CH.5: DECIPHERMENT OF DISC

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CHAPTER 5
DECIPHERMENT OF THE PHAISTOS DISC

“The Power of God Protects the King”

5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 CRETE AND THE NILE DELTA
5.3 GOVERNMENT AND RELIGION
5.4 THE SYMBOLS
5.5 DECIPHERMENT AND TRANSLATION
5.6 THE FRONT SIDE
5.7 THE BACK SIDE
5.8 REPEATED PASSAGES
5.9 ELUCIDATION OF THE TEXT
5.10 DISCUSSION

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

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CH.5: DECIPHERMENT OF DISC

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5DECIPHERMENT OF THE PHAISTOS DISC“The Power of God Protects the King”5.1 INTRODUCTION5.2 CRETE AND THE NILE DELTA5.3 GOVERNMENT AND RELIGION5.4 THE SYMBOLS5.5 DECIPHERMENT AND TRANSLATION5.6 THE FRONT SIDE5.7 THE BACK SIDE5.8 REPEATED PASSAGES5.9 ELUCIDATION OF THE TEXT5.10 DISCUSSIONDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSUMMARYThe Phaistos Disc contains an ideographic script, independent of any language. The scripthas been deciphered, and turns out to describe the religion of Crete. The front sidedescribes a first generation of 31 years, and the back side describes a second generation of30 years. Religious symbols are identified for the suppreme God, the Cat-god, the Fish-god, and the removal of the sin. The religion is closely related to that of Egypt. The discalso deals with government. Its shape symbolizes the “wheel of the law”. The mostimportant passage reads: “the Theory of the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt”. TheKing, which occurs 19 times, is the most important symbol on the disc.5.1 INTRODUCTIONOn both sides of the disc the symbols are applied one after the other in the shape of aspiral. The linear arrangement of the signs points directly to a script. The text appears to bedevided into passages. When looking from the edge towards the center of the disc, themajority of the signs are in an upright position, so, we should consider the text in thisdirection. When following the signs from the center along the spiral to the outside, the vastmajority of people and animals look to the front. So, we should read the text in thisdirection. This is counterclockwise, against the daily movement of the Sun. In Figs.5.3 &5.4 the passages are numbered in this direction.At some passages, the first symbol is accented with a slanting piece of line at the bottom,showing the start of a new paragraph. At the end of the text at each side is a vertical pieceof line with dots. Side A, with the flower, is probably the front side. It has 5 turns, and 5dots at the end of the text. Side B is probably the back side. It has 4 turns, and 4 dots at theend of the text. On side B is an extra dot at the end of the spiral shaped line, giving a totalof 4+1= 5 dots. It appears to indicate that side A with 5 dots is slightly more important,suggesting that side A is the front side, indeed.Because of an injury on the edge at the front side, one symbol in passage A24 cannot beidentified. In view of the many repetitions of symbols, it is probable that on this spot the"lid" was situated (Fig.5.2, #17), because the series "lid, square, Queen" occurred earlier in
  2. 2. passage A8 on the disc. This conclusion is important for the translation.The text of the disc is devided in a number of paragraphs (Table 2.1). Because of smalldamages and obscurities the numbers of paragraphs on both sides are hard to establish. Onthe edge of the front side (Fig.5.3), paragraph-lines are just visible at the "flower" inpassage A20, and with difficulty at the "glove" in passage A25 (see Ref.1). As aconsequence the number of paragraphs on this side (inner part and edge) amounts to 7+4=11.On the edge of the back side (Fig.5.4), a small paragraph-line is visible at the "messenger"in passage B19 (see Ref.1), but because of damage there is some doubt whether the "boat"in passage B22 has one or not. When reading the translated text of Table 5.5 of thischapter, the preliminary conclusion is: probably not. As a consequence the number ofparagraphs on this side probably amounts to 6+3= 9. So, the total number of paragraphs onthe whole disc appears to be 11+9= 20. On side B the paragraph-line of the "cover" inpassage B11 points exactly to the end of passage 11+9= 20. This strongly confirms thetotal number of paragraphs on the disk, of course: 20. So, it appears this problem has beensolved, which is of some importance for a number of chapters in this book.5.2 CRETE AND THE NILE DELTAThe number of passages on side A is 31, corresponding to the latitude of the northern NileDelta, the center of the Northern Egyptian Empire, at 31°N. It is the economic center ofEgypt, the greatest civilization on Earth. The number of turns on side B amounts to 4,confirming the northern Nile Delta, 4° below Crete, where the Phaistos Disc was made, at35-4= 31°N (Refs.26-40).The number of passages on side B is 30, corresponding to the latitude of the southern NileDelta, at 30°N. It is confirmed that the economic center of the civilization of Egypt islocated there. The number of turns on side A amounts to 5, confirming the southern NileDelta, 5° below Crete, where the Phaistos Disc was found, at 35-5= 30°N (Refs.41-48).In total, the Phaistos Disc possesses 45 different symbols (Figs.4.3 & 5.2, Table 2.2),corresponding to the sailing direction from the SE Cape of Crete to the northern NileDelta, 45°SE. The spiral on the front side contains 5 turns, encoding the sailing distanceinvolved, 5 moiras= 5°= 555km, or 5x60= 300 NM (1 Egyptian moira= 1 degree of lati-tude= 111km, or 60 Nautical Miles). The megalithic monument of Barnénez in Brittany,France, shows the first use of latitudes, already c.4700 BC. The passage grave of Kerca-do, also in Brittany, shows the first use of moiras, between distance lines, dating fromc.4500 BC (Refs.26-28,45).5.3 GOVERNMENT AND RELIGIONTable 2.2 provides a survey of the 45 different symbols shown in Figs.4.3 & 5.2, and thefrequency of occurrence on the disc (Refs.1-10). It can be calculated that symbols whichare related to government, like palace, King, Queen, crown, and scroll of the law, occur 33times in total. This is (33/242)x100= 14% of the total number of signs. The symbols oftemple, grave, corpse, mummy, boat, waterway, and faith, which are all related to religion,occur 43 times. However, like in Egypt, all animals, like cat, ram, falcon, dove, fish, andbee, which occur 29 times, have a religious meaning, too. In total, this is 43+29= 72symbols, or (72/242)x100= 17% of the total number of signs. In the old days, governmentand religion were intimately interwoven. On the disc, 14%+17%= 31% of the symbols aredirectly related to these subjects. In reality this percentage is even higher. From this it
  3. 3. turns out the disc deals with these issues in the first place. We should also realize that themajority of the important ancient texts deal with government and religion, especially whenthey are written in hieroglyphs. The disc was found in the Palace of Phaistos. This was apolitical and religious center in the first place.The whole disc consists of "circles and half-circles", the Egyptian hieroglyphs for "torule". Side A possesses 31 passages, corresponding to 31 years, or the duration of a firstgovernment generation. Side B has 30 passages, corresponding to 30 years, or the durationof a second government generation. The Disc of Phaistos shows, the headlines of govern-ment in Crete extended over a period of 2 generations, or 31+30= 61 years. The importantsymbols of the "kings grave" and the "palace" have two equal parts, and they both occurtwice, confirming this four times. The "temple" possesses a lower and a upper half, illu-strating this too. The "waterway", or the “course of the law”, also has two equal parts,confirming this again. Note, that this main devision equals that of the much later Bible, theoldest book on Earth, consisting of the Old Testament and the New Testament.
