Come ogni nuova convergenza tecnologica l''Augmented Reality ridefinisce l'esperienza del corpo attraverso lo spazio e lo spazio attraverso i codici. Il buzz che circonda l'AR individua oggi un punto di convergenza tra tecnologie mature, sovraccarico delle potenzialità del presente.
Virtual Reality...oh no VR, experience is one “in which the user is effectively immersed in a responsive virtual world.”
Virtual Reality: Jaron Lanier In February of 1998, Sun acquired the patent portfolio of VPL Research Inc., Jaron Lanier's former company that pioneered the development of virtual reality. At the time Lanier remarked, "I'm delighted that Sun has acquired VPL's assets. Sun's commitment to open systems and the Java paradigm will provide a superb context for the formulation of competitive strategies by both VR users and developers. The next generation of applications will have to deal with a level of complexity that other leading platforms cannot address. Virtual reality-based applications will be needed in order to manage giant databases and networks, advanced medical imaging, and fast turn-around mechanical design. And all of these mega-applications will have to support real time collaboration over the net. Sun is in an ideal position to enable this new level of productivity ."
Virtual Reality... Morton Heilig Heilig's Sensorama (1956) The Telesphere Mask Morton Heilig’s “Telesphere Mask,” was the forbearer of the modern Head-Mounted Display or HMD.
Augmented Reality WOW-NOW Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are merged with (or augmented by) virtual computer-generated imagery - creating a mixed reality. The augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements (Wikipedia)
Realtà aumentata...progetto d’immortalità? Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are merged with (or augmented by) virtual computer-generated imagery - creating a mixed reality. The augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements (Wikipedia)
Realtà aumentata: occhio per occhio DOMANDA: La realtà aumentata è una variante della realtà virtuale? Se nella realtà virtuale l’utente è completamente immerso in un ambiente sintetico, nella realtà aumentata l’utente vedrà elementi virtuali sovrapposti ad un ambiente reale
Realtà aumentata & matrix Augmented reality research explores the application of computer-generated imagery in live-video streams as a way to expand the real-world. Advanced research includes use of head-mounted displays and virtual retinal displays for visualization purposes, and construction of controlled environments containing any number of sensors and actuators.
R eality, improved Sep 3rd 2009 From The Economist print edition Computing: Thanks to mobile phones, augmented reality could be far more accessible—and useful—than virtual reality VIRTUAL reality never quite lived up to the hype. In the 1990s films such as “Lawnmower Man” and “The Matrix” depicted computer-generated worlds in which people could completely immerse themselves. In some respects this technology has become widespread: think of all those video-game consoles capable of depicting vivid, photorealistic environments, for example. What is missing, however, is a convincing sense of immersion. Virtual reality (VR) doesn’t feel like reality. These sorts of application really are just the beginning, says Dr Huopaniemi. Virtual reality never really died, he says—it just divided itself in two, with AR enhancing the real world by overlaying information from the virtual realm, and VR becoming what he calls “augmented virtuality”, in which real information is overlaid onto virtual worlds, such as players’ names in video games. AR may be a relatively recent arrival, but its potential is huge, he suggests. “It’s a very natural way of exploring what’s around you.” But trying to imagine how it will be used is like trying to forecast the future of the web in 1994. The building-blocks of the technology have arrived and are starting to become more widely available. Now it is up to programmers and users to decide how to use them. AR: the way the real works..
Virtual Light – William Gibson The plot centers around a young bike messanger who steals a pair of innocent-looking glasses from a man at a party. She doesn’t realize what they do, nor does she realize what dangerous information they have on them. The “virtual-light” glasses are obviously AR glasses (upon my 5th reading twenty years later), but its interesting how the data is very localized. The use of AR is limited (most of it doesn’t come until the end), but captures the essence of the technology. The novel was a finalist for the Hugo and Locus Awards. Spook Country – William Gibson Gibson’s novel brings us geolocative art that can only be seen with VR helmets. It’s not entirely AR, but its close enough to draw similar conclusions. In a quote I like, which sums up the transition from cyberpunk to post-cyberpunk to augpunk (or whatever it should be called) Gibson says: If the book has a point to make where we are now with cyberspace, is that cyberspace has colonized our everyday life and continues to colonize everyday AR: l’immaginario collettivo e gli anni ‘90
The first AR headset was developed in the mid-sixties by computer scientist, Ivan Sutherland. His device, nicknamed “The Sword Of Damocles”, was so cumbersome that it required a suspended frame hung from the ceiling in order to work. Using mirrors, it projected the illusion of a wireframe cube hovering over the space directly in front of the wearer. The weight of Sutherland’s HMD, and the need to track the head movements necessitated the HMD being attached to a mechanical arm suspended from the ceiling of the lab. The formidable appearance of the mechanism inspired its name. At this time, the various components being tested were not fully integrated with one another Ivan Sutherland. AR: all’inizio era Sutherland.. Sutherland’s 1965 Vision Display as a window into a virtual world Improve image generation until the picture looks real Computer maintains world model in real time User directly manipulates virtual objects Manipulated objects move realistically Immersion in virtual world via head-mounted display Virtual world also sounds real, feels real “ our objective in this project is to surround the user with displayed three-dimensional information “ The ultimate display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter. A chair displayed in such a room would be good enough to sit in. Handcuffs displayed in such a room would be confining, and a bullet displayed in such a room would be fatal. With appropriate programming such a display could literally be the Wonderland into which Alice walked.”
