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CH.4: DAILY LIFE ON CRETE

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CHAPTER 4
DATA ABOUT DAILY LIFE ON CRETE, c.1458 BC

4.1 EXPLANATION OF THE APPROACH: SHIPS
4.2 FISHERY, CATTLE-BREEDING, AND AGRICULTURE
4.3 GOVERNMENT IN THE PALACES AND TEMPLES
4.4 EDUCATION & RELIGION
4.5 BUSINESS
4.6 HEALTH CARE
4.7 FUNERALS
4.8 WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
4.9 DISCUSSION

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

Published in: Education, Travel, Art & Photos
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CH.4: DAILY LIFE ON CRETE

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4DATA ABOUT DAILY LIFE ON CRETE, c.1458 BC4.1 EXPLANATION OF THE APPROACH: SHIPS4.2 FISHERY, CATTLE-BREEDING, AND AGRICULTURE4.3 GOVERNMENT IN THE PALACES AND TEMPLES4.4 EDUCATION & RELIGION4.5 BUSINESS4.6 HEALTH CARE4.7 FUNERALS4.8 WOODWORKING INDUSTRY4.9 DISCUSSIONDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSUMMARYThe disc possesses 45 different symbols, and a total of 242 signs. Each sign has a mea-ning and a passage number, which is situated at the start of one or two series of passages,finishing with the powerful King, or Queen. This encodes for almost each sign a totalnumber, because the length of the series of passages determines the number of figures ofit. However, each symbol may have different meanings, dependent on its position on thedisc, on front or back side, and on inner part or edge. The signs may represent the yearlyproduction of goods, and the number of people (men and women) making these, but alsovaluable objects. In this way we discovered, that c.6,000 people made c.30 ships per yearfor a Fleet of c.150 ships, maintained by c.7,400 men and women. The total number ofpeople encoded on the disc this way, equals the population of Crete, c.140,000 men, asmentioned in the previous Chapter. The disc turns out to give a very accurate descriptionof daily life on Crete at the end of the New Palace Culture, c.1458 BC.4.1 EXPLANATION OF THE APPROACH: SHIPSIntroductionA hypothesis is formulated about the meaning of an important aspect of the Phaistos Disc.We know the disc is descended from the island of Crete, and we noticed that its date isaccurately indicated (Ch.2). For this reason, we believe the disc may provide a descriptionof daily life on Crete around the year of c.1458 BC.The disc possesses 45 different symbols, used in a total of 242 signs (Ch.2). Some sym-bols have meanings which are quite obvious, but for other signs the situation is less clear.In addition, many symbols appear to have different meanings dependent on their location,on front or back side, and on inner part or edge. Some symbols appear to represent certainobjects, but most signs turn out to give the yearly productions of goods, and the numbersof people (men and women), who are making these. Other symbols provide the numbersof people working in particular industries, or in certain functions of the government.Because of the complexity of the whole description, we limit our comments to the mostdifficult cases, and we do not discuss our results in an extensive way, using material whichis only vaguely known in the literature about this subject.Seaworthy shipsChapter 3 showed how the size of the population of Crete is encoded on the Phaistos Disc,
  2. 2. as well as the way in which population numbers around palaces and temples can bedetermined. However, if numbers of men are encoded, other numbers might be hidden onthe disc as well. It seems logical to assume these encodings have a more or less similarstructure. So, we shall look for similar encodings, related to other, important subjects, andwe shall try to establish these quantities in the same way.Both sides of the disc possess an Inner Part and an Edge. In the inner part of the front sidethe symbol of the “boat” (Fig.4.3, #25) occurs in passages A12 and A18 (Fig.4.1). Note,that these boats have both sails and oars. One may wonder how many seaworthy ships theisland of Crete possesses. In c.1458 BC, which is the date of the disc (Ch.2), such shipswere very valuable. So, it appears to be a good idea to start looking for this number.A18 may be at the start of a series of 1 or 3 passages, because both of these finish with thesymbol of the “King”, who possesses many ships (Fig.4.1). A18 may also be at the start of2 passages, because this series finishes at the end of a paragraph, even at the end of theinner part of this side. However, A18 will not form 4 passages, because the “messenger”(#1) in A21 is not important enough. In general, A18 will not form 1 passage either,because in that case it will represent 1 ship, because the second number (8) of 18 is notconfirmed.A12 may be at the start of a series of 1, 2, or 4 passages, because these finish with the“King”, who possesses many ships. A12 will not form 3 passages, because the “fish” inA14 is not important enough. In general, A12 will not form 1 passage, for reasons justdiscussed. A12 will not form 4 passages either, because these represent 1,200 seaworthyships (12, written in 4 figures). For a people of 140 thousand men living in that timeperiod, this number is far too high. It may be concluded, that it is rather difficult to answerthe question!Let us look at the back side of the disc (Fig.4.2). In the inner part of the back side thesymbol of the boat (#25) occurs in passages B2 and B9. May be this information will bringus closer to the answer. B2 may be at the start of 2 passages, because this series finisheswith the “King”, who possesses many ships. It may also form 3 passages, because B4 is atthe end of a paragraph. B9 may form 1 passage at the end of the paragraph, but it may alsoform 2 passages, because B10 is at the end of a paragraph, too. However, the originalquestion was, how many seaworthy ships Crete possesses!The question might be answered by combining and comparing all possibilities. However,it appears that the original question was not correct!- The boat in passage B2 on the backside touches a hammer, and the same happens in passage B9. So, it appears, that theinformation does not refer to the possession of ships, but to their fabrication!- The disc hastwo sides with a total of 31+30= 61 passages, which correspond to a time period of 61years. So, each passage corresponds to one year. This statement appears to be important,because it suggests that the production of these ships will be expressed in units per year,which sounds reasonable.Because of the complexity of the problem, we may expect to get some help from themaker of the disc. Let us look at the front side, again. A18 on this side is situated at thestart of a nice series of 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph, which is also theend of the inner part. This series encodes a production of 18 seaworthy ships per year (18,written in 2 figures). Note, that the edge of the disc is symbolic for the coast of Crete! A12can also form 2 passages, finishing with the "King", who possesses many ships, and with
  3. 3. the “falcon”, symbol of God. This series encodes 12 ships per year (12, written in 2figures). Probably, we have to add these quantities. So, added up, Crete appears to produ-ce 18+12= c.30 seaworthy ships per year. However, how do we know if this is correct?On the back side passage B2 is at the start of 2 passages, finishing with the powerful“King”, who possesses many ships. This series encodes a production of 20 ships per year(2, written in 2 figures). B9 forms 1 single passage at the end of the paragraph, encoding 9ships per year (9, written in 1 figure). If the addition on side A was correct, we have toperform a similar addition in the inner part of side B. So, added up, the island appears toproduce 20+9= c.29 seaworthy ships per year. This is about the same number compared toside A. The production is confirmed! The maker of the disc is helping us with theproblem, indeed!People assembling shipsThese 30 or so ships have to be assembled each year. The question arises: how manypeople were involved in making them? To answer it, knowledge and experience with theprevious problems will be used. It is an important question, but it is not an easy one,because how is this number defined? All men in the factories are included, of course, but itturns out their wifes, who are probably staying at home, too. This turns out to be a generalrule at the Phaistos Disc.The boat in passage A12 on the front side points to a “messenger” (#1) in A6, whichindicates number of people. So, it appears this kind of information is encoded on the disc.The boat in passage A18 points to the last symbol of A9, which is a “King”. So, passageA6 with the messenger forms a series of 9-5= 4 passages, finishing with this powerful“King”, for whom it is all done. It encodes 6,000 people (6, written in 4 figures), whowere involved in assembling these seaworthy ships. Note, that the result is a nice, roundnumber. It leads to a reasonable figure for the production crew, of about 6,000/30= c.200people per ship.In passage B6 on the back side the “square” (#18), or carpenters triangle, touches ahammer. A similar feature was noticed previously. B6 also forms a series of 4 passages,finishing with A9 at the end of the paragraph, where the boat touches the hammer, again.This series does not contain a “messenger”, but it confirms the number of 6,000 people (6,written in 4 figures), who were involved in making the seaworthy ships.Note, that the symbol of the boat also appears on the edge of side B! Is it conceivable thatwe made a mistake in our analysis …? This time the answer is definitely: No! Wediscovered how many ships were constructed each year, and how many people wereinvolved in this activity. But we still don’t know anything about the size of the Fleet!The Fleet of CreteThe edge of the disc is symbolic for the coastal waters of Crete. So, the boats on this edgewill provide information about the size of the fleet, which is anchored there. In this specialcase the passages will be counted in a different way, because we are dealing with the coastof the island. Counted along the edge (E) boats appear in passages E1, E4, and E9. Theeasiest solution of the problem is probably the right one. So, Crete possesses a fleet ofc.149 ships. This is a rather round number, again, which is encouraging. The result isimportant, because it shows each ship had an average life time of about 149/30= 5 years,which sounds reasonable. From the scarse data about this subject, it is well-known that theFleet of Crete was impressive in this time period, c.1458 BC (Refs.7-11,21-23).