  4. 4. Fig.5.1 The Front side (A) and the Back side (B) of the Phaistos Disc. (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy A. Kofou, Ref.56)5.4 THE SYMBOLSFigure 5.2 shows a table of the 45 different symbols of the disc (Refs.11-22). We willpropose the meanings of these symbols by number in the list below (see also Table 5.1).However, the different meanings do not only depend on the drawings of the individualsigns, but also on the context in which they occurr on the disc. This means, that not allmeanings can be fully understood at this stage.1: This symbol appears to be a running man, a runner, in any case a man in movement. Inthe text he often turns out to be a messenger, spreading news.2: This symbol seems to be a plumed head, in the text of a King. However, it should betranslated by “the King”, sometimes “the new King”. It cannot be a warrior of the “SeaPeople” (c.1190 BC), shown in the temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu, Upper Egypt,as sometimes suggested (Refs.1-8), because the Cretan disc dates from c.1458 BC (Ch.2),which is two and a half centuries earlier.3: It is the head of a man, with a figure eight on his cheek. Later in this chapter we willexplain this is an ordinary man, a man of the people, just somebody, or someone.4: This man has his hands tied behind his back, so he must be a captive, a prisoner, or acriminal.5: Due to the large head and short legs, it must be a child, a little boy. However, in thetext it turns out to be a King’s child, a Royal Son.6: With the pendulous breasts and the long hair, it is a woman, a woman with lowereddress in fighting trim. In the religious text it turns out to be a virgin, or the mother of God,often best translated by “the Queen”.7: It is a cover to preserve food, so it may be translated by abstractions related to it, like tocover, contain, conserve, stick to, cling to, hold to, be tenacious of, take care of, providefor, carefully, stimulate, supply, or even well got-up, to learn to, or to lead to.8: Glove, gauntlet or bandaged hand, but also abstractions like to lead, learn, teacher,school, education.9: Tiara similar to those in Hittite petroglyphs (Refs.1-3); crown, crowning, nobility.10: Pen, burin, engraving tool, such as for moist clay, to engrave in earthen-ware, toengrave, or the abstractions to fix down, to show, or to proclaim.11: Bow (to shoot an arrow), instrument (to give direction), or the abstraction, likeinstitute (for course of action), or even consciously.12: Round shield, to protect, to defend, sovereignty, or holy.13: It looks like a club with knobs, or a cudgel, but it is a scroll of the law (with fiveties), or abstractions like with the force of the law, by force, according to the law, or thestrong law.14: Palace, in the text sometimes new palace, royal palace.15: Mattock, pick, battle-axe, battle, to battle. Similar to bronze mattocks found inCrete (Ref.1).16: Saw, to saw, or to make. Egyptian saws look like this (Refs.1,11-14).17: Lid, wooden lid of pan or vase, tool, tool for forming, cutting leather, but in thetext also abstractions related to it, like instrument for cultivation, or higher education.18: Looks like boomerang, accolade, or arrow, but it is a carpenter’s square;abstractions are leads to, that something happens, or to plan.19: Carpenter’s plane, planed, to plane, to smooth, or to improve.20: Looks like dolium (horn-shell), but is mummy-head, mummy, embalmed corpse,dead body, prepared for afterlife, sometimes: sacred.
  5. 5. 21: Groundplan of King’s burial chambers, with coffins in some of them, EgyptianRoyal tomb; Kingship theory, afterlife preparation. A clay seal from the first palace atPhaistos has a similar impression (Ref.1).22: This sign looks like a stool or stand, but it has the exact shape of the CancerConstellation. The Tropic of Cancer runs through Egypt at 23°N, and is a symbol of theEgyptian Sunreligion. For that reason it is the symbol for religion or faith. In the text itis sometimes translated by doubt, hesitation, or to waver.23: Hammer, chisel, to hack, to chisel, hacked, chiseled, but also abstractions like heardby the people, thorougly educate, or to raise.24: It may look like a birdcage, coop, Lycian tomb, or Pagoda, but it represents anexotic or mystic temple, a Punt hut, or new temple. It has some similarities to a cage-like Linear B ideogram of a later time period (Ref.1).25: Ship, boat, fishing, trading, journey, but also difficult abstractions like discussion,argumentation, language, or sometimes education.26: Horn, power, or authority.27: Corpse, peoples skin, dead body, ghost, the death, or the end, but in a religiouscontext also: takes away the sin, spreading knowledge. (In other Chapters it might meanclothes, oxhide, or copper.)28: Hoof, lower leg of bull, bull, or with the leg of the bull, so energetic, strong, withgreat drive. Five seals with these bull’s legs have been found in Crete (Ref.1).29: Cat, head of a cat, or Cat-god. Images of cats, made by impressing a seal, can beseen on some vases at Malia, Crete (Refs.1-3).30: Ram, head of a ram, as of a ram, to ram, or the abstraction: royalty.31: Falcon (or eagle) with serpent in its talons, in many cultures abstraction for God, inEgypt the SunGod, supreme over two lesser gods, Horus and Osiris. The Kings orPharoahs were substitutes for these two gods (Refs.26-28).32: Dove, dove of peace, or its abstraction: peace.33: Fish, tuna fish or porpoise, in the text often: Fish-god.34: Bee, honey, or its abstractions: sweet, soft, mild.35: Branch, branch with leaves, tree, wood, oar, or their difficult abstractions in thetext, like mature, full size, sedge, standing tall, good crops, rich, money, government.Upper Egypt was called the Land of the Wood, or the Reed.36: Vine-tendril, wine grapes, wine, or the abstractions like drunken, drunkenness,merriment, or tipsy.37: Papyrus stalk, papyrus, paper, but also grown-up, mature, or to rise. Lower Egypt wascalled the Land of the Papyrus. This Papyrus looks like those on Theban wallpaintings(Ref.1).38: Flower, rosette, but also the abstraction: please. Parallels are common in Minoanart.39: Arrow with feathers, or the abstractions like directed, pointed, to direct, or onpurpose.40: A movable screen, draught-screen, or the abstractions related to it, like secret, orhidden.41: Double flute, fluting, or the abstractions happy, free, in freedom, or to relax.42: Scraper, tool to rasp, to rasp, to shape, to prickle, to tickle.43: Grater, triangular rasp, special rasp, or the difficult abstraction in the text related toit, like enthusiasm, or élan.44: Chopper, little axe, or the abstractions in the text, like justice, the law, or authority.45: (Double) waterway, water, pathway, travel, or the abstractions course of life,curriculum vitae, course, the course of justice, the course of the law.