Artificial Reality: Myron Krueger The walls of the CAVE are made up of rear-projection screens, and the floor is made of a down-projection screen. High-resolution projectors display images on each of the screens by projecting the images onto mirrors which reflect the images onto the projection screens. The user will go inside of the CAVE wearing special glasses to allow for the 3-D graphic that are generated by the CAVE to be seen. With these glasses, people using the CAVE can actually see objects floating in the air, and can walk around them, getting a proper view of what the object would look like when they walk around it. This is made possible with electromagnetic sensors. The frame of the CAVE is made out of non-magnetic stainless steel in order to interfere as little as possible with the electromagnetic sensors. When a person walks around in the CAVE, their movements are tracked with these sensors and the video adjusts accordingly. as well.  In the mid-1970s, Myron Krueger established an artificial reality laboratory called the Videoplace. His idea with the Videoplace was the creation of an artificial reality that surrounded the users, and responded to their movements and action s, without being encumbered by the use of goggles or gloves
AR is the closest to the real environment because it consists mostly of real world images, with a minority of the images being computer-generated. Augmented virtuality is a term for applications that create a mostly virtual world, but which includes a few images from the real world. (1994) Virtuality Continuum : Paul Milgram
Tecnologie abilitanti e convergenti: tracking and registration
Artificial Reality indoor A conceptual drawing of a tracking system: The tracking system has two parts; specifically, six sensors that are attached to the user, and a set of light-emitting diodes attached to the ceiling. The sensors attached to the user look upwards at the ceiling, and from that position and knowing the location of the user sensors compared to the location of the LEDs, it is possible to calculate the precise position of the user in the room and project the virtual objects accordingly Magnetic trackers vs vision-based trackers !!!
Smartphone come mashup mobile di tecnologie convergenti gps/agps bussola videocamera markers cell network mobile internet wi-fi larger display multiple touch tecnology accelerometro Mobile AR: smart phones
AR esce dai laboratori e diventa wearable L’AR ourdoor struttura l’esperienza architettonica su diversi layer di dati, rimappa i real estates e li trasforma in media landscape AR outdoor
ARToolKit uses computer vision algorithms to solve this problem. The ARToolKit video tracking libraries calculate the real camera position and orientation relative to physical markers in real time. This enables the easy development of a wide range of Augmented Reality applications. Some of the features of ARToolKit include: * Single camera position/orientation tracking. * Tracking code that uses simple black squares. * The ability to use any square marker patterns. * Easy camera calibration code. * Fast enough for real time AR applications. * SGI IRIX, Linux, MacOS and Windows OS distributions. * Distributed with complete source code. ARToolKit is a software library for building Augmented Reality (AR) applications. These are applications that involve the overlay of virtual imagery on the real world. For example, in the image to the right a three-dimensional virtual character appears standing on a real card. It can be seen by the user in the head set display they are wearing. When the user moves the card, the virtual character moves with it and appears attached to the real object. One of the key difficulties in developing Augmented Reality applications is the problem of tracking the users viewpoint. In order to know from what viewpoint to draw the virtual imagery, the application needs to know where the user is looking in the real world. ARToolKit
* AS3 ported version of ARToolKit. * Actually, FLARToolKit is based on NyARToolkit, Java ported version of ARToolKit. * FLARToolKit recognize the marker from input image. and calculate its orientation and position in 3D world. * You should draw 3D graphics by your own. * But helper classes for major flash 3D engines (Papervision3D, Away3D, Sandy, Alternativa3D) are included. * Papervision3D is used in starter-kit. FLARToolKit GPL FLARToolKit is free to use for non-commercial applications under the GPL license. This means the complete source code for your application must be made available to anyone that asks for it. FLARToolKit is based on the ARToolKit library under the GPL license and so the source code for any FLARToolKit applications that are made needs to be GPL as well.
