The epidermis is composed of 4 or 5 layers depending on the region
of skin being considered
The epidermis is the topmost layer, and consists primarily of
The epidermis is separated from the dermis, its underlying tissue, by
a basement membrane.
The epidermis is avascular, nourished by diffusion from the dermis,
constituted at 95% of keratinocytes but also containing melanocytes,
Langerhans cells, Merkel cells, and inflammatory cells.
Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sublayers or strata:
Stratum germinativum (also called "stratum basale").
Those layers in descending order are cornified layer (stratum corneum)
Composed of 10 to 30 layers of polyhedral, anucleated corneocytes (final step
of keratinocyte differentiation), with the palms and soles having the most layers.
Corneocytes are surrounded by a protein envelope (cornified envelope proteins), filled with water
retaining keratin proteins, attached together through corneodesmosomes and surrounded in
the extracellular space by stacked layers of lipids.
Most of the barrier functions of the epidermis localize to this layer.clear/translucent layer (stratum
lucidum, only in palms and soles)
The skin found in the palms and soles is known as "thick skin" because it has 5 epidermal layers
instead of 4.granular layer (stratum granulosum)
Keratinocytes lose their nuclei and their cytoplasm appears granular. Lipids, contained into
those keratinocytes within lamellar bodies, are released into the extracellular space
through exocytosis to form a lipid barrier. Those polar lipids are then converted into nonpolar lipids and arranged parallel to the cell surface. For
example glycosphingolipids become ceramides and phospholipids become free fatty
acids.[spinous layer (stratum spinosum)
Keratinocytes become connected through desmosomes and start produce lamellar bodies, from
within the Golgi, enriched in polar lipids,glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and
catabolic enzymes. Langerhans cells, immunologically active cells, are located in the middle of
this layer.basal/germinal layer (stratum basale/germinativum).
Composed mainly of proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes, attached to the basement
membrane by hemidesmosomes. Melanocytes are present, connected to
numerouskeratinocytes in this and other strata through dendrites.
Merkel cells are also found in the stratum basale with large numbers in touch-sensitive sites such
as the fingertips and lips. They are closely associated with cutaneous nerves and seem to be
involved in light touch sensation.The term Malpighian layer (stratum malpighi) is usually defined as
both the stratum basale and stratum spinosum.
The dermis lies below the epidermis, and consists
primarily of fibroblasts, collagen, and elastic fibers
The dermis is the layer of skin beneath
the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and
cushions the body from stress and strain.
The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by
a basement membrane.
The dermis is structurally divided into two areas: a
superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called
the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as
the reticular region
It also harbors many nerve endings that provide the
sense of touch and heat.
It is between 1-4 mm thick (depending on age
and body location), making it much thicker
than the epidermis.
It contains the hair follicles, sweat
glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine
glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.
The blood vessels in the dermis provide
nourishment and waste removal from its own
cells as well as from the Stratum basale of the
Below the dermis lies fat, also called
subcutis, panniculus, or hypodermis.
Blood capillaries are found beneath the
epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and
Arterial shunt vessels may bypass the
network in ears, the nose and fingertips.
Vitamin D producer
There are at least five different pigments that determine
the color of the skin.
These pigments are present at different levels and
1. Melanin: It is brown in color and present in the
germinative zone of the epidermis.
2. Melanoid: It resembles melanin but is present
diffusely throughout the epidermis.
3. Carotene: This pigment is yellow to orange in color. It
is present in the stratum corneum and fat cells of
dermis and superficial fascia.
4. Hemoglobin (also spelled haemoglobin): It is found in
blood and is not a pigment of the skin but develops a
5. Oxyhemoglobin: It is also found in blood and is not a
pigment of the skin. It develops a red color.
Nutrition for healthy skin
1. Vitamin A, also known as retinoids, benefits the skin
by normalizing keratinization,
downregulating sebum production which contributes
to acne, and reversing and treating photodamage,
striae, and cellulite.
2. Vitamin D and analogs are used to downregulate
the cutaneous immune system and epithelial
proliferation while promoting differentiation.
3. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that regulates collagen
synthesis, forms barrier lipids, regenerates vitamin
E, and provides photoprotection.
4. Vitamin E is a membrane antioxidant that protects
against oxidative damage and also provides
protection against harmful UV rays.
The Skin: History
•History of present illness (HPI)
•Past medical history (PMH)-previous problems
•Family history-skin CA, psoriasis, allergy, infestations and
•Social history•Review of email@example.com
When did it start?