  6. 6. Fig.5.2 Table of the signs of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)TABLE 5.1THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF THE SYMBOLS ON THE PHAISTOS DISC(Fig.5.2) (c.1458 BC)1 Messenger, runner, man in movement, execution, to spread, (to feed)2 King, head of a King, new King3 Man, head of a man, ordinary man, somebody, someone4 Prisoner5 Child, little boy, Kings child, Royal Son6 Queen, woman with lowered dress in fighting trim, virgin, mother of God7 Cover, conserve, stimulate, stick to, cling to, hold to, be tenacious of, take care of, provide for, supply, well got-up, to learn to, to lead to, (mountain)
  7. 7. 8 Glove, gauntlet, lead, learn, teacher, school, education9 Tiara, crown, crowning10 Burin (also for moist clay), to engrave in earthenware, to engrave, to fix down, to show, to proclaim11 Bow (to shoot an arrow), instrument (to give direction), institute (for course of action), consciously12 Round shield, to protect, to defend, sovereignty, holy13 Scroll of the law, with the force of the law, by force of law, according to the law, the strong law14 Palace, new palace15 Mattock, pick, battle-axe, battle, to battle16 Saw, to saw, to make17 Lid, wooden lid, best instrument for forming, best instrument for cultivation, higher education18 Carpenters square, arrow, leads to, that something happens19 Plane, planed, to plane, to smooth, to improve20 Mummy, mummy-head, dolium (horn-shell), embalmed corpse, dead body21 (Groundplan of) Cretan (Kings-)grave, Egyptian (Kings-)grave, theory22 Religion, doubt, hesitation, to waver, Cancer Constellation23 Hammer, chisel, to hack, to chisel, hacked, chiseled, heard by the people, thorougly educate, to raise24 Temple (exotic, mystic, of Punt), new temple25 Boat, ship, discussion, argumentation, language, education26 Horn, power, authority27 Corpse, peoples skin, dead body, gost, the death, takes away the sin, the end28 Hoof, lower leg of bull, bull, with the leg of the bull, energetic, with great drive29 Cat, head of a cat, Cat-god30 Ram, head of a ram, as of a ram, to ram31 Falcon (or eagle) with serpent in its talons, God, SunGod32 Dove, dove of peace, peace33 Fish, tuna-fish, Fish-god34 Bee, honey, sweet, soft, mild35 Branch, branch with leaves, tree, wood, oar, government, money, full size, mature, sedge, of Upper Egypt36 Vine-tendril, wine grapes, wine, drunken, drunkenness37 Papyrus stalk, papyrus, paper, grown-up, mature, to rise, of Lower Egypt38 Flower, rosette, please39 Arrow with stabilisation feathers, directed, pointed, to direct, on purpose40 Draught-screen, secret, hidden41 (Double) flute, fluting, happy, free, in freedom, to relax42 Scraper, rasp, to rasp, to shape, to prickle, to tickle43 Grater, triangular rasp, special rasp, enthousiasm, élan44 Chopper, little axe, justice, the law45 (Double) waterway, course of life, curriculum vitae, course, the course of justice, the course of the lawSome important symbolsThe King, portrayed with hair on the head, has the highest frequency of occurrence (Table2.2), 19 times, so he is the most important symbol of the disc (Figs.5.2-5.4). In all cases heis the last sign of the passages involved, and he is the last one mentioned on both front and
  8. 8. back side. Literally, he has the last word. The Queen, occurring 4 times, is also portrayedwith hair on the head. Together they occur 19+4= 23 times, encoding the SouthernEgyptian Empire, at the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. This is the center of theSunreligion (Refs.26-40).In many cultures the falcon (or eagle), with a serpent in its talons, is God. This symboloccurs in passage A23, confirming the center of the Sunreligion, at 23°N. The serpent hasthe shape of the two sides of the Phaistos Disc. This circular disc is a representation ofMaat, the Egyptian god for law and order in the universe. It symbolizes the “wheel of thelaw”. On the disc the god Maat is represented by the sign of the circular “shield”,occurring 17 times, but also by the “course of the law”, occurring 6 times, togetherforming 17+6= 23 units, again symbolizing the center of the Sunreligion, at 23°N(Refs.41-48).The serpent in the talons of the falcon has been painted or tatood on the head of the "man"(another sign, #3). It means this man is subjected to both God and Maat. For this reason herepresents an “ordinary man” of the people, portrayed bold, without hair, just like the“messenger”, and the “prisoner”. The importance of Maat is emphasized by the presenceof the "scroll of the law", depicted in the shape of a club with five ties. The ties have beenlayed in the cords, that keep the scroll together. Such cords have been retrieved duringexcavations. According to Aristoteles, the Kings of Crete were very enlightened rulers andcapable layers. The laws of Crete even had some fame (Refs.17-25).5.5 DECIPHERMENT AND TRANSLATIONThe secret for a successful decipherment is to approach the problem from as many sides aspossible, to rearrange the whole process in the right order, and to hope to find a solution inthe end. First we discovered the importance of Egypt from the number of passages at bothsides. By studying the individual symbols, we discovered that government and religion arethe major topics of the disc. This combination is a logical one, because nearby Egyptpossessed an older, and more important civilization than Crete.Keeping this in mind, the next thing to do is to give a literal translation of all symbols(Tables 5.2 and 5.4), starting in the center on the front side (Refs.15,16,20). If we have tomake decisions, we choose for meanings in the mentioned areas of government andreligion, related to Egypt. It is important to have some general knowlegde of these areas,of course. Typical Egyptian symbols are not present on the disc, confirming its origin fromCrete. When the primary meanings of the signs are placed in the right order of the disc, itdoes not lead to a comprehensible text. However, this changes for the better when takinginto account the abstractions related to these symbols (from Table 5.1), as shown in Tables5.3 and 5.5.Front sideDuring this process an important discovery was made. There is one passage, ocurring tothe tune of three times, which must be very important. Passages A10, A13, and A16 eachcontain the identical combination of "horn, falcon, shield, King", where the “falcon”means “God”. This combination does not immediately lead to a comprehensible sentence.However, when the two new symbols, besides those of “God” and the “King”, arereplaced by suitable abstractions, it does. The "horn of a bull" may mean "power", and the"shield" may mean "to protect". So, the correct translation will be: "The power of Godprotects the King".