  4. 4. People working on the FleetOne may wonder, how many people are working on this fleet. The symbol of the“messenger” appears in passages E1, E5, and E6, counted along the edge, again (side B).Note, that the boat in E1 touches B10, ending with the sign of “religion” (#22). So,passage E1 with the messenger and the boat will form a series of 4 passages, finishing withanother boat and this sign of religion. It encodes 1,000 people (1, written in 4 figures),working with these ships. E6 with the messenger also forms a series of 4 passages,finishing with a boat and the sign of religion at the end of the paragraph. It encodes anumber of 6,000 people (6, written in 4 figures). Note, that this boat touches B16, pointingto a fish.Finally, E4 with a boat and the sign of religion forms a series of 3 passages, finishing withthe fish and a messenger at the end of the paragraph. It also contains passage E5 withanother messenger. This series encodes 400 people (4, written in 3 figures), working onthe fleet. So, added up, a total number of 1,000+400+6,000= c.7,400 people are workingon these ships. It is a rather round number, which is encouraging, again. On the average,7,400/149= c.50 people are working on each seaworthy ship, which sounds reasonable.Sometimes it is difficult to decide how many passages are formed from a certain symbol.Here the three contributions provide the thousands and the hundreds, respectively, but thisis not a general rule. Each case needs an appropriate solution. Sometimes help is providedby the maker of the disc. However, usually, the poblems involved can be easily solved.After addition of the individual amounts, the total number should be a realistic one. It isoften a rather round number. The total number of people working in all fields should beequal to the total population of Crete, c.140,000 men, as mentioned on the disc (Ch.3, seealso Table 4.2). After some study the necessary experience is gained to make successfulchoices in this respect. In a few cases the circumstances are so complex, that a completeinvestigation has to be carried out in order to make the right decision. However, topromote the readableness of the book, these deductions have not been completely writtendown in the text.The order of the paragraphs in this Chapter is caused by the nature of the different kinds ofinformation on the Phaistos Disc. After this introduction about the boats, we shall continuewith a paragraph about fishery, cattle-breeding, and agriculture, because these subjects arerelatively simple. Next, we shall try to collect as much information as possible about thegovernment, who seats in the palaces and temples. This is the core of the information onthe disc. The paragraph is rather difficult, because in many cases it is not directly obviouswhich data are provided by which kind of symbols. The same holds for the next paragraphdealing with education. The other paragraphs are becoming more simple, again, and theirorder is rather logic. The paragraph about business proceeds for an important part fromsymbols, which were already discussed in earlier paragraphs, as will be explained. Weshall finish with the important woodworking industry on Crete, because this subject ishardest from a technical point of view.
  5. 5. Fig.4.1 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)
  6. 6. Fig.4.2 Back side B of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)4.2 FISHERY, CATTLE-BREEDING, AND AGRICULTUREFreshwater fisheryThe disc has two sides with 31+30= 61 passages, corresponding to 61 years. So, eachpassage corresponds to one year. This statement is important, because it shows thatproduction of goods mentioned on the disc, will be expressed in units per year. The dischas also an Inner Part and an Edge. Symbols on these parts may have different meanings,as we have seen before, depending on their individual nature. In the inner part of the discthe symbol of a “fish” (Fig.4.3, #33) occurs in passages A14, B15, and B16. The innerpart is symbolic for the territory of the island of Crete. So, one may wonder how manyfreshwater fishes are caught per year.We choose for this problem, although it is not an easy one. A14 on the front side is at thestart of a group of 6 passages, finishing at the end of a paragraph, which is also the end ofthe inner part. The group resembles a kind of river, which is related to the subject. Itencodes 140,000 fishes (14, written in 6 figures). B15 on the back side also forms a group
  7. 7. of 6 passages. Note, that the paragraph-line of B11 accurately points to the end of B20. So,the group finishes at the end of a kind of paragraph, but also with the “King”, where thefishing is brought to. It encodes 150,000 fishes. A similar group from B16 does not finishat the end of a paragraph, or with a “King”. However, in spite of this we choose for agroup of equal length, because it finishes with a “temple”, where the fishing is handed in.It encodes 160,000 fishes (16, written in 6 figures). The group resembles a kind of river,again.The passage numbers and the corresponding values of the fishings are close to each other.This means the maker of the disc is helping us with the problem. So, on the average,c.150,000 freshwater fishes are caught per year.- However, maybe we have to add theindividual contributions!! If so, a total number of c.450,000 fishes are caught per year!How do we know the right answer?Side A has 31 passages. So, the number 45 might be encoded by 45-31= B14, or A14. Thelast one has a fish, again. A14 is at the start of a nice series of 6 passages, finishing at theend of the inner part. It encodes c.450,000 fishes (45, written in 6 figures).- Let us also useA4 and A5 on this side. These form nice series of 6 and 5 passages, repectively, bothfinishing with a “King” in passage A9, at the end of the paragraph. It confirms this numberof fishes.- Finally, let us use B4 and B5 on the back side. These also form nice series of 6and 5 passages, respectively, both finishing with B9 at the end of the paragraph. The“corpse” shows the fishes are killed. So, it is confirmed twice! For the interior of Crete,the catch turns out to be 450,000/140,000= c.3.2 freshwater fishes per person per year. Wethink this is a realistic number. The quantity is low, but the island only possesses a fewlittle rivers.One may wonder how many people work professionally in freshwater fishery. B15 forms2 passages, both with the "fish", and finishing with the "messenger", who indicates numberof people. The small group encodes 15 people (15, written in 2 figures). A14 and B16 mayalso form groups of 2 passages, finishing (at the end of the paragraph) with the "King" andhis "Palace", where the fishing is handed in. All indicated numbers are close to each other,which means the maker of the disc is helping us, again. So, on the average only c.15people work professionally in freshwater fishery.- However, maybe we have to add theindividual contributions, again!! If so, a total number of c.45 people work professionallyin freshwater fishery! How do we know the right answer?Side A has 31 passages. So, the number 45 might be encoded by 45-31= B14. Note, that itcontains a “messenger”, indicating number of people. Note also, that the fish in the nextpassage almost touches B14. It is at the start of a nice series of 2 passages, finishing withthe “fish” and the “Queen”, a possible Head of State. It encodes c.45 people, who work infreshwater fishery (45, written in 2 figures). Let us also use B4 and B5 on this side. Theseform nice series of 2 and 1 passages, respectively, both finishing with special passage B5(“Education learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt”, Ch.5). Note, that B5 equals B10 andstrongly resembles B13. So, the number is confirmed. On the average, each fisher catchesc.10,000 freshwater fishes per year.SeafisheryOn the edges of the disc the symbol of a fish (#33) occurs in passages A27, B24, and B26.The edges are symbolic for the sea around the island. So, one may wonder how manyseafishes are caught per year. B24 is at the start of a group of 7 passages, finishing with a“shield” and a “King” at the end of the side, where the fishing is handed in. It encodes
  8. 8. 2,400,000 fishes (27, written in 7 figures). The fish in B26 forms 5 passages, also finishingat the end of the side. The series corresponds to 26,000 fishes (26, written in 5 figures).A27 forms a group of 6 passages, finishing with the bow and arrow in A19, at the end ofthe inner part. It encodes 270,000 fishes (27, written in 6 figures). Added up, a total ofc.2,696,000 (c.2.7 million) seafishes are caught per year, which is a nice round number. Itmay be noted, that in prehistoric times all seas on Earth were abundant in fish.Note, that passage A27 on the front side confirms the total number. It has a fish, and it isat the start of a series of 7 passages, finishing at A20 with the “shield” and the “King”,again, where the fishery is brought to. So, c.2,700,000 seafishes (27, written in 7 figures)are caught per year. Let us also use A2 and A7 on this side, although the passages do notpossess a fish. A2 forms a series of 7 passages, finishing with the “Queen”, a possibleHead of State, where the fishing is handed in. A7 forms a series of 6 passages, finishingwith special passage A13 (“The power of God protects the King”, Ch.5). Note, thatpassages B10, B13, and B16 are identical. The number of fishes is confirmed twice, whichmeans the maker of the disc is helping us. For the whole of Crete, it is c.19 seafishes perperson per year, which sounds reasonable. So, seafishing is important, which has beenconfirmed by excavations (Refs.7-11).One may wonder how many people are working professionally in seafishery. B24 has afish, but also a “messenger”, indicating number of people. It forms a group of 3 passages,finishing with the "temple of the Fish-god", where the fishing is handed in. It encodes 240people (24, written in 3 figures). The fish in B26 clearly points to the “messenger” ofneighboring passage B16. It forms a series of 3 passages, finishing with the “temples ofthe Cat-god” at the end of the inner side. It corresponds with 160 people (16, written in 3figures). So, in total 240+160= c.400 people are working in seafishery. On the average,each fisher catches c.6,750 seafishes per year.Cattle-breeding: big hoofed animalsOn the disc the symbol of the big hoof (Fig.4.3, #28) occurs in passages A11 and A17(Table 4.1). One may wonder how many big hoofed animals are slaughtered per year. A11appears to be at the start of a group of 6 passages, finishing at the end of a paragraph withthe ”King” (and the “falcon”, symbol of God), where the meat is brought to. The “horn” inthe last passage is part of what remains. It encodes 110,000 big hoofed animals (11, writ-ten in 6 figures). A subsequent group of again 6 passages starts at A17, and finishes at A22with the “King”, again. The “flute” in the last passage resembles a “bone”, which is part ofwhat remains. Next passage A23, again with the symbol of God, is often used for separa-tion of series. It encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N (Refs.12-14). So, added up,there are 110,000+170,000= c.280,000 big hoofed animals, such as cows, horses, and don-keys, slaughtered per year. For the whole of Crete, this is c.2.0 big hoofed animals per per-son per year. This type of cattle-breeding has been confirmed by excavations (Refs.7-11).One may also wonder how many cattle-breeders there are. A11, with a messenger, forms aseries of 5 passages, because the last passage A15 contains two “corpses” or “hides”,showing the animals are killed. The series finishes with the important combination of a“shield, King”. A17 cannot form 5 passages, because the “messenger” in A21 is notimportant enough. So, A11 and A17 form 5 and 4 passages, respectively, both finishingwith the important combination of a “shield, King”. As a consequence, added up, there are11,000+1,700= c.12,700 of these cattle-breeders. On the average, each cattle-breederslaughters c.22 big hoofed animals per year.
