shows that he/she likes to talk about ____Understands at least one computer language From: Thomas Armstrong, Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to 21 Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. "Reproduced with permission. Learn more about ASCD at www.ascd.org."
  22. 22. Neurodiversity Strengths Checklist Creative Strengths ___ Expresses him/herself dramatically ___ Has a good imagination ___ Enjoys doodling, drawing, and/or painting ___ Likes to act in plays and skits ___ Works well with clay or other forms of sculpture ___ Demonstrates creativity in one or more school assignments ___ Possesses a love of beautiful things ___ Has ideas for futuristic or fantastic projects ___ Comes up with ideas that nobody else has thought of Spiritual Strengths ___ Enjoys meditation, yoga, or some other form of contemplation ___ Asks big life questions (e.g. what is the purpose of life?) ___ Has a deep sense of wisdom ___ Participates in religious or other spiritual events ___ Has a philosophical attitude toward life ___ Has a strong faith in something higher than him/herself Miscellaneous Strengths ___ Likes collecting things (e.g. stamps, coins, buttons) ___ Loves to cook ___ Has a love of learning new things ___ Is a good test taker ___ Possesses a good memory for nighttime dreams ___ Is curious about the world around him/her ___ Has a good sense of time ___ Manages money well ___ Has good fashion sense in the clothes he/she wears ___ Has good entrepreneurial skills (e.g. has started own business) started his/her own business Other Strengths (write in other strengths not mentioned elsewhere in checklist): From: Thomas Armstrong, Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to 22 Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. "Reproduced with permission. Learn more about ASCD at www.ascd.org."
  23. 23. Identifying Strengths in Students • Observation • Documentation • Cumulative Files • Colleagues • Parents • Students 23
  24. 24. Name of Student: Age: Diagnosis: Elements to Be Used in Positive Niche Construction Strength Awareness Positive Role Models Assistive Technologies/UDL Strength-Based Learning Strategies Enhanced Human Resource Network Career Aspirations Positive Environmental Modifications 24
  25. 25. Name of Student: Jake Age: 14 Diagnosis: dyslexia Suggested Interventions to Construct a Positive Niche for Jake Strength Awareness good sense of own strengths; humor, verbal skills, assertiveness, good with Legos, loves comics, computers, has empathy with younger kids and adults Positive Role Models find a comic or graphic book writer with dyslexia (e.g. Dav Pilkey who writes Captain Underpants, or Scott Adams who does Dilbert) that he can admire and learn about Assistive Technologies/UDL give computer time, Echo Pen (LiveScribe), Dragon Naturally Speaking (speech-to-text software), interactive books, Kurzweil 2000 text-to-speech software; animation software Strength-Based Learning Strategies give him reading materials in areas of interest (e.g. comics , computers), have him learn coding, have him draw cartoon or comic strips in lieu of more traditional writing assignments Enhanced Human Resource Network Find a cartoon drawing class in the community he can take, form a comic lovers club after school, have him teach comics or coding to a younger student Career Aspirations computer programmer, animator. He could create user friendly 25 software using pictures to teach computer programming skills
  26. 26. Enhancing Social Networks • Repair Difficult Relationships • Strengthen Weak Relationships • Foster New Positive Relationships • Engage Existing Positive Relationships 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Difficult Relationship Positive Relationship One-Way Relationship Strong Two-Way Relationship Weak Relationship Suggested Key 28
  29. 29. Strength-Based IEPs • Be comprehensive when initially stating child’s strengths • Build the language of strengths into the instructional objectives themselves 29
  30. 30. Example 1 Deficit-Based Objective: By March. 20xx, when discussing a story, Jason will answer 4 out of 10 "why" and "how" questions in a mixed question probe Strength-Based Objective: By March. 20xx, when discussing a story, Jason will answer 4 out of 10 ‘’why’’ and ‘’how’’ questions in reference to a preferred activity such as a three-dimensional structure he has just built. 30