  9. 9. This is a major step in the right direction, because it is an important, complete, and signifi-cant sentence within one passage. It suggests that each passage on the disc will be one sen-tence, which makes sense. This result is encouraging, because we are making progress.However, most important is the confirmation that the chosen read-direction on the discwas the right one. It also confirms the disc is about government and religion.After this first sentence, other sentences may be constructed. Passage A7 contains thesimilar series of symbols "shield, horn, falcon", which can be translated by the sentence"Protect the power of God". Passage A30 contains the symbols "shield, screen, temple". A"draught-screen" is used to hide yourself when changing clothes. Probably, the suitableabstraction related to this symbol is "hidden". So, the correct translation will be: "Protectthe hidden temple". Note, we now obtained two other sentences, each in one passage.Back sidePassage B16 on the back side contains the symbols "messenger, fish, cat". The so-called"messenger" can be an ordinary, active man, and everybody knows a cat likes to eat fish.So the correct translation will be: "Give the cat the fish to eat". Passage B20 contains thesymbols "screen, vine-tendril, horn, King". The appropriate abstraction related to the"vine-tendril" is more difficult, but the word "merriment" will probably do the job. Theother symbols have already been used, so the whole process of translation does notbecome increasingly difficult. The correct translation will be: "The hidden merriment isthe power of the King".Passage B25 contains the symbols "grater, square, hammer, saw". In this passage it isimportant to recognise, that the "carpenter’s square" resembles a kind of "arrow" or"accolade". It should be translated by combinations like "leads to" or "results in". So, thecorrect translation will be: "The grater is used to make the hammer and the saw". Nextpassage B26 contains the symbols of "shield, mummy, temple, fish". The "mummy" is anew symbol, and should be translated by "death", also because it fits religious meanings.The symbol of the "fish" is kind of special here. In passage B16 it meant plain "fish", buthere it turns out to have the meaning of "Fish-god". Even today some people associateGod with a fish. This meaning cannot be predicted in advance, but turns out to be probableafter translation of the whole disc. So, the correct meaning of the passage turns out to be:"Protect the death-temple of the Fish-god".The focus of the textThe identical passages A3 and A15 on the front side are the most important ones of thedisc. A3 is placed right in the center of the first paragraph. The symbol sequence "grave,papyrus, branch, corpse, corpse, shield, King" can only be translated using abstractions.The "papyrus" is the official symbol of Lower Egypt, and the "branch" is the symbol of"Upper Egypt". The "shield" means "to protect", as we have seen before, but it can alsomean "holy", in other words "which should be protected at all costs". The primarytranslation reads: "The grave of the holy dead Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt".However, the abstraction related to “grave” is “theory”, and a people cannot live in peacewith a dead King; it needs a living King, of course. So, when taking into account theresurrection of both Kings, we arrive at the final translation: "The Theory of the HolyKings of Lower and Upper Egypt".The orientation of side A, within Figure 5.3, is a logical one, also geographically. So, thelast passage A31 finishes in the south. Note, that both important and equal passages A3and A15 point “to the west, to the other side of the waters, to the land where the Sun sets”.
  10. 10. It is the location of the Realm of the Dead. It emphasizes the resurrection of the Kings, andthe religious meaning of the text on the disc (Refs.26-28).The first paragraphPassage A1 has the combination "flower, man, burin". When a husband gives a bunch offlowers to his wife, he always starts his comment with the word "Please, ...". So, this is thecorrect abstraction related to the first symbol. The "burin" is an instrument to engrave, forinstance in earthenware, but here we prefer a more general expression for the engraving inthe hearts of the people. So, the best translation reads: "Please, proclaim loudly".Passage A2 has the combination "messenger, scroll of the law". The "messenger" clearlyruns around spreading a message, and the "scroll of the law" looks like a club. So, thecorrect translation will be: "Spread by force of law". We now arrive at the correcttranslation of the first, important paragraph: "Please proclaim loudly, and spread by forceof law, the Theory of the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt. Please, proclaim itloudly." This paragraph is by far the most important one of the whole disc. (So far, wehave translated 14 passages in total.)Some symbols are turned over, others are even upside down, in both cases to clearify thetext. On the front side the different positions of the "falcon" illustrate that only "God" isable to see things from all perpectives. In passage A28 two cats are still in normal position,but in the next passage A29 the cat is upside down. This is because the text deals with hiscourse of life, where the cat endures a lot. On the back side in passage B13 the cat istoppled over, because the text deals with his merriment. In passages B16 and B18 the catsare upside down, because the text deals with the mature Fish-god and his temple, wherethe cat endures a lot, again.When continuing in this way, it turns out the back side is more difficult to translate thanthe front side. The abstractions related to the symbols are here more difficult to establish.A script based upon abstractions of symbols is called an ideographic script, and thesymbols are called ideograms (Refs.1-14). So, the script of the Phaistos Disc is universal,not related to any language. This is a very important conclusion. In fact, it contains themessage that the religion of Crete was not considered to be a local religion, but a universalreligion, of importance for the whole of mankind. Many researchers, trying to decipher thePhaistos Disc, started with the assumption that the symbols are related to a language. Soonthey gave up, because in that case the total number of symbols on the disc turns out to befar too low to be successful.5.6 THE FRONT SIDEThe literal decipherment of the front side (side A) is shown in Table 5.2, and the correcttranslation of it is shown in Table 5.3. Here, we will show both processes, deciphermentand translation, for all the individual passages.§1: Passage 1 of paragraph 1 contains the symbols “flower, man, burin”, which means“Please, engrave in earthenware/”, or better “Please, proclaim loudly,”.Passage 2 contains the symbols “messenger, scroll of the law”, which means “and spreadby force of law,” which is correct.Passage 3 contains the symbols “grave, papyrus, branch, corpse, corpse, shield, King”,which means “the grave of the holy paper and wooden Kings deads/”, or better, “theTheory of the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt.”Passage 4 contains the symbols “flower, man, burin”, which means “please, engrave it in