Does it itch, burn, or hurt?
Is this the first episode?
Where on the body did it start?-Location
How has it spread (pattern of spread)?
How have individual lesions changed (evolution)?
• Previous treatments and response?
o Timing of Attacks
o Topical agents
o Drug history
o Season of year
The Total Body Skin Exam (TBSE) includes
inspection of the entire skin surface, including:
• the scalp, hair, and nails
• the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, anus, and
aids/Essential elements for the skin exam:
Undressed patient, in a
• Preferably without
makeup, watches, jew
An open mind about what
you are seeing
Accurately records the size of a lesion on
Measure in the longest axis first, then in the
• e.g., this papule is 6x4 mm
Dermatoscopes --Magnify the lesions with a hand
lens or using epiluminescence microscopy (using a
hand lens with magnification and lighting built in to
better visualize lesions)
Inexpensive magnifying glasses may help detect
• Avoid LED lights, which cast a blue hue
A penlight is used for side lighting
Detects atrophy and fine wrinkling
• Flat from raised lesions
• Whether lesions are solid or fluid-filled
Also helps look inside the mouth
Use diascopy (press a transparent, firm object
such as a glass slide against a lesion) to
determine if an erythematous lesion blanches.
Use a wood’s lamp (long wavelength ultraviolet
light) to examine if a lesion is hypo or
depigmented or to see if a fungal infection
Skin- or flesh-colored
Hypopigmented vs hyperpigmented
Dark purple (purpura)
Size, Shape, Color
Elevated or depressed
Three categories of
of the lesion
groups of lesions
3.The morphology of
the individual lesions
Distribution means location on the body
Configuration means how the lesions are
arranged or relate to each other
Macule – A flat, colored lesion, <2cm in
not raised above the surface of
Freckle – prototype of pigmented macule
Non-palpable lesion with distinct borders,
less than 1 cm in diameter
Non-palpable change in skin color with
distinct borders localized changes in skin
Areas may be small or large; occur in many
shapes and colors.
may be associated with desquamation or
e.g- rubeola, rubella, secondary syphilis,
rose spots of typhoid fever, drug eruptions,
petechiae, purpura, first degree burns,
systemic lupus erythematosus, pityriasis
rosea and vitiligo
Fluid-containing, superficial, thin-walled
cavity less than 1 cm
raised, fluid-filled lesions are
e.g-varicella with vesicles and bullae
acute eczematous dermatitis, seconddegree burns
*Pus containing, superficial,thin-walled
cavity, frequently arise from hair follicles or
sweat glands. Pus is made up of leukocytes and
a thin fluid called liquor puris (L. “pus liquid”)
examples: acne,furuncles,and bromide and iodide
eruptions, Inflammatory acne, furuncles, and
bromide and iodide eruptions.
*Palpable, solid lesion less than 1 cm in diameter
*A small, solid lesion, <0.5 cm in diameter,
raised above the surface of surrounding skin &
Borders and tops may be in various forms
–round or irregular --senile angiomas,
eczematous dermatitis, secondary
–pedunculate – neurofibromas
Eg: white head in acne, blue nevus
*A large ( 0.5 – 5.0 cm ), firm lesion raised above
the surface of surrounding skin.
*A raised area in the skin where the overlying
epidermis looks and feels normal, but there is a
proliferation of cells in deeper tissues is called a
*Differs from papule only in size
*Rubbery, Mobile, Non-tender
Palpable, solid lesion greater than 1 cm in
A large >1cm, flat topped raised lesion, edges may
either be distinct ( in psoriasis ) or gradually blend
with surrounding skin ( in eczematous dermatitis )
Yellow -- xanthomas
brown -- seborrheic warts
Red scaling plaques -- psoriasis, pityriasis rosea
E.g- Urticaria, psoriasis
A dilated superficial blood vessel.
*Angioectasias (also known as spider veins) are small dilated blood
vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes,
measuring between 0.5 and 1 millimeter in diameter.
*They can develop anywhere on the body but are commonly seen on the
face around the nose, cheeks, and chin.
*They can also develop on the legs, specifically on the upper thigh,
below the knee joint, and around the ankles.
*They may be composed of abnormal aggregations
of arterioles, capillaries, or venules.
*Because telangiectasias are vascular lesions, they blanch when tested
*Telangiectasia is a component of the CREST variant of scleroderma
(CREST is an acronym that stands for calcinosis, Raynaud's
phenomenon,esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia.)