  31. 31. Example 2 Deficit-Based Objective: In 12 months, Timmy will follow 2-step directions, 1 time per observation period, across 5 consecutive group times. Strength-Based Objective: In 12 months, Timmy will follow 2-step directions that are necessary for engaging in a favorite activity such as playing an interactive video game, 1 time per observation period, across 5 consecutive group times. 31
  32. 32. Example 3 Deficit-Based Objective: By November 1, 20XX, when given a verbal direction by an adult, Robin will begin to comply with the direction within 10 seconds. Strength-Based Objective: By November 1, 20XX, when given a verbal direction (by an adult with whom he has a positive relationship) which concerns a self-chosen activity such as a favorite board game he is playing, Robin will begin to comply with the direction within 10 seconds. 32
  33. 33. Example 4 Deficit-Based Objective: In 12 months, while at school, Bobbie will use the toilet independently when necessary for a period of at least 3 weeks without an accident. Strength-Based Objective: In 12 months, while at school, Bobbie will use the toilet independently when necessary for a period of at least 3 weeks without an accident. He is allowed to take along a favorite stuffed animal if he wants and use a modified ‘’rocket ship’’ toilet seat with hand grips if he wishes. 33
  34. 34. AI-IEP Protocol: Questions for Discussion at IEP meetings p. 1 First, Success 1) To the student: Tell us about some of your successes this year. (If appropriate, add: What have you done well and what has worked well for you? What's been happening to make you successful?) 2) To the parent: What successes have you seen your child enjoy this year? (If appropriate add: tell us about what's been happening to help make your child successful?) 3) To the teachers and specialists: What successes have you seen for [the student]? (If appropriate, add: Tell us about what's been happening to help make him/her successful?) 4) To the group: What suggestions or changes can you think of to make [the student]'s program work even better? 34
  35. 35. AI-IEP Protocol: Questions for Discussion at IEP meetings p. 2 Second, Goals 5) To the student: * What do you think you’d most love to do when you grow up? (Or: What is your goal in life [or after school]?) And * What do you think you’ll need to do to get to do what you love most [or to get to your goal]? And * What have you done so far to get to do what you love most [or to move toward your goal]? 6) To the group: What kinds of support and help can you provide to make [the student]'s program work toward the goals he/she's set for him/herself? Source: Peter Kozik, doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, June 2008. Used with permission of author. 35
  36. 36. References p. 1 • Armstrong, Thomas. “Describing Strengths in Children Identified as ‘Learning Disabled’ Using Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences as an Organizing Framework,” Ph.D. Dissertation, (San Francisco, CA, California Institute of Integral Studies), Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1987, 48(08A). • Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009. • Armstrong, Thomas. The Power of Neurodiversity: Unleashing the Advantages of Your Differently Wired Brain. Cambridge, MA: DaCapo Lifelong, 2010. • Armstrong, Thomas. Neurodiversity in the Classroom: Strength-Based Strategies to Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2012. • Armstrong, Thomas. ‘’Leonardo da Vinci’s IEP Meeting,’’ http://institute4learning.com/blog/2013/02/19/leonardo-da-vincis-iep-meeting/ • Baron-Cohen, Simon. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. New York: Basic, 2003. • Beane, Allan L. The New Bully Free Classroom.: Proven Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Teachers K-8 . Minneapolis, MN, Free Spirit Publishing, 2011. • Blume, Harvey. “Neurodiversity,” The Atlantic, September 30, 1998. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1998/09/neurodiversity/305909/ • Cooperrider, David, and Diane Whitney. Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Revolution in Change. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2005. 36