  9. 9. Small hoofed animalsOn the disc the symbol of the ram (#30) occurs in passage B4. One may wonder howmany small hoofed animals are slaughtered per year. B4 is at the start of a group of 6passages, finishing with the symbol of "death" at the end of the paragraph, showing theanimals are killed. So, c.400,000 small hoofed animals (4, written in 6 figures), such aspig, sheep, and goat are slaughtered per year. For the whole of Crete, this is c.2.9 smallhoofed animals per person per year. Remains of pig and sheep have been found in exca-vations (Refs.7-11).One may wonder how many cattle-breeders of small hoofed animals there are. B4 forms 4passages, finishing with two symbols of the "cover", showing the animals are well takencare of. The text of the last passage B7 reads: “Take care for a careful course of life (of theanimals)”. So, there are c.4,000 of these cattle-breeders (4, written in 4 figures). On theaverage, each of these cattle-breeders slaughters c.100 small hoofed animals per year.PoultryOn the disc the symbol of a pigeon (#32) occurs in passages A9, A20, and B15. One maywonder how many tame fowls are consumed per year. Determination of the lengths of theindividual series is a bit more difficult in this case. Choices are influenced by the goal of arather round, total number. The pigeon of B15 is looking at the “square” (#18) of B6. So,it is at the start of a series of 6 passages, finishing with the “King” at B20, at the end of theparagraph, where the birds are handed in. A9 and A20 on the front side, both with apigeon, have a “shield, King”, and form both series of 5 passages, finishing with a “shield,King” (at the end of the paragraph). So, added up, 90,000+20,000+150,000= c.260,000slaughtered birds, such as chickens, geese, ducks, and doves, are consumed per year. Forthe whole of Crete, this is c.1.9 fowls per person per year.One may wonder how many people breed tame poultry professionally. A20 and B15 form3 passages, finishing with the “King” and his "Palace", where the slaughtered birds arehanded in. In the first case passage A23, with the “falcon”, symbol of God, is used forseparation of the series. It encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer, again (Refs.12-14). A9forms 2 passages, finishing with the "King" and “God” as a bird of prey, at the end of aparagraph. So, added up, 200+150+90= c.440 people are working in this branch. On theaverage each poultry-breeder slaughters c.591 birds per year.Bee-cultureOn the disc the symbol of a bee (#34) occurs in passages A28, B2, and B9. One maywonder how many bee-hives with a swarm of bees there are. The bee in A28 is touched bythe “King” of the previous passage. It means, A28 is at the start of a series of 4 passages,finishing with the “King” at the end of this side, where the honey is handed in. It encodes2,800 bee-hives (28, written in 4 figures). The bee of B2 is looking at the “cover,waterway” of B1. So, B2 forms 4 passages, finishing with the symbol of “religion”, butB9 forms 3 passages, finishing at B11 with the “cover,waterway”, again. It encodes2,000+900= 2,900 bee-hives, confirming the number. So, the maker of the disc is helpingus, again.However, B2 and B9 can also form 3 and 1 passages, repectively, both finishing at the endof the paragraph. Added up, there are a total of 2,800+200+9= c.3,009 bee-hives for thehoney production. We prefer this rather round number. This activity has been confirmedby archaeologists (Refs.15-17,23). Passage A28 is situated on the edge, which is symbolic
  10. 10. for the outside world. So, about half of the production was probably exported, a.o. toEgypt, where it was popular for embalming (Ref.9).One may wonder how many people work with bees professionally. A28 forms 3 passages,finishing with the "temple", which resembles a bee-hive, and where the honey is handed in(280 bee-keepers). B2 forms 2 passages, finishing with the powerful “King” (20 bee-keepers). So, in total there are 280+20= c.300 bee-keepers on Crete. Again, we prefer thisrather round number. On the average, each bee-keeper appears to have c.10 bee-hives.VinecultureOn the disc the symbol of the vine-tendril (#36) occurs in passages B5, B10, B13, andB20, all at the back side. One may wonder how many vine-tendrils there are for thevineculture. B5 and B20 are at the start of groups of 5 passages, both finishing at the endof a paragraph. The groups of B5 and B10 are consecutive, which is encouraging. Similargroups of 5 passages from B10 and B13 finish with the "King" and his "Palace", where thegrapes and the vine are handed in. Added up, it turns out there are50,000+20,000+-10,000+13,000 = c.93,000 vine-tendrils. Passage B20 is situated on theedge. So, c.20,000 of these vine-tendrils are meant for the export. A part of the grapeswere probably dried to raisins (Ref.9).One may wonder how many winegrowers there are. B13, B5, and B20 each form 2passages, finishing with the "King" and his "temples", where the grapes and the vine isbrought to. B10 forms 1 passage at the end of the paragraph, only confirming the firstnumber (1). So, added up, there are 13+50+20+1= c.84 winefarmers on Crete. On theaverage, each winefarmer has c.1,107 vine-tendrils. Vine-culture has been confirmed byarchaeologists (Refs.1,7-11).Olive treesOn the disc the symbol of a branch with leaves (#35) occurs. It probably represents a kindof tree. Another important sign is the shield (#12). It closely resembles a plate with olives.On the front side there are to the tune of 15 of these plates. So, it appears, that on this sidethe branch represents an olive tree. On the inner part the branch occurs in passages A3,A5, and A15 (Table 4.1). The identical passages A3 and A15 also have “shields”. Onemay wonder how many olive trees are used for interior use.A3 is at the start of a series of 5 passages, finishing with the “shield” and the ”falcon”,symbol of God. Note, that the branch has 5 leaves confirming the number of passages, andnote also, that the neighboring sign of the “papyrus” (#38) points to the end of this series.A15 also forms a series of 5 passages, finishing at the end of the inner part. Finally, thebranch in A5 forms 4 passages, finishing with the Queen, a possible Head of State. Thebranch of A3 points to this last passage. Added up, it appears that 30,000+5,000+15,000=c.50,000 trees per year were used for the interior production of olives on Crete. It is a nice,round number.One may also wonder how many olive farmers there are. The paragraph-line of A5 pointsto a "messenger", which indicates number of people. So, the symbol of the branch in A5forms 2 passages to the next "messenger", finishing with the powerful “King”. The makerof the disc helped us, again. A3 forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph.Finally, A15 will also forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of a paragraph with a “shield”and the “King”, where all the olives are delivered. Added up, it turns out that there are30+50+15= c.95 olive farmers on Crete for the interior production (Ref.7-11). On the
  11. 11. average, each farmer has c.526 olive trees.Olives for the exportOn the edge of the front side the branch (#35) occurs in passages A22 and A23. The edgeis symbolic for the outside world, or the foreign countries. So, one may wonder how manyolive trees were used for the export. The branch in A23 is at the start of a series of 5passages, finishing with a “shield” and a “King”, because the olives were collected for theHead of State. Note, that the last passage-line points to the “horn” (#26) of neighboringpassage A16, also present in A23. It encodes 23,000 olive trees for the export (23, writtenin 5 figures). A22 forms a series of 2 passages, finishing with the “horn, falcon”, symbolof the power of God. It only corresponds to 22 olive trees (22, written in 2 figures). So,each year the olives of a total of 23,000+23= 23,023 trees were exported abroad. This isabout one third of the total number of olive trees. It seems a lot, but when the disc wasmade, Crete possessed more olive trees than nowadays. Note, that A23 also symbolizes theholy Tropic of Cancer at the center of the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. It is thecenter of the Sunreligion (Refs.12-20).One may also wonder how many olive farmers possessed these trees for the export. A22forms 2 passages, finishing with the “power of God”, in which one believes. A23 alsoforms 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the “shield” and the “King”,the Head of State. Added up, it turns out that 22+23= c.45 people were involved in theseactivities. On the average, each farmer possessed c.512 olive trees for the export.Domestic petsOn