  11. 11. earthenware/”, or better, “Please, proclaim it loudly.”§2: Passage 5 of paragraph 2 contains the symbols “branch, plane, hammer”, which means“Cut it in shaved wood/”, or better, “Fix it down in writing,”Passage 6 contains the symbols “messenger, scroll of the law, shield, King”, which means“and spread by force of law the sovereignty of the King.”, which is correct.Passage 7 contains the symbols “shield, horn, falcon”, which means “defend the power ofthe SunGod.”, or better “Defend the power of God.”Passage 8 contains the symbols “plane, lid, square, Queen”, which means “shave thewooden lid that leads to the Queen/”, or better “Improve higher education for raising theQueen.”Passage 9 contains the symbols “corpse, square, dove, palace, corpse, shield, King”, whichmeans “the death leads to the dove of peace in the dead palace of the holy King/”, or better“Taking away the sin leads to peace in the Palace of the Holy King.”, or still better“Spreading knowledge leads to peace in the Palace of the Holy King”.§3: Passage 10 of paragraph 3 contains the symbols “horn, falcon, shield, King”, whichmeans “The power of the SunGod protects the King/”, or better “The power of Godprotects the King.”§4: Passage 11 of paragraph 4 contains the symbols “messenger, hoof”, which means“Spread it with great drive,”, which is correct.Passage 12 contains the symbols “square, hammer, burin, boat, corpse, King”, whichmeans “in such a manner that the dead boat of the King will be chiseled and engraved/”, orbetter “in such a manner that the powerful language of the King will be loudly proclaimedand heard by the people.”§5: Passage 13 of paragraph 5 contains the symbols “horn, falcon, shield, King”, whichmeans “The power of the SunGod protects the King.”, or better “The power of Godprotects the King.”Passage 14 contains the symbols “hammer, fish”, which means “cut the Fish-god/”, orbetter “Thoroughly educate the Fish-god,”.Passage 15 contains the symbols “grave, papyrus, branch, corpse, corpse, shield, King”,which means “the grave of the holy paper and wooden Kings deads/”, or better “accordingto the Theory of the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt.”§6: Passage 16 of paragraph 6 contains the symbols “horn, falcon, shield, King”, whichmeans “The power of the SunGod protects the King/”, or better “The power of Godprotects the King.”§7: Passage 17 of paragraph 7 contains the symbols “messenger, hoof”, which means“Spread it with great drive,”, which is correct.Passage 18 contains the symbols “square, hammer, burin, boat, corpse, King”, whichmeans “in such a manner that the dead boat of the King will be chiseled and engraved/”, orbetter “in such a manner that the powerful language of the King will be loudly proclaimedand heard by the people.”Passage 19 contains the symbols “bow, arrow”, which means “use bow and arrow/”, orbetter “Do it consciously and on purpose.”§8: Passage 20 of paragraph 8 contains the symbols “flower, hammer, dove, shield, King”,which means “Please, cut the dove of peace for the protection of the King/”, or better
  12. 12. “Please, maintain peace for the protection of the King.”Passage 21 contains the symbols “cover, screen, flute, messenger”, which means“stimulate it secretly when one goes round fluting/”, or better “Take secretly care thatpeople are able to relax.”Passage 22 contains the symbols “branch, plane, flute, shield, King”, which means “shavefrom wood a flute to protect the King/”, or better “Take care for the necessary provisions,protecting the King.”Passage 23 contains the symbols “branch, horn, falcon”, which means “the wood is thepower of the SunGod/”or better “The possibilities to do so come from the power of God.”Passage 24 contains the symbols “lid(?), square, Queen, shield, King,”, which means “thewooden lid leads to the Queen who protects the King/”, or better “Higher education raisesthe Queen who protects the King.”§9: Passage 25 of paragraph 9 contains the symbols “glove, chopper, corpse”, whichmeans “The glove handles the chopper until death/”, or better “The teacher takes away thesin.”, or still better “The teacher is spreading the knowledge”.Passage 26 contains the symbols “shield, cover, waterway, corpse”, which means “protectand hold on to the waterway of death/”, or better “Protect and hold on to the course of thelaw until the end.”Passage 27 contains the symbols “fish, screen, prisoner, shield, King”, which means “theFish-god keeps people secretly in prison to protect the King/”, or better “The young Fish-god secretly captivates people protecting the King,”Passage 28 contains the symbols “bee, cat, cat”, which means “because of the honeycats/”, or better “because of the sweet Cat-gods.”§10: Passage 29 of paragraph 10 contains the symbols “cover, waterway, cat”, whichmeans “Stimulate the course of the Cat-god/”, or better “Take care of the course of life ofthe Cat-god,”Passage 30 contains the symbols “shield, screen, temple”, which means “and protect thehidden temple/”, or better “and protect his secret Temple.”§11: Finally, passage 31 of paragraph 11 contains the symbols “square, messenger, scrollof the law, shield, King”, which means “That leads to powerful, legal spreading thatprotects the King!//”, or better “This leads to execution of the law which strongly protectsthe King!”TABLE 5.2LITERAL DECIPHERMENT OF THE FRONT SIDE OF THE PHAISTOS DISC(SIDE A, Fig.5.3) (c.1458 BC)Please, engrave in earthenware/ and spread by force of law/ the grave of the holy paperand wooden Kings deads/ please, engrave it in earthenware/Cut it in shaved wood/ and spread by force of law the sovereignty of the King/ defend thepower of the SunGod/ shave the wooden lid that leads to the Queen/ the death leads to thedove of peace in the dead palace of the holy King/The power of the SunGod protects the King/
  13. 13. Spread it with great drive/ in such a manner that the dead boat of the King will be chiseledand engraved/The power of the SunGod protects the King/ cut the Fish-god/ the grave of the holy paperand wooden Kings deads/The power of the SunGod protects the King/Spread it with great drive/ in such a manner that the dead boat of the King will be chiseledand engraved/ use bow and arrow/Please, cut the dove of peace for the protection of the King/ stimulate it secretly when onegoes round fluting/ shave from wood a flute to protect the King/ the wood is the power ofthe SunGod/ the wooden lid(?) leads to the Queen who protects the King/The glove handles the chopper until death/ protect and hold on to the waterway of death/the Fish-god keeps people secretly in prison to protect the King/ because of the honey cats/Stimulate the course of the Cat-god/ and protect the hidden temple/That leads to powerful, legal spreading that protects the King!//
  14. 14. Fig.5.3 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)TABLE 5.3TRANSLATION OF THE FRONT SIDE OF THE PHAISTOS DISC(SIDE A, Fig.5.3) (c.1458 BC)Please, proclaim loudly, and spread by force of law, the Theory of the Holy Kings ofLower and Upper Egypt. Please, proclaim it loudly.Fix it down in writing, and spread by force of law the sovereignty of the King. Defend thepower of God. Improve higher education for raising the Queen. Spreading knowledgeleads to peace in the Palace of the Holy King.The power of God protects the King.
  15. 15. Spread it with great drive, in such a manner that the powerful language of the King will beloudly proclaimed and heard by the people.The power of God protects the King. Thoroughly educate the Fish-god, according to theTheory of the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt.The power of God protects the King.Spread it with great drive, in such a manner that the powerful language of the King will beloudly proclaimed and heard by the people. Do it consciously and on purpose.Please, maintain peace for the protection of the King. Take secretly care that people areable to relax. Take care for the necessary provisions, protecting the King. The possibilitiesto do so come from the power of God. Higher education raises the Queen who protects theKing.The teacher is spreading the knowledge. Protect and hold on to the course of the law untilthe end. The young Fish-god secretly captivates people protecting the King, because of thesweet Cat-gods.Take care of the course of life of the Cat-god, and protect his secret Temple.This leads to execution of the law which strongly protects the King!5.7 THE BACK SIDEThe literal decipherment of the back side (side B) is shown in Table 5.4, and the correcttranslation of it is shown in Table 5.5. Here, we will show both processes, deciphermentand translation, for all the individual passages.§1: Passage 1 of paragraph 1 contains the symbols “cover, waterway”, which means “Takecare for the course of the law.”, which is correct.Passage 2 contains the symbols “boat, hammer, bee, cat”, which means “the boat cuts thehoney cat/”, or better “The language of the teacher educates the sweet Cat-god,” or stillbetter “The teacher educates the sweet Cat-god”. (A “boat” is also a kind of “high levelconversation”.)Passage 3 contains the symbols “cover, hammer, branch, Queen, King”, which means “andlooks after cutting in wood the Kings virgin/”, or better “and takes care for raising theKings Virgin to maturity.”Passage 4 contains the symbols “cover, square, arrow, ram, tiara”, which means “this careleads to a well-directed ram-crowning/”, or better “This care will lead to a well-directedcrowning of this Queen.”§2: Passage 5 of paragraph 2 contains the symbols “glove, cover, vine-tendril, cat,religion”, which means “The glove provides for doubt of the drunken cat/”, or better“Education learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt.”Passage 6 contains the symbols “temple, square, hammer, cover”, which means “the newtemple leads to chiseled care/”, or better “The New Temple leads to an extensive state ofcare.”§3: Passage 7 of paragraph 3 contains the symbols “cover, waterway, cover”, which means