Questo dispositivo è stato realizzato dal laboratorio di Pattie Maes al MIT. Presente Minority Report? Ecco, stessa cosa – in versione beta, ma con qualche funzione in più. Si chiama “Sixth sense”: trattasi di un proiettore “sensibile”, che ti metti al collo, in grado di riconoscere tutta una serie di dati e oggetti esterni, e proiettare su di essi tutta un’altra serie di informazioni che li riguardano in tempo reale, da internet. Oltre a questo, offre la possibilità di proiettare dei widget di vario tipo. Che so, la tastiera di un telefono sulla mano, o un orologio sul polso. Tutto attivato da semplici gesti. Oppure, leggere il titolo di un articolo di giornale, e proiettare sul foglio un video legato all’argomento dell’articolo stesso. Insomma, “aumenta” la realtà e gli oggetti con cui interagiamo quotidianamente sovrapponendovi informazioni e contenuti di ogni tipo. “ Sixth sense”
Layar is a free application on your mobile phone which shows what is around you by displaying real time digital information on top of reality through the camera of your mobile phone. Layar is a global application, available for the T-Mobile G1, HTC Magic and other Android phones in all Android Markets. It also comes pre-installed on the Samsung Galaxy in the Netherlands. How do you use Layar? By holding the phone in front of you like a camera, information is displayed on top of the camera display view. For all points of interest which are displayed on the screen, information is shown at the bottom of the screen. What do you see in the screen? On top of the camera image (displaying reality) Layar adds content layers. Layers are the equivalent of webpages in normal browsers. Just like there are thousands of websites there will be thousands of layers. One can easily switch between layers by selecting another via the menu button, pressing the logobar or by swiping your finger across the screen. Layar Layar has some cool features which include: * Unique layer specific icons/markers * Featured and Popular section * Search function * Add layer to favorites * Map view and list view * Enhanced AR view * Accuracy information * “Take me There” function * “Share layer” and “screen shot” function in layar 2.1 update
Layar What does it take to make a layer A layer consists of three parts: The layer definition, the list of POIs ( Points of Interest ) and each individual POI. Layer definition: To make a new layer, developers have to define the look and feel of the augmented reality layer. Many parameters can be fully customized, such as branding, color scheme, titles and the POI indicators. In addition, filters can be defined that the user can set to narrow or widen the search for POIs. POI list: When viewing a layer in the augmented reality view, a list of POIs for that layer and location is retrieved from the external developers’ application server. The developer has all the freedom to decide which points are relevant in the current context for the user, e.g. depending on the time of the day and the filter settings by the user. The POI: Each POI contains information that is displayed on the screen as soon as that POI comes into focus. For each POI, actions can be defined such as go-to-URL and make a phone call. This allows the user to interact with the developer’s application directly.
Wikitude Augmented Reality connects reality with computer-generated data. Information is shown on the current camera display of the smartphone. The exact positioning of data in a live photo is possible thanks to the equipment of modern smartphones: using the data of GPS, the compass and the movement sensor, the exact geographical coordinates are calculated. In the case of the Wikitude World Browser, the data comes from cooperation partners like the online yellow pages qype, Wikipedia or the user community. Package includes: The Wikitude Java API; javadocs; documentation and a sample application,
Wikitude Wikitude World Browser The Augmented Reality browser Wikitude by the AR – pioneer Mobilizy ( http://www.mobilizy.com ) is one of the very first fully functional AR-browsers for smartphones. Wikitude is available for Android smartphones and for the iPhone. The 3D feature is currently conceived for Android, a similar 3D feature for the Augmented Reality browser Wikitude for iPhone is being developed.
Wikitude Wikitude.Me , è un s ervizio parallelo all’applicazione che spinge gli utenti stessi ad aggiungere punti di interesse , così da creare, col tempo, un immenso database completamente autonomo. Il motto è “Geo-tag the world!” .
http://ge.ecomagination.com/smartgrid/#/augmented_reality http://www.boffswana.com/news/?p=392 http://www.ezflar.com/home/show_home AR Geek Marketing
This work proposes a radical kind of interaction design precisely because it shifts the object of interaction from the corporeal into the perceptual: beyond augmentation of the environment it is an augmentation of perception itself, replaying belief against known doubt with the agent as both lens (eyes) and steering controller (body movement). Anamorphosis Augmented Anamorphosis Jullian Oliver
Playing with Instability Reading the ambgiuous images of Vasarely or the motion-unstable work of Riley as interactive art is not as conveniently easy as with the above perspectival works. Nonetheless to do so only requires deeper interrogation of what constitutes interfacing in the context of perception. Art: Jullian Oliver levelhead