  37. 37. References p. 2 •Crammond, Bonnie. ‘’Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Creativity: What is the Connection?’’ Journal of Creative Behavior, 1994, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 193-210. •Doidge, Norman. The Brain that Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science. New York: Penguin, 2007. •Edelman, Gerald. Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection. New York: Basic, 1987. •Eisenberg, Dan, and Benjamin Campbell, The Evolution of ADHD: Social Context Matters, San Francisco Medicine, October 2011, pp. 21-22. •Grandin, T.(1996).Thinking in pictures:And other reports from my life with autism.New York:Vintage. •Greenspan, Stanley, & Wieder, Serena . Engaging autism: Using the Floortime approach to help children relate, communicate, and think. Cambridge, MA:DaCapo/Perseus, 2009. •Happé, F. (1999). ‘’Understanding assets and deficits in autism: why success in more interesting than failure,’’ Spearman Medal Lecture, The Psychologist, vol. 12, no. 11, November, 1999. •Jamison, K.R. (1996). Touched with fire: Manic-depressive illness and the artistic temperament. New York: Free Press. •Karolyi, C.V., et al. ‘’Dyslexia Linked to Talent: Global Visual-Spatial Ability,’’ Brain and Language. June, 2003, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 427-431. •Kent, Deborah, and Kathryn A. Quinlin. Extraordinary People with Disabilities. Children’s Press, 1997. •Kingsley, Jason, and Mitchell Levitz. Count Us In: Growing up with Down Syndrome, New York: Harcourt, 1994. 37
  38. 38. References p. 3 •Kolb, Bryan, etc. ‘’Age, Experience and the Changing Brain’’, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review, March 1998. •Kozik, Peter L. "Examining the Effects of Appreciative Inquiry on IEP Meetings and Transition Planning,"doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, June 2008. •Montagu, Ashley. Growing Young. New York: Praeger, 1988. •Mottron, L. ‘’The Power of Autism,’’ Nature, November 2, 2011. Vol. 479, pp. 33-35. •National Center on Universal Design for Learning - http://www.udlcenter.org/. •Odling-Smee, F. John et al. Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003. •Pineda, Pablo. Interview: "Down Syndrome is not a Disease, but Another Personal Characteristic”’ http://www.disabilityworld.org/06-08_03/il/down.shtml. •Rosenzweig, M. R., Bennett, E. L., & Diamond, M. C. (1972). Brain changes in response to experience. Scientific American, Vol. 226, pp. 22-29. •Sforza, T., Lenhoff, H., & Lenhoff, S. The (Strangest) Song: One Father’s Quest to Help His Daughter Find Her Voice. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2006. •Shaw, P., et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, December 4, 2007, Vol. 104 No. 49, pp.19649–19654. 38
  39. 39. References, p. 4 •Simeonova, D. I. et al. ‘’Creativity in familial bipolar disorder.,’’ Journal of Psychiatric Research, November, 2005, Vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 623–631. •Singer, Judy. “Why Can’t You Be Normal for Once in Your Life,” in Mairian Corker and Sally French (eds), Disability Discourse, Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1999, p. 64. •Taylor, Andrea Faber & Frances E. Ming Kuo. Could Exposure to Everyday Green Spaces Help Treat ADHD? Evidence from Children's Play Settings. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 2011, Vol 3, no. 3, pp. 281 – 303. •Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity, http://www.dyslexia.yale.edu/ . 39
  40. 40. Contact Information • Email: thomas@institute4learning.com • Website: www.institute4learning.com • Blog: http://institute4learning.com/blog/ • Twitter: @Dr_Armstrong 40
  41. 41. MI Inventory for Students Check those statements that apply: Word Smart __ I believe I am a good writer. __ I like to tell jokes and stories. __ I have a good memory for names, places, dates, or trivia. __ I enjoy word games. __ I enjoy reading books. __ I’m a pretty accurate speller. __ I like playing around with the sounds of words in puns, tongue twisters, and that kind of thing. __ I like listening to audio books. __ I enjoy finding out the definitions of words that I don’t know. __ I see myself as a verbal learner (learning best through words) Logic Smart __ I can get really interested in figuring out how things work. __ I enjoy working with numbers (math, statistics etc.) __ I like my math class. __ I like playing video games or using apps that involve logical thinking. __ I enjoy playing chess, checkers, or other logical strategy games. __ I’m pretty good with logic puzzles or brainteasers. __ I like to put things in categories, charts, or other logical patterns.. __ I enjoy science class. __ I’m interested in science-related topics. __ I see myself as a pretty logical thinker. Adapted from Thomas Armstrong, Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009.
