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Homeopathy And Cancer


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Homeopathy And Cancer

  1. 1. HOMEOPATHY: Implications for Cancer Management *Steven Moore, DC ND Center for Integral Health 400 E. 22nd St., Suite F Lombard, IL 60137
  3. 3. Why? <ul><li>A 2002 US National Health Interview Survey conducted by the CDC and NCHS found that 62% of US adults has used some form of CAM in the past 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Total annual out-of-pocket spending, in the US, was estimated at $27 billion </li></ul><ul><li>CAM natural health products have evidence of cost effectiveness in certain areas (Kennedy, DA et al 2007) </li></ul>
  4. 4. BACKGROUND <ul><li>It is noted as one of the 8 most popular CAM treatments in patients with cancer (Downer et al., 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, 24% use in breast cancer patients and 6% amongst other cancers (Guethlin et al., 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Recent study identified demographic as younger, higher level of education, employed, and longer disease histories. </li></ul><ul><li>Used by patients for symptom relief, supportive care, as well as for adverse effects of cancer treatment. </li></ul>
  5. 5. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Homeopathy - ‘ omeos ’ meaning ‘similar’; and, ‘ pathos ’ meaning ‘suffering’ </li></ul><ul><li>System of medicine that uses highly diluted, potentized substances to induce the body’s self-healing mechanisms to bring about symptom or disease resolution (Jonas & Jacobs, 1996) </li></ul>
  6. 6. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Samuel C. Hahnemann </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1755 to 1843 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluent in many languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by many leading thinkers of his time: Goethe, Kant, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major developer of Homeopathic Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decades writing Organon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1st edition 1810, 6th edition 1921 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Who is the only physician to have a monument dedicated to them in Washington DC? </li></ul>
  8. 8. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Clinical Homeopathy - (nonclassical, complex) one or more remedies suggested after brief examination; analogous to conventional medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Homeopathy - single remedy suggested after holistic examination with regard to emotions and symptoms; considered to be ‘pure’ form </li></ul><ul><li>Dilution - the process of diluting a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Potency - the strength of a homeopathic remedy, often represented as a number attached to the remedy label </li></ul><ul><li>Potentization - the process of preparing a homeopathic remedy by repeated dilution with succussion </li></ul><ul><li>Succussion - the process in which a vial containing a dilution is shaken up and down and struck against something </li></ul><ul><li>Trituration - Process by which insoluble substances can become soluble. </li></ul>
  9. 9. BACKGROUND <ul><li>1X - 1:10 dilution </li></ul><ul><li>3X - 1:1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>6X - 1:10 dilution six times </li></ul><ul><li>1C - 1:100 dilution </li></ul><ul><li>3C - 1 molecule of original solution in 10^6 molecules of solvent </li></ul><ul><li>6C - 1:100 dilution six times </li></ul><ul><li>30C - 1:100 dilution thirty times </li></ul><ul><li>200C - 1:100 dilution two-hundred times </li></ul><ul><li>1M, MM, LM, DM, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Regulated by FDA since 1938. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2,000 substances are used homeopathically. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeopathy is legal in the US and most preparations are available without a prescription. </li></ul>
  11. 11. BACKGROUND <ul><li>In the mid-1820s, several physicians who studied homeopathy in Europe brought the new practice to the US </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and medical organizations were developed </li></ul><ul><li>Homeopathy gained popularity as 1 in 5 physicians practiced homeopathy and 22 medical colleges taught it (University of Michigan, Hahnemann Med School, UCSF, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>100 homeopathic medical schools in India </li></ul>
  12. 12. BACKGROUND <ul><li>5 organizations currently offer certification in the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Board of Homeotherapeutics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeopathic Association of Naturopathic Physicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North American Society of Homeopaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council for Homeopathic Certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Board of Homeopathic Examiners </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. MECHANISMS
  14. 14. The process is believed to be mediated by structural modification of water, analogous to storage of information by magnetic media…
  15. 15. MOA of homeopathic medicines diluted beyond Avogadro’s limit… <ul><li>Water is capable of storing information relating to substances with which it has been in contact and subsequently can transmit this information to pre-sensitized biological systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The process is believed to be mediated by structural modification of water, analogous to storage of information by magnetic media. </li></ul><ul><li>Such ‘information’ is retained in physical, rather than chemical form. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentized, dilute medicines carry specific ‘signals’ that can be identified by specific receptor and can act as a trigger to turn ‘on’ or ‘off’ some relevant genes , initiating a cascade of gene actions to alter and correct the gene expressions that went wrong to produce the disorder/disease. </li></ul><ul><li>More specifically, based on the research, these medicines could act through cytokine signaling, particularly in view of the fact certain potentized homeopathic medicines modulate signal proteins like NF-kB and IL-4,6 (upregulation/downregulation) </li></ul><ul><li>These medicines may interact with nano-particles that eventually may have some role in tagging onto some proteins, that eventually act as a ligand. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Evidence Supporting ‘Gene Regulatory’ Hypothesis <ul><li>Modern techniques have convincingly demonstrated the action of several potentized homeopathic medicines in modulating many parameters. Further multiple parameters change in the same time frame, which without a cascade of gene actions is difficult to explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles have been shown to have effects on the physio-chemical property of the homeopathic dilutions, that may indicate some role of the nanoparticles during the potentization process of homeopathic medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>All parameters studied to date are gene controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>In the presence of Actinomycin D, a transcription blocker, a potentized homeopathic medicine failed to act. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeopathic dilutions have demonstrable action on plants which lack any central nervous system. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Khuda-Bukhsh, AR. Mice as a model for homeopathy research. Homeopathy 2009. 98:267-279. <ul><li>Homeopathic remedies were found to be effective on various parameters of study and on different organisms . </li></ul><ul><li>As all parameters of study tested are under genetic control, it would appear that corrective activities of different regulatory genes initiate the recovery process. </li></ul><ul><li>This would imply that potentized medicines, though devoid of any drug molecule, were still capable of acting in a multidirectional manner, through their regulatory action on master gene(s)/gene expression. </li></ul>
  18. 18. RESEARCH
  19. 19. What Are We Dealing With? <ul><li>Basic Research on Homeopathy Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the end of 2000, the database included 829 experiments in 782 primary publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals (52%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans (22%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants (12%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other - eg., microbial, fungal (14%) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Frenkel, M et al. Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells. Inter J Oncol 2010. 36:395-403. <ul><li>In vitro study to determine if products prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Carcinosin , Phytolacca , Conium , Thuja against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. </li></ul><ul><li>There was down regulation of pRb and upregulation of CDK inhibitor p27 (responsible for cell cycle delay/arrest and induction of apoptotic cascade which manifested as activation of caspase 7 and cleavage of PARP) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately inhibits proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinosin and Phytolacca appeared similar to the activity of Taxol. </li></ul><ul><li>This study indicates that the activity of the diluted substances are dependent on genetic background </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sunila ES et al. Effect of Homeopathic Medicines on Transplanted Tumors in Mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention . 2007. 8:390-394. <ul><li>This study investigated the antitumor and antimetastatic activity of selected homeopathic medicines against transplanted tumors in mice. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruta graveolens and Hydrastis canadensis significantly increased the lifespan of tumor-bearing animals by 49.7-69.4%. </li></ul><ul><li>There was 95.6-95.8% reduction of solid tumor volume by the 31st day after tumor inoculation. </li></ul><ul><li>9 out of 15 animals with developed tumors were completely tumor free after treatment with Hydrastis . </li></ul><ul><li>Significant anti-metastatic activity was also found in animals treated with Thuja , Hydrastis , and Lycopodium . (This was evident from inhibition of tumor nodule formation, morphological/histological analysis of tumor, and decreased levels of  -GT in serum.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Korengath CP, et al. Clastogenic Potential of Ruta graveolens Extract and a Homeopathic Preparation in Mouse Marrow Cells. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2008. 9:763-769. <ul><li>Ruta produces genotoxic effect and apoptosis in tumor cells by generation of reactive oxygen species. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Banerji, P et al. Cancer patients treated with the Banerji protocols utili[z]ing homeopathic medicine: A Best Case Series Program of the National Cancer Institute USA. Oncol Reports . 2008. 20:69-74. <ul><li>Lung and esophageal carcinoma patients were treated with homeopathic remedies according to Banerji’s protocol until there was complete regression of the tumors. </li></ul><ul><li>Case records including pathology and radiology reports for 14 patients were submitted for review by the US NCI BCS Program. </li></ul><ul><li>In total there were 1260 cases of different types of cancers of which complete remission occurred in approx. 21% of cases following this treatment. Approx 70% of patients benefited. </li></ul><ul><li>Case reports are detailed… </li></ul>
  24. 24. Kassab S, et al. Homeopathic medicines for adverse effects of cancer treatments. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004845. <ul><li>The following were searched up to Nov 2008: Cochrane PaPaS Trials Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; BNI; CancerLIT; AMED; CISCOM; Hom-Inform; SIGLE; National Research Register; Zetoc;;; Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis (LMHI, Liga) conference proceedings; reference lists of relevant studies; homeopathic manufacturers; leading researchers, and practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>8 controlled trials with a total of 664 participants met the inclusion criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary data support the efficacy of topical Calendula for prophylaxis of acute dermatitis during radiotherapy and Traumeel S mouthwash in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Jonas, WB, et al. Can Homeopathic Treatment Slow Prostate Cancer Growth? Integr Cancer Ther 2006. 5:343. <ul><li>There was a 23% reduction in tumor incidence. </li></ul><ul><li>In animals with tumors, there was a 38% reduction in tumor volume in homeopathy-treated animals vs. controls. </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of biopsy, animals with tumors has a 13% lower average tumor weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumors in these treated animals showed a 19% increase in apoptotic cell death. </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies used: Thuja occidentalis , Conium maculatum , and Sabal serrulata . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pathak, S et al. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer. International J Oncol 2003. 23: 975-982. <ul><li>15 patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with homeopathic Ruta graveolens and calcium phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. </li></ul><ul><li>Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. </li></ul>