Telangiectasias may develop anywhere within the body but can
be easily seen in the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of
the eyes. Usually, they do not cause symptoms. However, some
telangiectasias bleed and cause significant problems.
Telangiectasias may also occur in the brain and cause major
problems from bleeding.
e.g-Cushing's syndrome Venous hypertension
varicose and telangiectatic leg veins liver disease. Chronic
treatment withuse,Aging,Genetics,Pregnancy,Sun exposure
Causes----Alcohol topical corticosteroids
Diseases associated with this condition include:
Ataxia - telangiectasia
Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome)
Nevus flammeus such as port-wine stain
Petechiae – pinhead-sized macules of extravascular
blood in the dermis.
Petechiae are flat.
A petechia (Lural petechiae) is a small (1 - 2 mm) red or
purple spot on the body, caused by a
minor hemorrhage (brokencapillary blood vessels).
"Petechiae" refers to one of the three major classes
of purpuric skin conditions.
Purpuric eruptions are classified by size into three broad
Petechiae is generally used to refer to the smallest of the
three classes of purpuric skin eruptions, those that
measure less than 3 mm.
The larger ones are referred to as purpura
Purpura (from Latin: purpura, meaning
"purple") is the appearance of red or
purple discolorations on the skin that do
not blanch on applying pressure.
They are caused by bleeding underneath the skin usually
secondary to vasculitis or dietary deficiency of vitamin C
Purpura measure 0.3–1 cm (3–10 mm),
whereas petechiae measure less than 3 mm,
and ecchymoses greater than 1 cm.
This is common with typhus and can be present
with meningitis caused by meningococcal meningitis
In particular, meningococcus (Neisseria meningitidis), a Gramnegative diplococcus organism, releases endotoxin when it
Endotoxin activates the Hageman factor (clotting factor XII),
which causes disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
The DIC is what appears as a rash on the affected individual.
If bleeding involves deeper structures
then it is an ecchymosis
a discoloration of the skin resulting from
bleeding underneath, typically caused by
An ecchymosis is the medical term for a
subcutaneouspurpura (extravasation of blood)
larger than 1 centimeter or a hematoma,
commonly, but erroneously, called a bruise.
That is, bruises are caused by trauma whereas
ecchymoses, a type of purpura, are not caused
A broader definition of ecchymosis is the
escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured
The term also applies to the subcutaneous
discoloration resulting from seepage of blood
within the contused tissue.
Erythema is a skin condition characterized by
redness or rash.
Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red)
is redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the
capillaries in the lower layers of the skin.
There are many types of erythema, including
photosensitivity, erythema multiforme, and
It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or
Photosensitivity is caused by a reaction to sunlight and tends to occur
when something, such as an infection or a medication, increases your
sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.
Erythema multiforme is characterized by raised spots or other lesions
on the skin. It is usually caused by a reaction to medications,
infections (especially herpes simplex virus), or illness.
Erythema nodosum is a form of erythema that is accompanied by
tender lumps, usually on the legs below the knees, and may be caused
by certain medications or diseases.
Erythema ab igne
Erythema chronicum migrans
Erythema infectiosum (or fifth disease)
Erythema multiforme (EM)
Keratolytic winter erythema
A hematoma or haematoma, is a localized
collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually
in liquid form within the tissue.
An ecchymosis, commonly called a bruise, is a
hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm.
Internal bleeding is generally considered to be a
spreading of blood within the abdomen or skull, not
It is not to be confused with hemangioma which is an
abnormal build up of blood vessels in the skin or
Subdermal hematoma (under the skin)
– Subgaleal hematoma – between the galea aponeurosis and periosteum
– Cephalohematoma – between the periosteum and skull. Commonly caused by
vacuum delivery and vertex delivery.
– Epidural hematoma – between the skull and dura mater
– Subdural hematoma – between the dura mater and arachnoid mater
– Subarachnoid hematoma – between the arachnoid mater and pia
mater (the subarachnoid space)
– Othematoma – between the skin and the layers of cartilage of the ear
Perichondral hematoma (ear)
Perianal hematoma (anus)
Subungual hematoma (nail)
Petechiae – small pinpoint hematomas less than 3 mm in diameter
Purpura (purple) – a bruise about 1 cm in diameter, generally round in shape
Ecchymosis – subcutaneous extravasation of blood in a thin layer under the skin,
i.e. bruising or "black and blue," over 1 cm in diameter
A plug of keratin and sebum wedged in dilated pilosebaceous orifice.
