Ecological Footprint The amount of productive land and water a given population requires to produce all the resources they consume and take in all the waste they make using prevailing technology* - Onisto, et al 1998 From a school perspective, Ecological Footprint = The space required to support all the inputs and outputs of the school body.* Based on the premise that we live in a finite world. The earth has limited resourcesand limited waste assimilation capacity.
Who Is Getting What? Eco-footprint helps us understand that a small proportion of the population is consuming a large amount of the resources Approx 20% of the global population consumes 80% of resources. Canada fits into the high- consuming category. Can you identify 5 countries on a world map that each picture is referring to? Top picture: USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom Bottom Picture: Mozambique, India, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Uganda
Components of Ecological Footprint SIX HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT REQUIRE SPACE1. Growing Crops2. Grazing Animals3. Harvesting Timber4. Catching Fish5. Accommodating Infrastructure (Housing, Transportation Systems, Industry, Built Up Land)6. Absorbing Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Burning Fossil Fuels)
A region’s (person,school) ecological footprintis the total area required toproduce the food andfibers that a regionconsumes, sustains itsenergy consumption, andgives space for itsinfrastructure. People consumeresources from all over theworld, so their footprintcan be thought of as thesum of these areas,wherever they are on theplanet.
If Everyone Lived Like Us We Would Need…… If everyone in the world lived the same way we do , we would need approx four planets to provide all the resources and manage all the waste of our population. How do we know this? The eco-footprint helps us to calculate the land required support our lifestyle and compares it to the capacity of the planet.
The Bottom Line2.3 HECTARES OF BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE LAND AND SEA PER PERSONSET ASIDE 12% AS RECOMMENDED BY THE BRUNTLAND COMMISSION TO PROTECT BIODIVERSITY = 2.0 HECTARES PER PERSON
How Big is a Hectare? One hectareA hectare is the same size as a soccer field.So there are about two soccer fields’ size land availableper person on the Planet
BIOPRODUCTIVE SEGMENTS 67% Bioproductive segments Low- Productivity Ocean 22%4%BiologicallyProductiveOcean 18% 11% Biologically Deserts, Ice Caps Productive Land and Barren Land
PERSONAL PLANETOID Personal planetoidGlobal Average Availability Of Bio Productive Land + Sea = 1.9 Global Hectares/Person
Global Context United States – 9.7 Data for 1999 Eco-Footprint Biocapacity ha/capita [global ha /cap] [global ha/cap] Australia 7.6 14.6 Canada – 8.4 ha/capita China 1.6 1.1 - NS - 8.1 ha/capita Germany 4.7 1.8 - AB - 7.9 ha/capita Italy 3.8 1.3 France – 5.3 ha/capita Japan 4.6 0.8 Russia 4.2 5.1 Japan – 4.8 ha/capita South Africa 4.0 2.5Zimbabwe – 1.3 ha/capita US 9.6 5.8 Bangladesh – 0.5 WORLD 2.3 1.9 ha/capita Global Average: 2.3 hectares/capita
14 North America 12 Ecological Footprint By Region (1996) 10 OECD 8 Western EuropeHa/Capita Central and Eastern Europe 6 Non-OECD Middle East and Central Asia Latin America and the 4 Caribbean Asia/Pacific Africa 2 0 299 384 343 307 484 3,222 710 Population (millions) The size of each box is proportional to the aggregate footprint of each region. The height of each box is proportional to the regions average ecological footprint per person; and The width of the box is proportional to the population of the region. The OECD and non-OECD columns refer only to average ecological footprint per person.
Ecological Footprint Nova Scotia and Canada, 1961-1999 1961- 12 10Hectare per Capita 8 6 4 Nova Scotia Canada Linear (Nova Scotia) 2 Linear (Canada) 0 1960 197 0 1980 1990 2000
Global Footprint Accounts (IN GLOBAL HECTARES/PERSON, 1999 DATA)Ecological Demand (Ecological Footprint) Ecological Supply (Biocapacity) DemandFootprint Areas For: Biocapacity Areas: Exceeds Growing Crops 0.53 Crop Land 0.53 Grazing Animals 0.12 Supply Grazing Land 0.27 Settlements & Infrastructure 0.10 By Built-up Area 0.10 Producing Timber & Fuel wood 0.33 Forest 0.86 20% Absorbing Excess CO2 1.07 Harvesting Fish 0.14 Fishing Grounds 0.14Total Global Demand 2.29 > Total Global Supply 1.90
Footprint Time Series 1.40 Footprint time series 1.20 1.00# of Earths used 0.80 # of Earths available, representing the total 0.60 capacity of the biosphere # of Earths used by humanity 0.40 0.20 0.00 1 4 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 7 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 199 199 199 Year
What About Land For Other Species? People vs. nature Some people might remember that there are other species on the planet that also need land to survive. How much should we set aside for them? Questions for Students : What species are threatened due to reasons such as lack of habitat? What causes habitat destruction? Are there examples where we put some land aside for conservation purposes? How much land should we protect for other species? Why?