  42. 42. MI Inventory (cont’d) Picture Smart __ I can see visual images in my mind pretty clearly. __ I tend to daydream a lot. __ I enjoy doing art. __ I am a good drawer. __ I like to watch movies, videos, TV other visual programs. __ I like doodling and believe it helps me to think better. __ I enjoy building three-dimensional structures (e.g. carpentry, Legos, sculpture). __ I see visual images when I read. __I enjoy doing puzzles, mazes, or other visual activities. __ I see myself primarily as visual thinker or visual learner. Body Smart __ I am good in at least one sport. __ I tend to twitch, tap, or fidget when I have been sitting for a long time in one spot. __ I am a good at imitating or mimicking the gestures and mannerisms of my firiends or relatives.. __ I love to take things apart and put them back together. __ I generally like to touch or hold things to learn more about them. __ I have demonstrated skill in a craft (e.g. woodworking, sewing, mechanics) __ I can use my body effectively in a dramatic way to express feelings and ideas. __ I love dare devil amusement rides. __ I enjoy working with clay or other tactile experiences (e.g. finger painting). __ I see myself primarily as a physical learner. Adapted from Thomas Armstrong, Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009.
  43. 43. MI Inventory (cont’d) Music Smart __ I believe I have a pleasant singing voice. __ I can usually tell when a musical note is off-key. __ I frequently listen to music on radio, boom box, smart phone, tablet, or other source. __ I enjoy playing at least one musical instrument. __ I can remembers the melodies of songs pretty easily. __ I hav a rhythmic way of speaking and/or moving. __ I sometimes find myself unconsciously humming to myself. __ I sometimes find myself tapping rhythmically on a table or desk when I am studying.. __ I’m sensitive to environmental sounds around me (e.g. rain on the roof) __ I see myself primarily as a musical learner. People Smart __ I enjoy socializing with my friends. __ I like being a leader in a group. __ People come to me to ask for help in solving a social conflict or situation. __ I prefer working or studying with other people rather than by myself. __ I belong to at least one club, group, organization or informal peer group. __ I like teaching things to other people. __ I prefer playing sports and games with others rather than by myself. __ I have at least one or more close friends. __ I believe I have a good sense of empathy or caring for others. __ I see myself primarily as a social learner. Adapted from Thomas Armstrong, Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009.
  44. 44. MI Inventory (cont’d) Self Smart __ I feel like I’m pretty independent and/or am strong-willed. __ I have a pretty realistic sense of my personal strengths and weaknesses. __ I do well when I’m left to study on my own at home and school.. __ I have a hobby or special interest that I don’t really talk much to people about. __ I think I know where I’m going in life as far as goals for the future. __ I prefer working or studying alone rather than with other people. __ I’m pretty in touch with my feelings and can express them appropriately. __ I believe that I’m able to learn from my mistakes. __ I feel really good about myself and what I am able to achieve in life. __ I see myself primarily as an individualist. Nature Smart __ I like to spend time with animals. __ I like taking trips to natural settings. __ I’m able to notice details in natural formations (e.g. clouds, mountains, geology) that others might miss. __ I prefers to spend my free time in a natural setting. __ I have spoken out for the rights of animals, or the preservation of the environment. __ I have a good ability to identify different kinds of birds, plants, or other living things. __ I enjoy doing nature projects, such as bird watching or raising animals. __ I enjoy gardening or growing plants.. __ I do well in subjects at school related to living things and systems (e.g. biology, ecology). __ I see myself primarily as a naturalist. Adapted from Thomas Armstrong, Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009.

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