Comedones are the skin-coloured, small bumps (papules) frequently found on
the forehead and chin of those with acne.
Open comedones are blackheads; black because of surface pigment (melanin)
rather than dirt
Closed comedones are whiteheads; the follicle is completely blocked
Macrocomedones are facial closed comedones that are larger than 2-3 mm in
Solar comedones are found on the cheeks and chin of older people, and are
thought to be due to sun damage.
Larger and deeper uninflamed bumps are called nodules. They are more
common on the trunk than on the face
The cells lining the sebaceous duct proliferate excessively in acne (cornification)
and may block the sebaceous duct forming a comedone.
These may be so small that they are not visible to the naked eye
• A comedo is a clogged hair follicle (pore) in the
skin. Keratin (skin debris) combines with oil to block the follicle.
• A comedo can be open (blackhead) or closed by skin (whitehead),
and occur with or without acne.
• The word comedo comes from Latin to suggest the worm-like look
of a blackhead that has been secreted.
• The plural of comedo is comedones.
• The chronic inflammatory condition that usually includes both
comedones and inflamed papules and pustules (pimples) is
called acne. Infection causes inflammation and the
development of pus.
• Whether or not a skin condition classifies as acne depends on the
amount of comedones and infection.
• Comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is not related to the
skin conditions discussed here.
• DCIS is a non-invasive form of breast cancer, but comedo-type
DCIS may be more aggressive and so may be more likely to
A linear or cuvillinear papule, caused by
burrowing scabies mite
Burrows are linear lesions produced by infestation
of the skin and formation of tunnels (e.g., with
infestation by the scabitic mite or by cutaneous
Linear or serpiginous (wavy, serpent-like
borders) tunnels within the epidermis. The small
and short tunnels ofscabies are an example.
Microscopic examination of a skin biopsy or the skin
scrapings done at time of clinical examination. The
outer layers of eggs ( called ‘egg casings) and mites
appear eosinophilic (pink) and scybala (feces)
appear brown. These are present in the stratum
corneum. The dermal inflammation contains
eosinophils, as a response to the parasitic infection.
A cyst is a closed tumorous lesion covered
by a membranous lining, which does not
always elevate above the skin.
examples: sebaceous and epidermal cysts
The covering consists of epithelial tissue
or connective tissue containing keratinous
substances (observed in epidermal cysts,
for example) or fluid components (e.g., in
eccrine and apocrine hydrocystomas)
elevated lesions containing fluid or
viscous material appear as papules or
distinction is made by puncturing to
examine their contents and depth
Thick-walled cavity containing pus
The organisms or foreign materials kill
the local cells, resulting in the release
The cytokines trigger an inflammatory
response, which draws large numbers
of white blood cells to the area and
increases the regional blood flow.
An abscess (Latin: abscessus) is a collection of pus (neutrophils)
that has accumulated within a tissue because of an inflammatory
process in response to either an infectious process (usually
caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g.,
splinters, bullet wounds, or injecting needles). It is a defensive
reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials
to other parts of the body.
The organisms or foreign materials kill the local cells, resulting in
the release of cytokines. The cytokines trigger an inflammatory
response, which draws large numbers of white blood cells to the
area and increases the regional blood flow.
The final structure of the abscess is an abscess wall, or capsule,
that is formed by the adjacent healthy cells in an attempt to keep
the pus from infecting neighboring structures. However, such
encapsulation tends to prevent immune cells from attacking
bacteria in the pus, or from reaching the causative organism or
Abscesses must be differentiated from empyemas, which are
accumulations of pus in a preexisting rather than a newly formed
o Papilloma is a general medical term for
a tumor of the skin or mucous
membrane with finger-like projections.
o Papillomas are also known as neoplasms.
o While the vast majority of papillomas
are benign (noncancerous), they can
occasionally be dysplastic (precancerous)
or malignant (cancerous).
o Papillomas can occur in areas throughout the body.
o Papillomas on the skin (cutaneous papillomas) are commonly
referred to as warts.
o They occur on areas such as the hands, feet and knees.
Papillomas can also occur in the nose, brain, genitals,
conjunctiva of the eye, and female breast ducts.
o Papilloma in the throat, windpipe and lungs is a rare disease
called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP).
o Most papillomas are caused by a virus.
o The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than
150 viruses that can cause papillomas. HPVs can cause
papillomas of the skin, genitals, mouth, eyes and throat.