the front side the symbol of the cat (#29) occurs in passages 28, 28, and 29, all of theseon the edge, symbolic for the outside world. One may wonder how many homeless cats orpets there are. The subject is unimportant, but rather difficult to treat. A29 is at the start ofa series of 4 passages, finishing at passage A19, which is at the end of the inner part. Thetwo cats of A28 are at the start of groups of 4 and 3 passages, respectively, finishing at theends of paragraphs, but also with the “King” and his “temple”, where the cat gets his food.So, added up, there are 2,800+280+2,900= c.5,980 domestic animals, which wanderoutside permanently. This is a rather round number.On the back side the cat (#29) occurs in passages 2, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, and 18, all in theinner part, symbolic for the situation at home. One may wonder how many cats or petsthere are who live at home. The lengths of all series involved cannot be determined. Itappears, the maker of the disc had something else in mind. The 3 cats on the edge of thefront side corresponded to c.6,000 homeless pets. So, the 8 cats in the inner part of theback side now encode (8/3)x6,000= c.16,000 pets which live at home. It is a rather roundnumber, again. Passage B16 with a cat forms a series of 5 passages, finishing with thepowerful “King” at the end of a kind of paragraph, confirming it. Note, that the cat in A29on the front side is looking at the neighboring passage A16 in the inner part. This passagewith the symbol of “God” confirms the number, too. It also forms a series of 5 passages,finishing with the “King”. It means, that more than 10% of the population of Crete had apet. The number of 16,000 pets at home is more than 70% of the total number of c.22,000pets.
  12. 12. Fig.4.3 Table of the signs of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)TABLE 4.1THE SYMBOLS ON THE PHAISTOS DISC (Fig.4.3), AND THE CORRESPONDINGPASSAGES ON SIDES A AND B (c.1458 BC) SYMBOLS PASSAGES ON SIDE A AND B (INNER PART / EDGE) A (IP) A (E) B (IP) B (E)1 Messenger 2,6,11,17 21,31 14,16 19,23,242 King 3,6,9,10,12,13, 20,22,24,27,30 3,14 20,28,30 15,16,183 Man 1,44 Prisoner 27
  13. 13. 5 Child 286 Queen 8 24 3,157 Cover 21,26,29 1,3,4,5,6,7,7, 21,23,29,30 8,10,11,138 Glove 25 5,10,12,139 Tiara 4,1410 Burin 1,4,12 1811 Bow 1912 Shield 3,6,7,9,10,13, 20,22,24,26,27, 26,30 15,16 30,3113 Scroll of the law 2,6 31 12 23,2414 Palace 9 1715 Mattock 2316 Saw 17 2517 Lid 8 (24)18 Square 8,9,12,18 24,31 4,6,8,17 23,2519 Plane 5,8 2220 Mummy 18 2621 Grave 3,1522 Religion 5,10 22,27,3023 Hammer 5,12,14,18 20 2,3,6,9 25,2824 Temple 30 6,18,18 21,2625 Boat 12,18 2,9 19,22,2726 Horn 7,10,13,16 23 2027 Corpse 3,3,9,9,12,15, 25,26 9,14 19,27,29 15,1828 Hoof 11,1729 Cat 28,28,29 2,5,10,11,12, 13,16,1830 Ram 431 Falcon 7,10,13,16 2332 Dove 9 20 1533 Fish 14 27 15,16 24,2634 Bee 28 2,935 Branch 3,5,15 22,23 3,8,15,18 21,2936 Vine-tendril 5,10,13 2037 Papyrus 3,15 22,2838 Flower 1,4 20 1939 Arrow 19 4,15 2440 Screen 21,27,30 20,21,3041 Flute 21,2242 Scraper 2243 Grater 2544 Chopper 2545 Waterway 26,29 1,7,11 294.3 GOVERNMENT IN THE PALACES AND TEMPLESThe Head of StateOn the edge at the back side the combination of "horn" (#26) and "King" (#2), symbols for
  14. 14. the power of the Head of State, occurs in passage B20 (Fig.4.2&4.3). In view of theparagraph-line of B11, pointing to the end of the passage, B20 can be considered as theend of a paragraph. So, only the first number (2) is confirmed. It means there are only 2persons, who are able to possess this power, the King or the Queen (Refs.1-14).Government: the officialsOn the inner part of the back side the symbol of the “course of the law” (#45) occurs inpassages B1, B7, and B11 (Table 4.1). One may wonder how many officials there are onCrete, because they have to prepare the changes of the laws. B7 will not form a series of 3passages, because the resulting number becomes too low. Instead, B7 is at the start of 4passages, finishing at the end of a paragraph with the symbol of "religion", in which onebelieves. So, there are c.7,000 officials (7, written in 4 figures). B1 is at the start of thegroup of 4 passages in the first paragraph. So, there are c.1,000 senior officials (1, writtenin 4 figures). Finally, B11 forms 2 passages in the paragraph involved. So, there are c.11ministers (11, written in 2 figures).Politics: internal policyOn the inner part of the front side the combination of "horn" (#26) and "falcon" (#31),symbols for the power of God, occur in passages 7, 10, 13, and 16 (Fig.4.1). The innerpart is symbolic for the interior of Crete. So, one may wonder how many people areworking for internal policy. A7 will not form 3 passages, because this leads to a number,which becomes too high. Instead it forms 2 passages, finishing with the "Queen", apossible Head of State. The other three combinations are at the start of consecutive groupsof 3 passages, all finishing with the "King", the usual Head of State. So, added up70+100+130+160= c.460 people are working for internal policy.Foreign policyOn the edge, which is symbolic for foreign countries, the mentioned combination ofsymbols occurs in passage A23, corresponding with the holy Tropic of Cancer and theSouthern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. This is the center of the Sun Religion (Refs.12-20).So, one may wonder how many people are working in foreign policy. The combination isat the start of a group of 2 passages, finishing with the "King", again, at the end of theparagraph. So, c.23 people are working in this part of politics.Intelligence serviceOn the edge at the back side is the draught-screen (#40), symbol of concealment, inpassages B20, B21, and B30. The text of the passages, related to the King, his temple andthe religion, gives a clue about its meaning (Ref.6). One may wonder how many peopleare working for the intelligence service, clearly a minor institution. B30 could form 3passages, but we think 300 men is too much for this service. So, we decided to make otherchoices. B20 and B21 form groups of 3 and 2 passages, respectively, both finishing withthe symbol of "religion", in which one believes. B30 forms 1 passage, only confirming thefirst number (3), and finishing with the "King" at the end of this side. So, added up, thereare 200+21+3= c.224 people working for this service. The symbol of the “draught-screen”(#40) also occurs on the edge of the front side, but there it is related to a different subject,which is garment factories (§4.5).AdministrationIn the inner part of the front side the symbol of the papyrus (#37) occurs in importantpassages A3 and A15. One may wonder how many people are working in administrationand archives, because in these institutions a lot of paper is used. A15 is at the start of a
  15. 15. group of 5 passages, finishing at the end of the inner part. A3 consists of 1 passage,finishing with the "King", the Head of State. So, added up, there are 15,000+3= c.15,003people working in these important services. This is a round number, again, which isencouraging. It is almost 11% of the total population of Crete. Note, that the papyrus stalkin passage A3 accurately points to the end of passage A7. So, the total number has to bewritten down in 7-2= 5 figures. However, a series of 5 passages from A3 would result in anumber of 30,000 people, which is clearly too high. So, the maker of the disc is helpingus, again. The symbol of the “papyrus” (#37) also occurs on the edge of the back side, butthere it is related to the paper-industry (§4.5).The judicatureOn the edge at the front side, symbolic for the edge of society, the symbol of the course ofthe law (#45) occurs in passages A26 and A29. One may wonder how many people workfor the judicature. The symbol of the “prisoner” is present in the neighboring passage A27.The courts are involved with people from the outskirts of society. A26 and A29 are at thestart of consecutive groups of 3 passages, the first one finishing at the end of theparagraph, the last one finishing at the end of the side with the "King", the Head of State.So, added up, 260+290= c.550 people are working for the sake of justice. This is a rathernice, round number.JudgesOn the edge at the back side the symbol of the course of the law (#45) occurs in passageB29. One may wonder how many judges there are. B29 forms 2 passages, finishing at theend of the side with the "King", the Head of State. So, there are c.29 judges (29, written in2 figures).Town policeIn the inner part of the disc, symbolic for the towns, the symbol of the “scroll of the law”(#13) occurs in passages A2, A6, and B12 (Ref.6). One may wonder how many policeofficers