Why Sex Education


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Why Sex Education

  1. 1. Why sex education ? Dr.Sujnanendra Mishra.MD (O&G )
  2. 2. What A DOCTOR to say ON HIV/AIDS
  3. 3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) <ul><li>A virus that attacks the bodies immune system. HIV is attracted to white blood cells called CD4s. It invades the WBC and reproduces millions of viral strands within a mere day. Then the WBC dies leaving the body without a form of defense to fight off other viruses, infections, bacteria, cancers, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Is HIV and AIDS the same thing? <ul><li>NO! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) <ul><li>AIDS is caused by HIV. It is the last stage of the HIV infection. </li></ul><ul><li>When the immune system becomes so weak that it can no longer defend the body against any pathogen whether normal intestinal bacteria or external bacteria, viruses, cancer, parasites, etc. These are called opportunistic infections which do not make healthy people sick. </li></ul>
  6. 6. FACTS: <ul><li>AIDS was first reported in the United States in 1981 and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. More than 830,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S. since 1981. As many as 950,000 Americans may be infected with HIV, 25% of whom are unaware of their infection. The epidemic is growing rapidly among minority populations and is the leading killer in African-American males age 25-44. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How is HIV Transmitted? <ul><li>Unprotected sexual relationships with an infected partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with infected blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Needle sharing/Needle sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy/birth/breast milk transmission from mother to baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood/Blood Component transfusions . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Unprotected Sexual Contact with an Infected Partner! <ul><li>The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, female external genitalia, penis, rectum or mouth during sex. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Needle Sharing & Needle Sticks <ul><li>Frequently spread among injection drug users by sharing of needles or syringes contaminated with very small quantities of blood from someone infected with HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely spread by accidental sticks with contaminated needles or other medical instruments. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pregnancy/Birth/Breast Milk Transmission from Mother to Baby. <ul><li>Approximately 25%-33% of all untreated pregnant women infected with HIV will pass the infection to their babies. </li></ul><ul><li>If the mother is treated with AZT (antiretroviral drug for HIV) and deliver Cesarean section, the chances of the baby being infected can be reduced to a rate of 1%. WOW!! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Blood/Blood Components Transfusions prior to 1985 <ul><li>Before 1985 blood was not screened for evidence of HIV infection . </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREMELY SMALL RISK NOW due to screening . The tests are more than 99% accurate now(ARC, 1998). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Summary of HIV Transmission? Blood Sex Birth
  13. 13. Fluids that are not currently known to spread HIV, UNLESS THEY CONTAIN VISIBLE BLOOD! <ul><li>Feces </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal Secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat </li></ul><ul><li>Tears </li></ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul><ul><li>Vomit </li></ul>
  14. 14. YOU CAN NOT GET HIV FROM: <ul><li>Coughing, sneezing or spitting. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating foods prepared or served by someone else. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking fountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Toilets or showers. </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs, desks, pencils or paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers and other classroom equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Playground equipment and swimming pools </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes or other insects </li></ul><ul><li>Social kisses or hugs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. HIV CAN INFECT ANYONE WHO PRACTICES RISKY BEHAVIORS!! <ul><li>Sharing drug needles or syringes. </li></ul><ul><li>Having sexual contact with an infected person person without using a CONDOM. </li></ul><ul><li>Having sexual contact with someone whose HIV status is unknown (25% do not know they are infected). </li></ul>
  16. 16. SYMPTOMS OF HIV <ul><li>Many people do not have any symptoms when they first become infected with HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>Some do have flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to the virus. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LENGTH OF SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Usually the symptoms will disappear within a week to a month and are mistakes for those of a viral infection. </li></ul><ul><li>More persistent or severe symptoms may not appear for 10 years. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Symptoms Experienced Months to Years Before the Onset of AIDS. <ul><li>Lack of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent fever and sweats </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent or frequent yeast infections (oral or vaginal) </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent skin rashes or flaky skin </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic inflammatory disease in women that is not responding to treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term memory loss </li></ul>
  19. 19. When does a person have AIDS? <ul><li>A term that applies to the most advanced form of HIV infection. </li></ul><ul><li>CDC defines this as being HIV + and have a white blood cell (CD4 + T cells) of 200 or less per cubic millimeter of blood (Healthy adults have approximately 1,000 or more). </li></ul><ul><li>The HIV + person will also have one of the 26 clinical conditions or opportunistic infections that affect people with advanced HIV infection. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Children with AIDS <ul><li>Children with AIDS get the same symptoms as adults with additional severe forms of bacterial infections like conjunctivitis (pink eye), ear infections and tonsillitis. </li></ul>
  21. 21. West Virginia Ages 0-19 with HIV/AIDS from June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Under 5 y.o.= 13 (1%) </li></ul><ul><li>5-12 y.o. = 3 (<1%) </li></ul><ul><li>13-19 y.o.= 54 (3%) </li></ul>
  22. 22. What are Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)/ Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)? <ul><li>STDs/STIs are pathogens transmitted through sexual relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes, </li></ul><ul><li>warts(human papilloma virus) and hepatitis. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Risk Behaviors for WV population with HIV/AIDS June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log <ul><li>Pediatric (Total =9) </li></ul><ul><li>Mother with/at HIV Risk=15 (94%) </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent/Adult (Total=1228) </li></ul><ul><li>Men who have sex with Men (MSM)=1080 (51%) </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Drug Use (IDU)=358 (17%) </li></ul><ul><li>Heterosexual Contact=357 (16%) </li></ul>
  24. 27. Note the TRENDS! Help STOP the transmission of HIV/AIDS in our youth and young adults!
  25. 28. “ Do what you can do with what you have where you are”. Theodore Roosevelt
  26. 29. Watch your self – It is only in your hands for AIDS FREE INDIA Thank you Dr.Sujnanendra Mishra MD(O&G) Ph: 9437034224