Certain HPVs can cause cervical cancer in women.
o Some types of papilloma have other, nonviral, causes.
o For example, nasal papilloma may be caused by a tissue
injury. In addition, there are types of papillomas that do not
have known causes. These include intraductal (breast duct)
papilloma and choroid plexus papilloma (a rare benign brain
tumor most often seen in young children).
A benign papillomatous tumor derived from epithelium. Cauliflowerlike projections that arise from the mucosal surface. It may appear
white or normal colored. It may be pedunculated or sessile. The
average size is less than 2.0 cm. No strong sex preference. The most
common site was the palate-uvula area followed by tongue and lips.
The durations ranged from weeks to 10 years. There is no evidence
that papillomas are premalignant.
Papilloma (plural papillomas or papillomata) refers to
a benign epithelial tumor growing exophytically (outwardly
projecting) in nipple-like and often finger-like fronds.
In this context papilla refers to the projection created by the tumor,
not a tumor on an already existing papilla (such as the nipple).
When used without context, it frequently refers to infections
(squamous cell papilloma) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV),
such as warts.
There are, however, a number of other conditions that cause
papilloma, as well as many cases in which there is no known
cause.Human papillomavirus infection is a major cause of cervical
cancer, although most HPV infections do not cause cancer.
Poikiloderma is a skin condition that consists of
hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, telangiec
tasias and atrophy.
Poikiloderma is most frequently seen on the
chest or the neck, characterized by red colored
pigment on the skin that is commonly associated
with sun damage.
e.g--Poikiloderma vasculare , atrophicans Poikiloderma of
Civatte, Hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma
The exact cause of poikiloderma is unknown; however, extended sun
exposure, namely the ultraviolet light emitted by the sun, is the primary factor
Mendes da Costa Syndrome
Other Heriditary Causes
Hereditary Sclerosing Poikiloderma of Weary
Diffuse and Macular Atrophic Dermatosis
Injury to cold, heat, ionizing radiation, exposure to sensitizing chemicals
Cutaneous T Cell Lymphomas
Secondary skin lesion:
Changes in skin which are superimposed or are
the consequence of the primary process
Scaling is the abnormal thickening of the skin surface
and formation of scaly white lamellae from the
accumulation of horny cell layers.
Detachment of scales from the skin surface is called
desquamation. Since the normal horny cell layers
lamellae cannot be seen by the naked eye.
Scales are observed when multiple horny cell layers
pathologically exfoliate in diseases such as psoriasis
Crust is solidified keratin and exudate that
forms on an erosion or on ulcerous skin.
A crust of clotted blood is called a bloody crust
(commonly called a scab).
Crusts are a sign of pyogenic infection
e.g-Impetigo with honey colored crust
Dried serum, blood or
Impetigo with honey
Erosions are loss of the epidermis
They may occur after a vesicle forms and the top peels
A skin defect where there has been loss of the
epidermis only e.g-toxic epidermal necrolysis
A skin defect where there has been loss of the
They weep and become crusted
This is an example of a secondary change or
Area of skin denuded by complete or partial loss of
No associated loss of dermis
If an erosion involves the dermis, it is
An area of skin from which the whole of
epidermis & atleast the upper part of
dermis has been lost
A skin defect where there has been loss of
the epidermis and dermis
e.gPyoderma gangrenosum traumatic
ulcers, burns, and stasis ulcers
(L. ulcus, “sore”)
Ulcers often heal with scarring; erosions usually
Erosions and ulcers are secondary lesions
Secondary lesions (or changes) may evolve from
primary lesions, or may be caused by external
forces such as scratching, trauma, infection, or
the healing process.
Gangrene---extensive destruction of the skin -- may leave
many dead cells that become blackened
Linear, angular erosions that may be
covered by crust and are caused by
Superficial excavation of the epidermis
that results from scratching
E.g- Linear excoriations in a patient with
o A slit- shaped deep ulcer
o In anatomy,a fissure (Latin fissura, plural fissurae
) is a groove, natural division, deep furrow,
elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the
Eg: Irritant dermatitis of hands/foot.
A skin fissure is a cutaneous condition in
which there is a linear-like cleavage
of skin, sometimes defined as extending
into the dermis.
It is smaller than a skin laceration. A skin
area on which there are many skin
fissures is called cracked skin, and is
most commonly a result of skin dryness.
Ichthyosis is a genetic disorder where
there is often severe skin cracking.
A accquired loss of substance .