there are inside the towns, because these officers are servants of the law. A6 is atthe start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with the "Queen", a possible Head of State. So,there are c.600 police officers in the populated areas (6, written in 3 figures). A2 forms agroup of 3 passages till the end of the paragraph. So, there are c.200 police sergeants inthis department (2, written in 3 figures). B12 consists of 1 passage at the end of theparagraph, so only the first number (1) is confirmed. So, there is 1 head of the town police.Country side policeOn the edges of the disc, symbolic for the country side, the symbol of the scroll of the law(#13) occurs in passages A31, B23, and B24. One may wonder how much police there isoutside the towns. A31 is at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with the "King",the Head of State. So, there are c.310 officers of police in the rural areas (31, written in 3figures). B23 forms a group of 2 passages till the end of the paragraph. So, there are c.23police sergeants in this department (23, written in 2 figures). B24 consists of 1 passage atthe end of the same paragraph, so only the first number (2) is confirmed. So, there are 2heads of the country side police.ProstitutionThe front side of the Phaistos Disc contains 31 passages, encoding a first generation of 31years, and the back side contains 30 passages, encoding a second generation of 30 years.On the front side of the disc the symbol of a woman (#6) with naked breasts occurs inpassages A8 and A24. One may wonder how many prostitutes there were in the past, first
  16. 16. generation (side A). A8 forms 2 passages, finishing with the “King” at the end of theparagraph. A24 is on the edge, because the phenomenon of prostitution was not commonin that time period. It may form 1 passage, but our choice is 2 passages, finishing with thesymbol for “death”, mainly because our aim is a round, total number. So, added up, thenumber of prostitutes in the years 1519-1488 BC, more than 30 years ago, amounted to24+80= c.104 women.On the back side of the disc the woman occurs in passages B3 and B15. Note, that thesepassage numbers are equal to the most important passage numbers on the front side. Onemay wonder how many prostitutes there are in the present, second generation (side B).Both symbols occur in the inner part, because the phenomenon of prostitution is importantduring this time period. The symbols are at the start of groups of 4 passages, both at theend of paragraphs finishing with "tempels", now brothels. So, added up, the number ofprostitutes in the years 1488-1458 BC amounts to 3,000+1,500= c.4,500 women. This is anice round number. It is 6.4% of the female population. (The average number of prostitu-tes in the last two generatons is c.2,300.)PrisonersOn the edge of the front side, symbolic for the edge of society, the symbol of the prisoner(#4) occurs in passage A27. Prisoners belong to the outskirts of society. A27 is at the startof a group of 4 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the "hidden temple",the prison, where they are locked up. So, there are c.2,700 prisoners on Crete (27, writtenin 4 figures). This is 1.9% of the population.DefenceOn the edge of the front side, symbolic for the coast of Crete, the symbol of the shield(#12) occurs in passages 20, 22, 24, 26, 27, 30, and 31. One may wonder how manypeople are used to defend the island. The passages show, that also in time of peace, thecoasts of Crete are fully protected all around, and in a balanced way. Note, that the numberof passages (7) equals the number of dots in the shield. A20 forms 3 passages, finishingwith the “King”. A22 forms 3 passages, finishing with the “King” at the end of theparagraph. A24 forms 3 passages, finishing with the symbol of “death”, because peopleare willing to fight. A26 forms 2 passages, finishing with the “King”. A27 forms 2passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph. A30 forms 2 passages, finishing at the endof the side with the “King”. Finally, A31 forms 3 passages, finishing with the “King”, theHead of State, in A20, where we started. So, added up 200+220+240+26+27+30+310=c.1,053 people are working in the department of defence. This is a nice, round number,again. The symbol of the shield (#12) also occurs on the inner part of the front side, butthere it is related to the bronze processing industry (§4.5). It also occurs on the edge of theback side, but there it is related to the bronze production for the export (§4.5).Weapon industry: bow and arrowIn the inner part of the front side, symbolic for the interior, the symbols of bow (#11) andarrow (#39) occur in passage A19, which is also on the edge, symbolic for the sea. Onemay wonder how many of these weapons, meant for coastal defence and at sea, areproduced per year. A19 is at the start of a group of 4 passages, finishing with the “shield”and the “King”. So, c.1,900 bows and arrows are fabricated per year to protect the King(19, written in 4 figures).One may also wonder how many people are working for the production of these weapons.A19 is also at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with the "messenger", indicating
  17. 17. number of people. So, c.190 people (19, written in 3 figures) are working for the produc-tion. On the average, each man makes c.10 bows and arrows per year. Passage A19 issituated on the edge. So, in case of war these people are used to attack the enemy.SpearsOn the inner part of the back side, symbolic for the interior, the symbol of the arrow (#39)occurs in passages B4 and B15. One may wonder how many spears are made for the land-forces. B4 is at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph.B15 produces a series of 4 passages, finishing at the end of the inner part. So, in total,400+1,500= c.1,900 of these spears are made per year.One may wonder how many people are making these spears. B15 and B4 are also at thestart of groups of 3 and 2 passages, respectively, finishing with the “Palace”, where thespears are handed in, and with the symbol of “religion”. So, added up, another 150+40=c.190 people are working for this type of weapon production. On the average, each manmakes c.10 spears per year. The symbol of the arrow (#39) also occurs on the edge of theback side, but there it is related to the production of harpoons for the fishing (§4.5).4.4 EDUCATION & RELIGIONChildrenOn the disc the symbol of a child (#5) occurs in passage B28. The symbol is on the edge,because the position of the children is on the edge of society. One may wonder how manychildren there are on Crete. B28 is at the start of a group of 5 passages, finishing at the endof a kind of paragraph (because of the paragraph-line of B11), with the "King". So, thereare c.28,000 children on the island (28, written in 5 figures). These children form c.20% ofthe population.- One may also wonder about the value of the birthrate. The passage itselfhas a "King". So, it might be true, that on the average c.2.8 children are born from eachcouple on Crete (Table 4.2).Lower schoolsOn the disc the symbol of the temple (#24) occurs. The horizontal bar indicates, there aretwo types of schools on Crete. One may wonder how many “lower schools” there are.The temple in A30 on the front side points to the “square” above it, which is also the nextsign of the next passage. So, it encodes 30 schools. B6 on the back side is at the end ofthe paragraph. So, the temple in this passage corresponds to 6 schools. B18 is even at theend of the inner part. The first temple in the passage corresponds to 1 school, because thesecond number (8) is not confirmed. The second temple touches the edge, so it appears tobe at the start of a series of 2 passages, finishing with the “corpse” in B19, symbolisingknowledge. It encodes 18 schools. The temples in B21 and B26 each form series of 2passages, both finishing with the symbol of “religion”. These encode 21 and 26 schools,respectively. Added up, there appears to be 30+6+1+18+21+26= 102 lower schools onthe island. It is a nice, round number.Higher schoolsOn the disc the symbol of the palace (#14) occurs. One may wonder how many “higherschools” there are. A9 on the front side has a palace. The “King” above it looks at thissign. His head touches the paragraph-line, just like the “King” in A10. So, it encodes 90schools. The palace in B17 on the back side forms a series of 2 passages, finishing at theend of the inner part. It corresponds to 17 schools. So, in total there appears to be 90+17=107 schools. However, this quantity clearly confirms the number of lower schools,mentioned previously. It does not indicate the number of higher schools.