  16. 16. “Take care for a careful course of the law.”, which is correct.Passage 8 contains the symbols “branch, square, cover”, which means “the wood leads tothis care/”, or better “The government should stimulate this care.”Passage 9 contains the symbols “boat, hammer, bee, corpse”, which means “the boat cutsuntil the honey death/”, or better “The language of the teacher softly takes away the sin.”,or still better, “The teacher is softly explaining the full truth”.§4: Passage 10 of paragraph 4 contains the symbols “glove, cover, vine-tendril, cat,religion”, which means “The glove provides for doubt of the drunken cat/”, or better“Education learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt.”5: Passage 11 of paragraph 5 contains the symbols “cover, waterway, cat”, which means“Take care for the course of life of the Cat-god/”, or slightly better, “Take care for thecourse of life of the young Cat-god.”Passage 12 contains the symbols “scroll of the law, glove, cat”, which means “the force ofthe law leads the cat/”, or better “The law educates the Cat-god.”§6: Passage 13 of paragraph 6 contains the symbols “glove, cover, vine-tendril, cat”,which means “The glove provides for the drunkenness of the cat/”, or better “Educationleads to the merriment of the young Cat-god.”Passage 14 contains the symbols “messenger, corpse, tiara, King”, which means “spreaddeath until the crowning of the new King/”, or better “Take away the sin till the crowningof the New King.”, or still better, “Spread knowledge till the crowning of the New King”.Passage 15 contains the symbols “fish, arrow, dove, branch, Queen”, which means “theFish-god points his arrow on the dove of peace, because of the wooden virgin/”, or better“The Fish-god maintains peace because of the influence of the Queen.”Passage 16 contains the symbols “messenger, fish, cat”, which means “give the cat the fishto eat!/”, or slightly better “Give the Cat the Fish to eat!”Passage 17 contains the symbols “square, palace, saw”, which means “in this way onesaws the new palace/”, or better “In this way the New Palace will be created,”Passage 18 contains the symbols “branch, mummy, temple, temple, cat”, which means“the new wooden death-temples of the Cat-god/”, or better “the full size Holy Temples ofthe Cat-god.”§7: Passage 19 of paragraph 7 contains the symbols “messenger, flower, boat, corpse”,which means “Please, spread the boat of death/”, or better “Please, spread the languagethat takes away the sin.”Passage 20 contains the symbols “screen, vine-tendril, horn, King”, which means “thishidden drunkenness is the power of the King/”, or better “This hidden merriment is thepower of the King,”Passage 21 contains the symbols “branch, screen, temple, cover”, which means “thehidden wood of the welfare temple/”, or better “the hidden force behind the welfaretemple.”Passage 22 contains the symbols “boat, scraper, papyrus, religion”, which means “Theboat rasps the paper faith/”, or better “The language of the teacher stimulates the rise offaith.”, or still better “The teacher stimulates the rise of faith”.Passage 23 contains the symbols “square, messenger, scroll of the law, cover, mattock”,which means “This leads to a powerfull, legal stimulation of the struggle.”, which iscorrect.Passage 24 contains the symbols “fish, arrow, messenger, scroll of the law”, which means“the Fish-god will direct to the execution of the law/”, or better “while the Fish-god
  17. 17. promotes execution of the law.”§8: Passage 25 of paragraph 8 contains the symbols “grater, square, hammer, saw”, whichmeans “With the special rasp hammer and saw are made/”, or better “The élan so createdprovides the tools”Passage 26 contains the symbols “shield, mummy, temple, fish”, which means “theseprotect the death-temple of the Fish-god/”, or better “to protect the Holy Temple of theFish-god,”Passage 27 contains the symbols “corpse, boat, religion”, which means “the boat of deathof the faith/”, or better “the deadly language of our Religion.”§9: Passage 28 of paragraph 9 contains the symbols “child, hammer, papyrus, King”,which means “The chiseled child becomes the paper King/”, or better “The educated childwill be the upgrowing King.”Passage 29 contains the symbols “branch, cover, waterway, corpse”, which means “thewood takes care for the course to death/”, or better “The government provides for thecourse of the law till the end.”Finally, passage 30 contains the symbols “cover, screen, religion, shield, King”, whichmeans “It takes care for the hidden faith which protects the King!”, which is correct.TABLE 5.4LITERAL DECIPHERMENT OF THE BACK SIDE OF THE PHAISTOS DISC(SIDE B, Fig.5.4) (c.1458 BC)Take care for the course of the law/ the boat cuts the honey cat/ and looks after cutting inwood the Kings virgin/ this care leads to a well-directed ram-crowning/The glove provides for doubt of the drunken cat/ the new temple leads to chiseled care/Take care for a careful course of the law/ the wood leads to this care/ the boat cuts untilthe honey death/The glove provides for doubt of the drunken cat/Take care for the course of life of the Cat-god/ the force of the law leads the cat/The glove provides for the drunkenness of the cat/ spread death until the crowning of thenew King/ the Fish-god points his arrow on the dove of peace, because of the woodenvirgin/ give the cat the fish to eat!/ in this way one saws the new palace/ the new woodendeath-temples of the Cat-god/Please, spread the boat of death/ this hidden drunkenness is the power of the King/ thehidden wood of the welfare temple/ The boat rasps the paper faith/ this leads to apowerful, legal stimulation of the struggle/ the Fish-god will direct to the execution of thelaw/With the special rasp hammer and saw are made/ these protect the death-temple of theFish-god/ the boat of death of the faith/
  18. 18. The chiseled child becomes the paper King/ the wood takes care for the course to death/ ittakes care for the hidden faith which protects the King!//Fig.5.4 Back side B of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)TABLE 5.5TRANSLATION OF THE BACK SIDE OF THE PHAISTOS DISC(SIDE B, Fig.5.4) (c.1458 BC)Take care for the course of the law. The teacher educates the sweet Cat-god, and takes carefor raising the Kings Virgin to maturity. This care will lead to a well-directed crowning ofthis Queen.Education learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt. The New Temple leads to an extensive state
  19. 19. of care.Take care for a careful course of the law. The government should stimulate this care. Theteacher is softly explaining the full truth.Education learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt.Take care for the course of life of the young Cat-god. The law educates the Cat-god.Education leads to the merriment of the young Cat-god. Spread knowledge till thecrowning of the New King. The Fish-god maintains peace because of the influence of theQueen. Give the Cat the Fish to eat! In this way the New Palace will be created, the fullsize Holy Temples of the Cat-god.Please, spread the language that takes away the sin. This hidden merriment is the power ofthe King, the hidden force behind the welfare temple. The teacher stimulates the rise offaith. This leads to a powerful, legal stimulation of the struggle, while the Fish-godpromotes execution of the law.The élan so created provides the tools to protect the Holy Temple of the Fish-god, thedeadly language of our Religion.The educated child will be the upgrowing King. The government provides for the courseof the law till the end. It takes care for the hidden faith which protects the King!