In skin,this may appear as a depression with intact
epidermis ( loss of dermal /subdermal tissues ) Or appear as
sites of shiny, delicate, wrinkled lesions (epidermal atrophy
Epidermal atrophy results from a decrease in the number of
epidermal cell layers.
Dermal atrophy results from a decrease in the dermal
e.g-Steroid Induced Atrophy:Many years of inappropriate
application of topical steroids have led to local changes and
A distinctive thickening of skin that is
characterized by accenuated skin-fold
Lichenification – skin thickening that is the
result of chronic rubbing leading to
accentuation of normal skin lines.
A change in the skin secondary to trauma or
Sites may be erythematous,hypopigmented or
hyperpigmented depending upon their age
Scar- a lesion formed as a result of dermal
Keloid is a benign overgrowth of the connective
tissue of the skin consequent to an abnormal
healing process of the skin in predisposed
Keloid can cause serious aesthetic and
occasionally functional disabilities.
Keloid occur in all races but it is most common
and severe in the black race.
A keloid (also keloidal scar) is the formation that a
type of scar which, depending on its maturity, is
composed mainly of either type III (early) or type I
It is a result of an overgrowth of granulation tissue
(collagen type 3) at the site of a healed skin injury
which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1.
Keloids are firm, rubbery lesions or shiny,
fibrous nodules, and can vary from pink to fleshcoloured or red to dark brown in colour.
A keloid scar is benign and not contagious, but
sometimes accompanied by severe itchiness,
pain, and changes in texture.
In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin.
Keloids should not be confused with hypertrophic
scars, which are raised scars that do not grow
beyond the boundaries of the original wound.
A streak like, linear , atrophic, pink, purple or
white lesion d/t changes in connective tissue
Eg: cushings syndrome, pregnancy induced
Stretch marks or striae (singular stria), as they are called
in dermatology, are a form of scarring on the skin with an offcolor hue.
They are caused by tearing of the dermis, which over time
may diminish, but will not disappear completely.
Stretch marks are often the result of the rapid stretching of
the skin associated with rapid growth or rapid weight
Stretch marks may also be influenced by hormonal changes
associated with puberty, pregnancy, bodybuilding, hormone
replacement therapy, etc.
Medical terminology for these kinds of markings includes
striae atrophicae, vergetures, stria distensae, striae cutis
distensae, lineae atrophicae, linea albicante, or simply striae.
Stretch marks formed during pregnancy, usually during the
last trimester, and usually on the belly, but also commonly
occurring on the breasts, thighs, hips, lower back and
buttocks, are known as striae gravidarum.
*(Greek. Sklerosis - a hardening) Sclerosis is an
induration or hardening of the skin. It is often due to
*Sclerosis or sclerotizis (also spelled sclerosus in the
names of a few disorders) is a hardening of tissue and
other anatomical features
*In medicine, sclerosis refers to the stiffening of a
structure, usually caused by a replacement of the
normal organ-specific tissue with connective tissue.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sometimes known as motor neuron disease or Lou
Gehrig's disease, a progressive, incurable, usually fatal disease of motor neurons.
Atherosclerosis, a deposit of fatty materials, such as cholesterol, in the arteries
which causes hardening.
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis is a disease that attacks the kidney's filtering
system (glomeruli) causing serious scarring and thus a cause of nephrotic
syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as an important cause of kidney
failure in adults.
Hippocampal sclerosis, a brain damage often seen in individuals with temporal
Lichen sclerosus, a disease that hardens the connective tissues of the vagina of
women and the penis of men. An autoimmune disorder.
Liver sclerosis is a common misspelling of cirrhosis of the liver.
Multiple sclerosis, or Focal Sclerosis, is a central nervous system disease which
Osteosclerosis, a condition where the bone density is significantly increased.
Otosclerosis, a disease of the ears.
Systemic sclerosis (progressive systemic scleroderma), a rare, chronic disease
which affects the skin, and in some cases also blood vessels and internal organs.
Tuberous sclerosis, a rare genetic disease which affects multiple systems.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis, a hardening of the bile duct by scarring and
Primary lateral sclerosis, progressive muscle weakness in the voluntary muscles.
Primary and Secondary Lesions
Spooning - kiolonychia
No abnormalities - General Statement
about overall skin assessment:
– Skin is warm, smooth and well hydrated.
Full hair distribution on scalp, axilla, and
genitalia. Nails are neatly trimmed and
without deformity. No discrete lesions