  18. 18. A9 on the front side finishes with a “corpse, shield, King”, just like A3 above it. So, it mayrepresent 9 higher schools. The palace in B17 on the back side still encodes 17 schools.So, in total there are 9+17= 26 higher schools on Crete. This is a nice, round number,again.Pupils and studentsOn the inner part of the back side the symbol of the glove (#8) occurs in passages 5, 10,12, and 13 (Table 4.1). This gauntlet indicates the number of pupils who receive education(Refs.6,24). So, one may wonder how many pupils and students are learning at the schoolsof the island. B5 forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with a "temple",which is now a kind of school. The paragraph-line of B10 points to a "messenger"(indicating number of people), so B10 forms 5 passages finishing with another "messen-ger", but also with the "King" in that passage, who is a learned man. B12 forms a series of3 passages, finishing with the same "King", to indicate the hundreds. The paragraph-lineof B13 points to a "messenger" again, so B13 forms 4 passages, finishing with another"messenger" in B16, with the text: “Give the Cat the Fish to eat.” This text symbolizes theprocess of education. This series indicates the thousands. Note, that the maker of the dischelped us twice. So, added up, 50+10,000+120+1,300= c.11,470 pupils and students arestudying at the schools of Crete. This is a nice, rather round number. It is c.8.2% of thetotal population. The symbol of the glove (#8) also occurs on the edge of the front side,but there it is related to the leather industry (§4.5).TeachersOn the inner part of the front side the symbol of the lid (#17) occurs in passage A8. Thetext shows the lid should be associated with good education (Refs.1,6). One may wonderhow many teachers are working in Crete, who received higher education. A8 cannot form2 passages, because in that case the resulting number remains too low. Note also, that thelid points to neighboring passage A3. So, A8 is at the start of a group of 3 passages,finishing at the end of a paragraph with the "King", the central figure, and with “God”. So,c.800 teachers are working in the schools on the island (8, written in 3 figures). It appearsthat the symbol of the lid (#17) also occurred on the position of the injury in passage A24,which is on the edge of the front side, but there it is related to the production of householdarticles (§4.5).Professors of the "inner-faculties of the university”In the inner part of the front side the symbol of the corpse (#27) occurs in passages 3, 3, 9,9, 12, 15, 15, en 18. This symbol should not always be associated with death, but also withknowledge (Refs.6,24). One may wonder how many professors are working in an impor-tant part of the “university”. For a small country like Crete, this number was very low, ofcourse. A3 forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph. A12 also forms 2passages, finishing with the “King” and with “God”. A9 and A15 form 2 passages, too,finishing at the end of paragraphs, also with the ”King” and with “God“. Finally, A18forms a group of 2 passages, finishing at the end of the inner part. Added up,30+30+90+90+12+15+15+18= c.300 professors are working in the “inner faculties” of theso-called “university”. It is a nice, round number.Professors of the "outer-faculties of the university”On the edge of the front side the symbol of the corpse (#27) occurs in passages A25 andA26. The text of A25 reads: “The glove chops until death”, and the text of A26 reads:“Protect and take care for the course of the law till the end”. In view of the meaning of
  19. 19. these passages one may wonder how many professors are working in the science and lawfaculties. Both symbols are at the start of groups of 2 passages again, the last one finishingwith the "King". So, added up, 25+26= c.51 people are teaching these subjects. It is around number, again. The total number of teachers and professors amounts to800+300+51= c.1,151 men, a nice, round number. It is about 10% of the number ofstudents. Note, that the professors and teachers are indicated on the front side, and that thepupils and students are indicated on the back side. The symbol of the corpse (#27) alsooccurs on the back side, but there it is related to the production of clothing (§4.5).Science and PhilosophyOn the inner part of the back side the symbol of doubt (#22) occurs in passages B5 andB10 (Ref.6). One may wonder how many learned people are working in the fields ofscience and philosophy. B5 is at the start of a group of 2 passages, finishing at the end ofthe paragraph with a "temple", now a kind of university. So, there are c.50 people,possibly professors, working in this research institute (5, written in 2 figures). B10 consistsof 1 passage, so only the first number (1) is confirmed. So, there is 1 head of science andphilosophy.ReligionOn the edge of the back side the same symbol, but now of religion (#22), occurs inpassages B22, B27, and B30 (Refs.6,24). One may wonder how many people are workingin religious institutes. B22 is at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing at the end ofthe paragraph, and encoding c.220 ordinary associates in support of religion (22, written in3 figures). B27 forms 2 passages, finishing with the "King", the undisputable Head ofState. So, c.27 people are working as local religious chiefs (27, written in 2 figures). B30consists of 1 passage, so only the first number (3) is confirmed. So, there are 3 religiousleaders on the island of Crete. In total, there are 220+27+3= c.250 people working insupport of religion. The importance of religion in society has been confirmed by manyarchaeologists (Refs.7-14).4.5 BUSINESSMeat industryOn the edge of the front side the symbol of the chopper (#44) occurs in passage A25(Fig.4.1&4.3) (Ref.1). One may wonder how many people work in the meat industry. Thesymbol is on the edge, because people are dependent on the cattle- and poultry-breeders,discussed in §4.2. Their numbers are indicated by the symbols of the hoof (#28), the ram(#30), and the pigeon (#32). A25 is at the start of a group of 4 passages, finishing at theend of the paragraph, or with the “King” (using A27a/b), where the meat is handed in. So,c.2,500 people (25, written in 4 figures) are working in the meat industry.Fell preparationOn the edge at the back side is the symbol of the scraper (#42) in passage B22 (Fig.4.2).One may wonder how many people are working for fell preparation. The symbol is on theedge, because people are dependent on the meat industry, and on the cattle-breeders,discussed in §4.2. B22 is at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with a “messenger”at the end of the paragraph, indicating number of people. So, c.220 people (22, written in3 figures) are working for fell preparation (Refs.1,9).Garment factoriesThe symbol of the draught-screen (#40) on the edge of the back side is related to thenumber of people working for the intelligence service of the government (§4.3). However,
  20. 20. on the edge of the front side the symbol of the draught-screen (#40) also occurs, in passa-ges A21, A27, and A30. This is a different part of the disc, and the symbol has a differentmeaning. One may wonder how many people are working in factories making draught-screens, curtains, carpets, and hangings. The edge of the disc symbolizes the walls of aroom. Most of these clothes are placed near these walls, literally. A21 is at the start of agroup of 4 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the "King", for which it isall meant. A27 forms a group of 3 passages, finishing at A29, with the text: ”Take care forthe course of life of the Cat-god”, or at the end of the paragraph, using A27a/b. The Cat-god will feel at home with all these clothes. A30 forms a group of 2 passages, finishingwith the “King" at the end of this side. So, the first passage was for the thousands, thesecond for the hundreds, and the third for the tens. So, added up, there are 2,100+270+30=c.2,400 people working in this branch (Refs.7-11). It is a nice, round number.Paper-industryThe symbol of the papyrus (#37) in the inner part of the front side is related to the numberof people working in administration and archives of the government (§4.3). However, onthe edge of the back side the symbol of the papyrus (#37) also occurs, in passages B22 andB28. This is clearly another part of the disc. One may wonder how many people are wor-king in the paper-industry. The symbol is on the edge, because this branch of industry isconsidered to be less important than administration and archives. B22 and B28 are both atthe start of groups of 3 passages, both finishing at the end of paragraphs, the last onefinishing with the "King", at the end of this side. So, added up, there are 220+280= c.500people working in this branch of industry. This is a round number, which is encouraging,again.Road-buildingOn the edge at the back side the symbol of the mattock (#15) or pick occurs in passageB23. One may wonder how many people are working in the road-building. The symbol ison the edge, because the work is mainly done outside the towns and villages. B23 cannotform 5 passages till the end of the paragraph, because the number obtained is too high. So,B23 is at the start of a group of 4 passages, finishing with the "temple", where theworkmen get their salaries. So, c.2,300 people (23, written in 4 figures) are working in theroad-building.Bronze productionOn the inner part of the front side, symbolic for the interior of Crete, the sign of the shield(#12) occurs in passages 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 15, and 16. Probably, the shield is made ofbronze. So, one may wonder how many people are working in the bronze processingindustry, which has been proven by excavations (Refs.7-13). Our choices for a round totalnumber of reasonable magnitude are the following. A3 forms 1 passage, finishing with the“King”. A6 forms 2 passages, finishing with the “falcon”, symbol of God. A7 forms 3passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the “King”. A9 forms 2 passages,finishing at the end of a paragraph with the “King”, and with “God”. A10 and A13 formconsecutive groups of 3 passages, both finishing at the end of a paragraph with the “King”,the central figure on the Phaistos Disc. A15 forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of aparagraph with the “King”, and with “God”. Finally, A16 forms a series of 4 passages,finishing at the end of the inner part. So, added up there are 3+60+700+90+1-00+130+15+1,600= c.2,698 people working for the production of bronze. This is a nice,round number, indeed.