  20. 20. Fig.5.5 The Throne of the King of Crete (Knossos, Crete, c.2000 BC, Courtesy A. Kofou, Ref.56)5.8 REPEATED PASSAGESRepetitions often occur on the Phaistos Disc. These include repetitions of whole passages,of combinations of symbols, and of separate symbols. However, the most importantrepetition is the series of passages A10, A11, A12 on the front side, which is repeated bythe series of A16, A17, A18. In Chapter 9 it will be shown this whole combination dealswith boat voyages of discovery (Refs.49-51). Passages which are repeated as a whole mustbe very important, too; these are shown in Table 5.6. The exclamation: "The power of Godprotects the King!" is repeated to the tune of three times. These repetitions emphasize theimportance of the written text.Repetitions of combinations of symbols are also important. The expression: "Protect theKing!" occurs to the tune of 13 times on the disc, and "The power of God" is repeated 5times. The expressions "Take care for the course of the law" and "Spread by force of law"occur 6 times and 5 times, respectively.Repetitions of separate symbols are less illustrative. These have already been shown inTable 2.2. The "King" occurs 19x in total, and is with this score the most important
  21. 21. symbol. The "shield" occurs 15x on the front side, which indicates that political struggle isimportant in the first governmental period. The "cover" occurs 15x on the back side,which indicates that adherence to the welfare state was considered of importance in thesecond governmental period. The symbol of the "corpse" occurs 15x in total, which clearlyconfirms the faith in a Realm of the Dead, and in a resurrection (Refs.20-25,41-48).TABLE 5.6REPEATED PASSAGES ON THE PHAISTOS DISC (c.1458 BC) (Figs.5.3 & 5.4)SYMBOLS (TEXT) FREQUENCYSIDE A ………………………..………………………. A+Bflower, man, burin (Please, proclaim loudly)(1,4)……….2+0grave, papyrus, branch, corpse, corpse, shield, king(The Theory of the Holy Kings of Lower and UpperEgypt)(3,15) ……………..….…………………………..2+0[... messenger, scroll, shield, king (Spread by force oflaw the sovereignty of the King)](6,31)* ………………[2+0]horn, falcon, shield, king (The power of God protectsthe King)(10,13,16) …………………………………….3+0messenger, hoof (Spread with great drive)(11,17)………2+0square, hammer, burin, boat, corpse, king (In such amanner that the powerful language of the King will beloudly proclaimed and heard by the people)(12,18)……. 2+0Side B………………………………..…………………A+Bglove, cover, vine-tendril, cat, faith (Educationlearns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt)(5,10) ………………..0+2[glove, cover, vine-tendril, cat ... (Education leadsto the merriment of the Cat-god)](13)* ………………..[0+1]Sides A+B……..…………………………………….…A+Bcover, waterway, cat (Protect the course of life ofthe Cat-god (A29,B11)……..…………………………...1+1* almost repeated passages5.9 ELUCIDATION OF THE TEXTDifficult abstractionsThe symbol of the “corpse” plays an important role on the disc. In passage B19 we had totranslate it with the biblical expression of “taking away the sin”. We apologize for it, butthere is hardly any other appropriate translation possible. Clearly, it was the intention of
  22. 22. the makers of the disc. In passages A9, A25, and B14 we could use the expression of“spreading knowledge”. Sometimes the symbol can be translated by “deadly” in passageB27, by “holy”, together with the “shield”, in A3, A9 and A15, or by “at the end“ in A26and B29, all of which are rather easy to understand, within the local context. In passagesA12 and A18 the combination “boat, corpse” should be translated by the “powerfullanguage”, which is used by the “King”, the next symbol. A “boat” is also a high levelconversation, a so-called knowledge negotiation.Crete possessed a high culture, which could not exist without good education(Refs.17-22). The “glove” in A25, B5, B10, B12, and B13 should be translated by the“teacher”, or by “education”, while the symbol also shows the great influence of it. The“hammer” in passages A14, B3, and B28 acts as a similar symbol with an analogoustranslation.Apparently, the religion in Crete resembled the one in Egypt. The “falcon”, with theserpent in its talons, represents the suppreme God. In the hierarchy below this God are twoother gods, the Cat-god and the Fish-god, both indicated by appropriate symbols on thedisc. The two Kings, a.o. mentioned in important passages A3 and A15, are considered thesubstitutes of these two gods. Note, that the symbols of these three important gods areplaced between the other animals in a more or less invisible manner. The only importantvisible person is the King, shown to the tune of 19 times, or in the absence of him, theQueen, shown 4 times.The symbol for “religion” or “faith” is a drawing of the Cancer Constellation, as shown inpassages B22, B27, and B30. The holy Tropic of Cancer, named after this starconstellation, marks the Southern Egyptian Empire, the center of the Sunreligion, at 23°N.On midsummer day the Sun is there at right angles above. In passages B5 and B10 thesame symbol should be translated by the less important abstraction of “doubt”, because theCat-god is still in a process of learning.Meaning of the textThe greatest problem of the Phaistos Disc is not the decipherment of the hieroglyphicscript, and it is not writing down the text in good English, either. The greatest problem isthe interpretation and explanation of the difficult text.From all evidence it turns out, that religion in Crete was greatly influenced by that ofEgypt. Lower Egypt, the Nile Delta, was called the Land of the "Papyrus", and UpperEgypt was called the Land of the Reed or the "Wood". Both symbols are shown on thedisc, the last one also in passage A23. The holy Tropic of Cancer through the center ofUpper Egypt, at 23°N, is the usual symbol of the Egyptian Sunreligion. For that reason thesign of the "Cancer Constellation" on the disc is the symbol for "Religion" in Crete. Thenumber 23 is the symbol for the same religion in the Megalithic Culture of WesternEurope (Refs.26-40).In Egypt one believed in the SunGod Ra. Below this suppreme God were two other gods,Horus and Osiris. The Kings or Pharaohs of Egypt were the substitutes of these two gods.So, the entire Phaistos Disc should be considered in the light of this religion (Refs.-23-25,41-48).The front side of the disc deals with a first period of government during one generation ofc.31 years, with a King on the throne, who is the substitute of the Cat-god, possessing a
  23. 23. secret temple (Table 5.3). The falcon (or eagle) with the serpent in its talons is God, whoprotects the King. Emphasis is laid on spreading the Religion, on good education, and onthe influential language of the King. Thoughts are going out to the process of growing tomaturity of a future King, who is called the young Fish-god, and his later wife.The back side of the disc deals with a second period of government during one generationof c.30 years, with a King on the throne, who is the substitute of the Fish-god, and whoalso possesses a temple (Table 5.5). Emphasis is laid on good education, again, on thecourse of the law, and on maintaining the welfare state. Thoughts are going out to theprocess of growing to maturity of a future King, who is called the young Cat-god, and hislater wife.The text of side B turns out to be a continuation of the script on side A, and not the otherway around. So the initial thoughts on this issue are confirmed: side A is the front side,and side B is the back side.5.10 DISCUSSIONThe difficult text of the Phaistos Disc (Tables 5.3 and 5.5), which sounds quite familiar toinsiders, deals from the beginning to the end with the headlines of government andreligion. This result is very important, because almost nothing was known about thereligion of Crete at the end of the New Palace Culture (c.1458 BC) (Refs.20-22). It turnsout to be the Bible of Crete. It