  27. 27. MacLaughlin, BW et al. Effects of Homeopathic Preparations on Human Prostate Cancer Growth in Cellular and Animal Models. Integr Cancer Ther 2006. 5:362. <ul><li>Assessed the antiproliferative effects of homeopathic preparations of Sabal serrulata , Thuja occidentalis , and Conium maculatum . </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with Sabal in vitro resulted in a 33% decrease of tumor cell proliferation after 72hrs and, </li></ul><ul><li>23% reduction of another tumor cell type at 24 hours. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Wälchli, C et al. Effect of Low Doses and High Homeopathic Potencies in Normal and Cancerous Human Lymphocytes: An In Vitro Isopathic Study . J Alt Comp Med 2006. Pp.421-427. <ul><li>High homeopathic potencies exhibit a biologic effect on cell cultures of normal primary lymphocytes, eliciting a “significant stimulatory effect on primary T-lymphocytes.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cancerous lymphocytes seem to be unresponsive to high homeopathic potencies. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sato, DYO et al. Histopathological and immunophenotyping studies on normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice treated with a complex homeopathic medication. Homeopathy 2005. 94:26-32. <ul><li>A delay in the development, and a reduction in size of the tumors, and increased infiltration by lymphoid cells, granulation tissue, and fibrosis surrounding the tumor were observed with active treatment compared to control. </li></ul><ul><li>All animals from the treated group survived. </li></ul><ul><li>30% of control groups died. </li></ul><ul><li>In 30% of treated animals, a total regression of the tumor was confirmed using light microscopy. No regression was found in the control groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment increased total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes. Among lymphocytes, TCD4 and B and NK cells increased in treated groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains: Aconitum napellus , Bryonia alba , Thuja ocidentalis , Arsenicum album, and Lachesis muta . </li></ul>
  30. 30. Bhattacharjee, N et al. Homeopathic drugs Natrum sulphuricum and Carcinosin prevent azo dye-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Indian J Biochem & Biophys 2009. 46:307-318. <ul><li>Used phenobarbital and p -DAB </li></ul><ul><li>Results demonstrated that administration Nat sulph alone, or in combination, reduced liver tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased lipid peroxidation, genotoxic parameters, GGT, LDH, blood glucose, bilirubin, creatinine, and urea. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased GSH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, SOD, glutathione reductase, catalase, hemoglobin, cholesterol, and albumin levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and oxidative stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar study with Chelidonium (2002) and Carcinosin (2005). </li></ul>
  31. 31. Khuda-Bukhsh, AR et al. Modulation of Signal Proteins: A Plausible Mechanism to Explain How a Potentized Drug Secale Cor 30C Diluted beyond Avogadro’s Limit Combats Skin Papilloma in Mice. eCAM 2009. Pp. 1-12. <ul><li>It could “successfully combat” skin papilloma in mice as evidenced by histological, cytogenetical, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and immunoblot findings. </li></ul><ul><li>AhR, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, NF-kB (signal proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Cytochrome c, Bax, Bad, Apaf, caspase-3 and -9 (pro-apoptotic proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Secale modulated their expression levels </li></ul><ul><li>There was reduction in genotoxic and DNA damages in bone marrow cells </li></ul><ul><li>Supports hypothesis that potentized homeopathic drugs act at gene regulatory level. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Sunila, ES et al. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture. eCAM 2009. 6(2):257-263. <ul><li>Studies with Carcinosin , Hydrastis , Thuja indicate that dynamized medicines posssess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Bhattacharjee, N et al. Amelioration of Carcinogen-Induced Toxicity in Mice by Administration of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Natrum Sulphuricum 200. eCAM 2009. 6(1):65-75. <ul><li>Administration of Nat Sulph 200 reduced genomic damage, activities of AcP, AlkP, AST, ALT, LPO and increased GSH content. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Belon, P et al. Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum album , alter anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer in people living in high risk arsenic contaminated areas? [I.] A correlation with certain hematological parameters. Evid Based Complement Alternet Med 2006. 3:99-107. <ul><li>Widespread occurrence of arsenic poisoning through ground water contamination in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh led researchers to explore whether homeopathic treatment could ameliorate the effects of arsenic poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>The efficacy of this homeopathic remedy was tested on humans and was found to have considerable ameliorative effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Other toxicological effects have been found to be reduced in experimental mice by using homeopathic potentized remedies like Cadmium sulphuricum against Cadmium chloride. Mercurius solubilis against Mercuric chloride. Stannum against Stannous chloride. </li></ul>
  35. 35. THANK YOU!!