Ecological Footprint Applications Region(Country, Province, Town, University Campus) Personal Ecological Footprint(Redefining Progress, Mountain Equipment Co-op) Competing Technologies(Fuel Cells) Growing Techniques(Field Tomato Vs. Hydroponic Tomato) Policy Decisions(Rail Vs. Road, Urban Planning Decisions) Purchase Decisions(Cradle To Grave) Other(Big Mac, Aquaculture, Newspaper)
Sustainability Model vs. Ecological FootprintWe can calculate how much biological productive area we haveWe can calculate how much we are usingLiving sustainably means that we are not living beyond what isavailable
Measurements of Sustainable Development Generally look at the “supply side” of the equation. Such measurements put the whole onus for sustainable development on the producer. The “ecological footprint” looks at the “demand” side of the equation and places responsibility for sustainable development not only on the producer but on the consumer*.* As consumers we have a responsibility. Why are we throwing outso much food in the first place, are we making an effort to reduceour energy consumption, do we eat a diet suitable to our nutritionalneeds and level of activity. Our footprint directly relates to ourlifestyle and the choices that we make.
Message in a Nutshell Now lets look at the average eco- Developed countries have very high land usages Footprint data for 8 countriesfootprint per person for some with USA the highest at 9.6, over 4 times highercountries. than the world average for usage and five times The world average land use is 2.3 higher than the world average for land available.hectares per person but the land From these figures, you might think that to liveavailability is only 1.9 hectares per sustainably we need to reduce our quality of lifeperson. as countries with a high standard of living (most Australia has the 8th highest land developed countries) have a large eco-footprint.usage at 7.6 hectares per person. This is not actually the case. Italy is a good Due to the size of Australia and example here. It has an eco-footprint of 3.8their low population, they have a lot hectares – a lot closer to average available land ofmore land than what the population 1.9 hectares than Australia or America.uses. Italians have quite a high standard of living and Only developing countries like quality of life. So what does this tell us? That theyChina have a land use figure under live their lives quite differently, but notthe world average available land . necessarily more poorly.Due to China’s large population its For example, the design of Italian cities is veryown land available or biocapacity is compact, with a high reliance on public transport.1.1 per person, below its usage of So the eco-footprint can guide us on policies1.6. and strategies of how we can all live well, while recognising there is only one planet.
Message in a Nutshell Countries such as the United The richest fifth: States, Australia, Canada, Singapore, New Zealand, Hong Account for 86% of total private consumption Kong, and Sweden occupy expenditures, the poorest fifth 1.3%. footprints over 200% greater Consume 45% of all meat and fish, the than the 2.0 ha available per poorest fifth 5% global citizen. This is Consume 58% of total energy, the poorest dramatically contrasted to fifth less than 4% Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Consume 84% of all paper, the poorest fifth India, and Nigeria with 1.1% footprints of 1 ha or less per Own 87% of the world’s vehicle fleet, the capita. poorest fifth less than 1% (UNDP, 1998).In a world of limited resources and limited waste assimilation capacity, excessconsumption by the rich literally requires that others live in poverty if we are not toexceed the Earth’s physical carrying capacity.Ecological footprint analysis cuts through the illusion that we can improve the livingstandards of the poor without curbing the excess consumption of the rich.
ReferencesWebsitesGPI Atlantic – www.gpiatlantic.org (Nova Scotia Ecological Footprint)Pembina Institute – www.pembina.org (Alberta Ecological Footprint)Redefining Progress - www.rprogress.org (Foundation site of ecological footprint work)WWF International - www.panda.org (Living Planet Report)Global Eco Footprint Network - http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/Literature Lewan, Lillemor., Wackernagel, Mathis., and Carina Borgstrom Hansson, 1999. Evaluating The Use of Natural CapitalWith Ecological Footprint: Applications In Sweden and Subregions. Ph.D. work. Wackernagel, Mathis, and William E. Rees, 1996. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth.New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC. For details on the book, see www.newsociety.com/oef.html. Wackernagel, Mathis, Larry Onisto, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Ina Susana López Falfán, Jesus Méndez García, AnaIsabel Suárez Guerrero, Ma. Guadalupe Suárez Guerrero, 1997. Ecological Footprints of Nations: How Much Nature DoThey Use? How Much Nature Do They Have? Commissioned by the Earth Council for the Rio+5 Forum. InternationalCouncil for Local Environmental Initiatives, Toronto. Wackernagel, Mathis, 1998). "The Ecological Footprint of Santiago de Chile," Local Environment, Vol 3,, No. 2. Wackernagel, Mathis., Onisto, Larry., Patricia Bello, Callejas Linares, A.,Ina, López Falfán, I.S., Méndez García, J., SuárezGuerrero, A.I., and Suárez Guerrero, M.G., 1999. "National natural capital accounting with the ecological footprintconcept," Ecological Economics, Vol. 29, pp. 375-390.
Assignment 5a) Using Footprint Calculator , find out your personal ecological footprint.b) Find ecological footprint of any three countries and compare with Canada’s ecological footprint.c) Conclude with your recommendations for ‘reducing’ the ecological footprints both , for yourself and for the countries you studied, as above.d) The report will be typed in 1.5 space not exceeding 4 A4 size pages and submitted on 8th (BB) / 9th (AA) November 2011 Engaging in any form of academic dishonesty/plagiarism is punishable under the College policy. Students are responsible for adhering to all federal and provincial laws/ regulations , and to all College agreements and policies , and can be held liable for non-compliance.