is a political religious text derived from ancient Egyptianreligion. Both religions are precursers of the present Christian religion, where the Fatherand the Son are the main gods below the suppreme God Jahwe. The round disc symbolizesMaat, the Egyptian goddes of law and order in the universe, who should be compared tothe Holy Gost. The obtained text is also like a page from the Bible: besides very highabstractions it contains a lot of less important sentences. Some will judge the whole text ofconsiderable importance, others don’t care very much.Our translation proves the approach for the decipherment followed here is the right one.The majority of the symbols form easily sentences within the passages. It fits best theinterpretation of the symbols given by Sokolinsky (Refs.11,12). For a better understandingof the text we prefer to give no further explanations. It was our goal to decipher andtranslate the text on the disc. It is not our intention to comment on this religion, or toexplain it in detail. For people interested in this subject, we would like to refer to expertsin old religions in general, in ancient Egyptian religion, and in the present Christianreligion.In this chapter we tried to decipher and translate the complete, original text. This is partlybecause everybody wants to know it. It is where so many people were waiting for, forabout a century, since the disc was found, in 1908. However, this mysterious, religioustext is just one aspect of the Phaistos Disc, and it is probably not the most important one.Other aspects are even more interesting, as will be shown in the following chapters(Chs.6-11). (Refs.52-55)LITERATURE (Ch.5)1. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995, pgs. 62,76,90,92(ISBN 960-7549-02-3).2. Duhoux, Y., Le disque de Phaistos, Louvain-le-Neuve, 1978. (French)3. Pernier, L., Il disco di Phaestos con caratteri pittografici, Ausonia III (1908), 255-302. (Italian)4. Poutsat, J.-C., Figurines et reliefs dapplique, Fouilles executees a Mallia. Le Quartier MU II, EtudesCretoises XXVI, Paris 1980, 118-119. (French)
  24. 24. 5. Mackay, A., On the Type-found of the Phaistos Disk, Statistical Methods in Linguistics, no.4, 15-25.6. Neumann, G., Zum Forschungsstand beim Diskos van Phaestos, Kadmos 7, 1968, 27-44. (German)7. Kober, A.E., The Minoan Scripts: Fact and Theory, American Journal of Archaeology 52, 1948, 82-103.8. Yule, P., Early Cretan Seals: A Study of Chronology, Marburger Studien zur vor- und fruhgeschichte,Vol 4, Mainz am Rhein, 1981. (German)9. The Tablet of Vladikavkaz, Journal Larcheologue, Nr.55, Aout-Septembre 2001, "Une enigme archeolo-gique du Caucase Septentrional". (French)10. DOssetie et dalentour nr.9, Paris, 2001, par V.A. Kouznetsov traduit du russe par Iaroslav Lebedynsky.(French)11. Miller, J., Ancient American, The Phaistos Disk, March/April 1994, p.37.12. Grimes, J.P., Ancient American, Vol.2, Nr.12, p.35.13. Covey, C., Fischer vs. Fell Phaistos Disk Decipherments, Midw. Epigr. Newsl., Vol.19, Nr.4 (2002).14. Best, J.G.P., and Woudhuizen, F., Lost Languages from the Mediterranean, Leiden, the Netherlands(1989).15. Bayley, H., The Lost Language of Symbolism, Citadel Press, 1990, reprint (ISBN 0-8065-1100-1).16. Cirlot, J.E., A Dictionary of Symbols, Ed. Routledge, 1971 (ISBN 0-8022-2083-5).17. Homer, The Iliad and the Odyssey, transl. Murray, Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann,London (1919).18. Homer, The Odyssey, transl. E.V. Rieu, Harmondsworth, Penguin (1954).19. Strabo, Complete Works, Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann, London (1923-32).20. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).21. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Thames andHud-son, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8).22. Herberger, C.F., The Minoan Cultural Response: the Feminine Emphasis, Midwestern EpigraphicJour-nal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 47-55, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).23. People of the Stone Age: Hunter-gatherers and Early Farmers, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahonsPoint, Australia.(1995).24. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia. (1995).25. Zwart, A.H. e.a., De Oude Grieken, 7000 Jaar Wereldgeschiedenis, Lekturama, Rotterdam, 1977.(Dutch)26. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, How the Sungod Reached America, A Guide to Megalithic Sites,MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-33-92,also on CD.27. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, Website: www.howthesungod.com.28. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z&K, Utrecht/ Antwerpen, 1996(ISBN 90-215-2846-0). (Dutch)29. Joseph, F., Book Review: “How the SunGod Reached America, c.2500 BC”, Ancient America,Vol.7, No.45, pg.36 (2002).30. Parnell, R., Book Review: “How the SunGod Reached America, c.2500 BC”, Nexus Magazine,Vol.9, No.4, pg.73 and/or pg.77 (2002).31. Tiffany, J., “Coded Messages of the Megalith Builders”, The Barnes Review, Vol.VIII, No.5, pg.53(2002).32. Lichtenberg, L., “Gids van Megalithische Monumenten”, Archeologie Magazine, Nr.1, pg.63(2004). (Dutch)33 De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Migration & Diffusion,Vol.3, No.11, pgs.69-109 (2002).34 De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for River Travel inAmerica”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002).35 De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’sStonehenge”, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2002).36 De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Germany’s Bronze Age Disc Reveals Transatlantic Seafaring”,Ancient American, Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).37. De Jonge, R.M., “Great Circle Mound: An Indiana Temple to the Egyptian SunGod?”, AncientAmeri-can, Vol.9, No.60, pgs.31-32 (2004)38. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006).39. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Stone Rows of Tormsdale: A Voyage to Central America,the Realm of the Dead” (Caithness, NE Scotland, c.1600 BC), Ancient American, Vol.11, No.70,pgs.28-34 (2006).40. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Embden Dragon Petroglyph, A Copper Trading Route of theBronze Age”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 56-82, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).
  25. 25. 41. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.42. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.43. Ancient Egypt, National Geographic Maps, Supplement to the National Geographic Magazine, April,2001.44. Adams, B., and Cialowicz, K., Protodynastic Egypt, Shire Egyptology, Princes Risborough, 1997.45. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090631-6). (Dr.Stecchini)46. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddes ses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0167-2).47. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.48. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrec tion, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN0-486-22780-4).49. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-525-47545-1).50. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age, Levant, College Station, Texas,1998.51. Heyerdahl, T., The Ra Expeditions, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1971.52. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and theCopper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, WaUSA 98033.53. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge54. De Jonge, R.M., Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC), Ref.53.55. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge56. Kofoú, A., Kreta, met alle musea en archeologische opgravingen, Ekdotike Athenon, Athene, 1994(ISBN 960-213-060-1). (Dutch)

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