  21. 21. Export of BronzeThe symbol of the shield (#12) on the edge of the front side is related to the coastaldefence of the island of Crete (§4.3). However, on the edge of the back side, symbolic forthe coast around Crete, the symbol of the shield (#12) also occurs, in passages B26 andB30. This is a competely different part of the disc. One may wonder how many people areworking in the bronze production for the export. B26 and B30 form groups of 2 and 3passages, respectively, in which symbols of boats occur, the last one finishing with the"King". Because of the paragraph-line of B11, this group also finishes at the end of a kindof paragraph. So, added up, 26+300= c.326 people are producing bronze for the export.Important trade partners are located in the west (B26), and in the south (B30, Egypt)(Refs.21-23).HarpoonsThe symbol of the arrow (#39) in the inner part of the back side is related to theproduction of spears for the land-forces (§4.3). However, on the edge of the back side,symbolic for the sea, the sign of an arrow (#39) also occurs, in passage B24. One maywonder how many harpoons are fabricated for the fishing. B24 is at the start of a group of4 passages, starting with a “fish”, and finishing with the “boat”, which is used, and withthe symbol of “death”, because these weapens are meant for killing the prey. So, c.2,400harpoons are made per year (24, written in 4 figures). It is a round number.One may also wonder how many people are making these harpoons. B24 now forms agroup of 3 passages, ending with the "temple of the Fish-god", where the producedharpoons are handed in. So, c.240 people (24, written in 3 figures) are working in thisbranch of industry. On the average, each man makes c.10 harpoons per year.Leather industryThe symbol of the glove (#8) in the inner part of the back side is related to the numbers ofteachers and pupils working in education (§4.4). However, on the edge of the front sidethe glove (#8) also occurs, in passage A25. This is a completely different part of the disc.The gauntlet is clearly made of leather. One may wonder how many people are working inthe leather industry. The symbol is placed on the edge, because this branch of industry isconsidered to be less important than education. A25 is at the start of a series of 4 passages,finishing at the end of the paragraph, or with the “King”, using A27a/b. So, c.2,500 peopleare working in the leather industry (25, written in 4 figures). It is a nice, round number,again.Household articlesThe symbol of the lid (#17) in the inner part of the front side is related to the number ofpeople working in higher education (§4.4). Due to an injury the first symbol of passageA24 on the edge of the front side is not visible. However, probably the lid (#17) was alsoprojected here, because the symbol-sequence "lid, carpenters square, Queen" wasmentioned earlier in A8, and repetitions are a main feature of the disc. One may wonderhow many people are working in the production of household articles (Refs.1,6). Thesymbol is on the edge, because this branch of industry is completely different from highereducation, and considered to be less important. A24 is at the start of a group of 4 passages,finishing with the "King", where the products are handed in. So, c.2,400 people areworking in this branch (24, written in 4 figures). It is a round number, again.Hides and clothingThe symbol of the corpse (#27) on the front side is related to the number of professors
  22. 22. working at the “university” (§4.4). However, in the inner part of the back side, symbolicfor the house, the sign of the corpse (#27) also occurs, in passages B9 and B14. This isanother part of the disc. Here, the symbol has nothing to do with death or knowledge, butrather with production of hides and clothing. B9 forms a group of 2 passages, finishing atthe end of a paragraph with the symbol of “religion”, in which one believes. B14 forms aseries of 4 passages, finishing with the "Palace", where the produced clothing is delivered.So, added up, 90+1,400= c.1,490 people are working in this branch. It is a round number,again.Export of hides and clothingOn the edge of the back side, symbolic for the outside world, the symbol of the corpse(#27) occurs in passages B19, B27, and B29. Again, this symbol has nothing to do withdeath or knowledge, but with production of hides and clothing for the export. B19 forms 4passages, finishing with the "religion", in which one believes. B27 forms 3 passages,finishing with an identical symbol (a corpse), and B29 forms 2 passages, finishing at theend of the side with the “King”, the central figure in the country. The first passageprovides the thousands, the second one the hundreds, and the third one the tens. So, addedup, 1,900+270+29= c.2,199 people are working in this branch (Ref.9). This is a roundnumber, again.Competitions and happeningsOn the inner part of the back side the symbol of the tiara (#9) occurs in passages B4 andB14 (Ref.1). One may wonder how many people are working professionally to organizecompetitions and happenings. B4 is at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing at theend of the paragraph with the "temple", where the events are taking place. B14 forms agroup of 4 passages, finishing with the "Palace", where the crowning with the tiara usuallyoccurs. So, added up, 400+1,400= c.1,800 people are working in this branch. It is a roundnumber.Art and engraving industryOn the inner part of the front side the burin (#10) occurs in passages 1, 4, 12, en 18. Onemay wonder how many people are working in the art and engraving industry. A1 is clearlyat the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with the "King", because the disc urgentlyproclaims to engrave passage A3. A4 emphasizes it with another 3 passages, againfinishing with the “King”. Longer series from A1 and A4 would result in numbers, whichare too high. However, A12 is at the start of a group of 4 passages, finishing at the end ofa paragraph with A15 (equal to A3), having the "King", the main promotor of the art.Finally, A18 forms 1 passage, only confirming the first number (1), again finishing withthe "King". So, added up, 100+400+1200+1= c.1,701 people are working in this part ofsociety, which is a round number, again (Refs.7-11).Music instrumentsOn the disc the symbol of the flute (#41) occurs in passages A21 and A22. One maywonder how many music instruments are made per year. A21 and A22 form groups of 4and 3 passages, respectively, both finishing at the end of the paragraph with the "King",where the instruments are handed in. So, added up, 2,100+220= c.2,320 music instrumentsare made per year, which is c.44 per week. It appears, that the flute is placed on the edge,because a lot of these instruments are transported abroad. It is also a marginal business.Music as cultural activity has been confirmed by archaeologists (Refs.1,7-11).One may wonder how many people are involved in making these music instruments. The
  23. 23. flute in A22 has been imprinted upside down. So, the maker of the disc is helping us,again. Both A21 and A22 appear to form series of 2 passages, the first one finishing withthe “King”, the last one finishing with "the power of God", in whom one believes (22,written in 2 figures). So, added up, c.43 people are working in this small branch ofindustry. Each man makes c.1 music instrument per week.Jewel industryIn the inner part of the front side the flower (#38) occurs in passages A1 and A4. One maywonder how many people are working in the jewel industry. Many of these jewels werebought by the authorities of the palaces and temples. A1 and A4 are at the start ofconsecutive groups of 3 passages, both finishing with the "King". Longer series wouldresult in numbers, which are too high. So, added up, 100+400= c.500 people are workingfor the design and fabrication of jewels. On the edge the flower occurs in passage A20,also at the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with the “King”. Passage A23, with thesymbols for the “power of God”, is used for separation, again. So, for the export anotherc.200 people are working in this branch (20, written in 3 figures) (Refs.7-9). These arenice, round numbers, again.Flower tradeOn the edge of the back side the flower (#38) occurs in passage B19. However, this is acompletely different part of the disc, so the symbol will point to another activity. One maywonder how many people are working in the flower business, a marginal activity. B19 isat the start of a group of 3 passages, finishing with the "temple", where the flowers arehanded in. So, c.190 people are working in the flower business (19, written in 3 figures).4.6 HEALTH CAREPrimary careOn the inner part of the back side the symbol of the cover (#7) occurs in passages 1, 3, 4,5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 13. One may wonder how many people are working in theprimary service and care (Ref.6). B1 forms 4 passages, B3 forms 2 passages, B4 forms 1passage, B5 forms 2 passages, B6 forms 1 passage, all finishing at the end of a paragraph,the last 2 also with the "temple". B7 forms 3 passages twice, B8 forms 2 passages, B10forms 3 passages, B11 forms 2 passages, all of these finishing at the end of a paragraph,and B13 forms 2 passages, finishing with the "King", the center of society. So, added up,1,000+30+4+50+6+700+700+80+100+11+13= c.2,694 people are working in this kind ofservice. This is a round number, again.Individual health careOn the edge of the back side, symbolic for the sic people, the symbol of the cover (#7)occurs in passages 21, 23, 29, and 30. One may wonder how many people are working asdoctor, therapeutist, and so on, for the treatment of the ill. B21 and B23 form 4 and 2passages, respectively, both finishing at the end of the paragraph. B29 forms 2 passages,finishing at the end of the side with the “King”. Finally, B30 appears to form 3 passages(till the paragraph-line of B11), finishing at the end of a kind of paragraph with the“King”, the Head of State. So, in total 2,100+23+29+300= c.2,452 people are working inthis section of health care.HospitalsOn the edge of the front side, now symbolic for the very ill people, the symbol of thecover (#7) occurs in passages A21, A26, and A29. One may wonder how many people areworking in the hospitals. A21 forms a series of 4 passages, finishing at the end of the
