MUMPS<br />                          Dr.  Sukhwant  Singh<br />
                 INTRODUCTION*The name comes from the British  word “to mump”, that isgrimace or  grin. *This results from...
                                 AGENT“MYXOVIRUS  PAROTIDITIS” *Belongs to genus- Rubulavirus, and   family- paramyxovirid...
           SOURCE  OF  INFECTION* Both clinical and subclinical cases.* Subclinical cases ( 30-40% ), appear   to be respo...
        PERIOD  OF  COMMUNICABILITY* Usually 4-6 days before the onset of   symptoms and a week thereafter.* The maximum i...
                  HOST  FACTORS* Humans are the only natural hosts.* Peak incidence is among 5-9 years.* No age is exempt ...
              ENVIRONMENT* In hot climates, the disease is   endemic throughout the year.* In temperate climates, incidenc...
TRANSMISSION* Droplet infection.* Direct contact with infected person.INCUBATION  PERIOD* Ranges from 2-3 weeks.Usually 18...
              CLINICAL  FEATURES*prodromal illness of headache,malaise,myalgia and low gradefever occurs for  1-2 days bef...
* The sub – mandibularand sublingual   glands may occasionally be involved. * Parotidswelling develops in 95% of   those w...
                     COMPLICATIONS* Aseptic meningitis ( occurs in 10 % of patients )* Epididymo-orchitisoccurs in about 2...
* Pancreatitismumps virus can infect human pancreatic beta cells, and may<br />     trigger the onset of insulin - depende...
                       MANAGEMENT* Mumps is a mild, self limited disease. * No specific anti – viral therapy is indicated....
                        PREVENTION* The first vaccinedeveloped against mumps was a    killed vaccine which wasusedin the U...
 * MMR vaccine is manufactured by     The Serum Institute of India.     The strains  used are   * L - Zagreb for mumps,<br...
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Mumps

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Mumps

  1. 1. MUMPS<br /> Dr. Sukhwant Singh<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION*The name comes from the British word “to mump”, that isgrimace or grin. *This results from the appearance of the patientas a result of parotid gland swelling. *Mumps is a viral infectionprimarily affecting the salivary glands.<br />
  3. 3. AGENT“MYXOVIRUS PAROTIDITIS” *Belongs to genus- Rubulavirus, and family- paramyxoviridae.*It is an enveloped, non- segmented, negative – sense RNA virus with helical symmetry.<br />*It has two major surface glycoproteins : the haemgglutinin –neuraminidase andthe fusion protein. *Mumps virus is sensitiveto heat and ultraviolet light. *Only one serotype is known<br />
  4. 4. SOURCE OF INFECTION* Both clinical and subclinical cases.* Subclinical cases ( 30-40% ), appear to be responsible for maintaining the cycle of infection.* The virus can be isolated from saliva, surface of stenson’s duct, blood, urine, human milk and occasionally in the CSF.<br />
  5. 5. PERIOD OF COMMUNICABILITY* Usually 4-6 days before the onset of symptoms and a week thereafter.* The maximum infectivity is just before and at the onset of parotitis.* Once the swelling of the gland has subsided, the case is no longer infectious.* SAR – 85 Percent. <br />
  6. 6. HOST FACTORS* Humans are the only natural hosts.* Peak incidence is among 5-9 years.* No age is exempt if there is no previous immunity.* The disease is more severe in adults.* One attack confers life long immunity.* Infants below 6 months are immune because of maternal antibodies. <br />
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENT* In hot climates, the disease is endemic throughout the year.* In temperate climates, incidence peaks in winter and spring.* Epidemics are associated with overcrowding.<br />
  8. 8. TRANSMISSION* Droplet infection.* Direct contact with infected person.INCUBATION PERIOD* Ranges from 2-3 weeks.Usually 18 days<br />
  9. 9. CLINICAL FEATURES*prodromal illness of headache,malaise,myalgia and low gradefever occurs for 1-2 days before the onset of parotid<br /> enlargement. *Cases of classic mumps develop enlargement ofone parotid gland, followed a few days later by enlargementof the contralateral gland. *The patient complains of pain and<br /> tenderness in the area of the gland. <br />
  10. 10. * The sub – mandibularand sublingual glands may occasionally be involved. * Parotidswelling develops in 95% of those with clinical illness. * Up to 30%of patients may have no or very mild symptoms (sub – clinical<br /> cases). * Most infections in children below two years of age aresubclinical.* The swelling subsides in 1-2 weeks.<br />
  11. 11. COMPLICATIONS* Aseptic meningitis ( occurs in 10 % of patients )* Epididymo-orchitisoccurs in about 25% ofpostpubertal men .Testicular atrophyoccurs in about one - third of patients with mumps orchitis, butsterility is rare. Mumps orchitis appears to be a risk factor fortesticular cancer, though not a major one*Oophoritiscan occur in postpubertal women.* Spontaneous abortionAmong women who acquire mumps during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy<br />
  12. 12. * Pancreatitismumps virus can infect human pancreatic beta cells, and may<br /> trigger the onset of insulin - dependent diabetes mellitus in<br /> some individuals.* Deafness Mumps is one of the main infectious causes of sensori neural deafness.* Hepatitis* Myocarditis* Thyroiditis* Encephalitis<br />
  13. 13. MANAGEMENT* Mumps is a mild, self limited disease. * No specific anti – viral therapy is indicated. * Treatment is conservative.* Analgesics may be given for severe headaches or discomfort due to parotitis.<br />* In orchitis, stronger analgesics may be needed.* Bed rest is recommended for a faster recovery.<br />
  14. 14. PREVENTION* The first vaccinedeveloped against mumps was a killed vaccine which wasusedin the United States between 1950 and 1978.* live attenuated mumps virus vaccines have been developed based on several different strains. * The common ones are the Jeryl - Lynn strains, RIT 4385 strains, Leningrad - 3 strains, L - Zagreb strains, Urabe strains & the Rubini strains .* The recommended use is the form of a single dose schedule, given at age 12 - 18 months.<br />
  15. 15. * MMR vaccine is manufactured by The Serum Institute of India. The strains used are * L - Zagreb for mumps,<br /> *Edmonston Zagreb for measles and *Plotkins RA 27/3 for rubella<br />

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