  24. 24. paragraph with the “King”. A26 forms 3 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph, orwith the “King”, using A27a/b. A29 forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of theparagraph with the "temple", in this case representing a hospital. The first passage is forthe thousands, the second one for the hundreds, and the third one for the tens. So,2,100+260+29= c.2,389 people are working in the hospitals. In total, 2,694+2,452+2,389=c.7,535 people are working for social health care. This is a rather round number. It is 5.4%of the total population of Crete.4.7 FUNERALSImportant gravesOn the inner part of the front side the symbol of the King’s grave (#21) occurs in passagesA3 and A15. One may wonder how many people are working around the important gravesof the island (Ref.1). A3 forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph. A15 alsoforms 2 passages, finishing at the end of a paragraph with the “King” and with “God”. So,added up, 30+15= c.45 people are working around these important graves.Funeral servicesOn the inner part of the back side the symbol of the mummy (#20) occurs in passage B18.One may wonder how many people are working at the funeral services. B18 is at the startof a group of 3 passages (till the paragraph-line of B11), finishing at the end of a kind ofparagraph with the "King". So, c.180 people are working at the funeral services (18,written in 3 figures).Grave maintenanceOn the edge of the back side the symbol of the mummy (#20) occurs in passage B26. Thisis another part of the disc. One may wonder how many people are working for themaintenance of the graves, which has a lower status then the funeral services. B26 is at thestart of a group of 2 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the symbol of"religion", in which one believes. So, c.26 people are working for the maintenance of thegraves at the cemeteries (26, written in 2 figures). In total, 45+180+26= c.251 people areworking for the care of the dead, a rather round number, again.4.8 WOODWORKING INDUSTRYTimberfelling for interior useThe woodworking industry is one of the most difficult subjects. On the disc the symbol ofa branch with leaves (#35) occurs. On the front side the symbol was related to the yearlyproduction of olives, but the back side of the disc tells a completely different story. Fromeight other symbols on the disc it turns out that woodworking was important on Crete(Refs.6,24).On the inner part of the back side the branch (#35) occurs in passages 3, 8, 15, and 18.One may wonder how many trees are hacked down on Crete for interior use. B3 and B15each form 4 passages, both finishing at the end of the paragraph with the wooden"temples", where the stems are delivered. Apparently, the wood of this type of tree issuitable for building constructions. Probably, it is hard wood of the cypresse tree(Refs.23,24). B8 may also form 4 passages. The series finishes at B11, with the text:“Take care for the life of the Cat-god”. The text of B8 at the start of the series was: “Thewood leads to this care”. The paragraph-line of B11 points to the end of B20. So,probably, B18 forms 3 passages, finishing at the end of a kind of paragraph with the"King", the central figure of society. Added up, it turns out that 3,000+8,000+1,500+180=c.12,680 trees of this type are cut per year for the interior.
  25. 25. One may wonder, how many people are cutting these trees. We shall try to obtain a roundnumber of reasonable magnitude. B3 consists of 1 passage with the "King". B8 and B18each form 2 passages, both finishing with the “boat” and the symbol of "death", becausethese trees are cut for making these ships. B15 forms 3 passages, finishing with the"Palace", where the stems are delivered. Added up, it turns out that 3+80+18+150= c.251people are cutting these trees for interior use, which is a nice, round number. On theaverage, each man hacks about 51 trees per year. Cypresse trees are probably intended. Atthe end of the Palace Culture, the hard wood of this kind of tree was very popular forconstruction purposes (Ref.7).Timberfelling for the exportOn the edge of the back side the branch (#35) occurs in passages B21 and B29. One maywonder how many trees, probably cypresse, are cut and shipped abroad. B21 forms aseries of 4 passages till the end of the paragraph. Probably, B29 forms 3 passages,finishing with the symbol of "death" and the "boat", because trees are hacked down, andtransported overseas. Added up, it turns out that 2,100+290= c.2,390 trees of this type arecut and exported per year, a rather round number. It is about 16% of the total number oftrees, which are hacked down.Again, one may wonder how many people are hacking down these trees and exporting thelogs. B21 forms 2 passages, finishing with the symbol of “religion”, in which one believes.B29 also forms 2 passages, finishing at the end of the side with the “King”. These shortseries contain the symbols of the “boat” and the “waterway”, because the stems areexported with sailing ships. Added up, it turns out that 21+29= c.50 people are cuttingthese trees for the export. On the average, each man hacks about 48 trees per year.Centers for sawing woodOn the back side the symbol of the saw (#16) occurs in passages B17 and B25. One maywonder how many people are working in centers for sawing wood. B17 forms 3 passages,finishing with the symbol of "death", because hacked wood is sawed to construct“palaces”, "temples", and "boats", which are shown in this series. So, c.170 people areworking for the interior supply of sawed wood (17, written in 3 figures). On the edge B25forms 3 passages, too, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the symbol of “religion”,in which one believes. In this series similar symbols are shown. So, c.250 people areworking in wood saweries for the export (25, written in 3 figures). It is a nice, roundnumber.Centers for planing woodOn the front side the symbol of the plane (#19) occurs in passages A5, A8, and A22(Ref.1). So, one may wonder how many people are working in centers for planing wood.A5 and A8 each form 2 passages, both finishing with the "King". So, 50+80= c.130 peopleare working for the interior production. On the edge A22 forms 3 passages, finishing at theend of the paragraph, also with the "King". So, c.220 people are working in these centersfor the export (22, written in 3 figures).Centers for polishing woodOn the edge of the back side the symbol of the triangular rasp or grater (#43) occurs inpassage B25 (Ref.1). One may wonder how many people are trying to polish the wood.B25 forms a group of 3 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph with the symbol of"religion", in which one believes. The text indicates that “hammer”, “saw” and “wooden
  26. 26. temple” are made this way, and the “boat” on the edge suggests, that part of the productsare shipped abroad. So, c.250 people are trying to graze and polish wood (25, written in 3figures). It turns out that in total (170+250)+(130+220)+250= c.1,020 people are workingin the wood-treatment. This is a nice, round number, again.Designing palaces, temples, and schoolsOn the inner part of the front side, symbolic for the interior of Crete, the symbol of thecarpenters square (#18) occurs in passages 8, 9, 12, and 18. One may wonder how manypeople are working in the design of constructions for palaces, temples, schools, etc. Thesymbols form 2 passages, all, except the last one, finishing with the "King", the Head ofState. The last series finishes with A19 at the end of the inner part. So, added up,80+90+12+18= c.200 people are trying to make these designs.On the inner part of the back side, symbolic for the interior, the symbol of the carpenterssquare (#18) occurs in passages 4, 6, 8, and 17. Again, one may wonder how many peopleare working for the design of constructions for palaces, temples, schools, etc. B4 and B6each form 1 passage, both at the end of the paragraph, the last one with the “temple”,which has to be designed. B8 and B17 each form 2 passages, both finishing at the end ofthe paragraph, the first one with the symbol of “death”, and the last one with “temples”,because sawed wood is used in their construction. So, added up, 4+6+80+17= c.107people are working in these competitive firms. In total, 200+107= c.307 people are design-ing palaces, temples, and schools. This is a rather round number.Designing shipsOn the edge of the front side, which may be symbolic for the coast of Crete, the sign of thecarpenters square (#18) occurs in passages A24 and A31. A24 forms 1 passage, finishingwith the “King”, the Head of State. It encodes 2 men, because only the first number (2) isconfirmed. A31 forms 2 passages, finishing with A19 at the end of the inner part. So,added up, 2+31= c.33 people are trying to make designs for ships.On the edge of the back side, symbolic for the sea, the sign of the square (#18) occurs inpassages B23 and B25. Both form 2 passages, the first one finishing at the end of theparagraph, the last one finishing with the "temple", where the designs are handed in. So,added up, 23+25= c.58 people are working in these competitive firms. If the passages arecounted along the edge (E), as we did before with the fleet, the square (#18) occurs in E5and E7. It shows, that c.57 people are working for designing the fleet, confirming thenumber. In total, 33+58= c.91 men are working for designing constructions of ships.Building palaces, temples, and schoolsThis is a difficult subject, again. On the inner part of the front side, probably symbolic forthe interior, the sign of the hammer (#23) occurs in passages 5, 12, 14, and 18. One maywonder how many people are working to build palaces, temples, schools, etc. We shall tryto obtain a round number of reasonable magnitude. We made the following choices. A5forms 2 passages, finishing with the “King”. A12 and A14 form 4 and 3 passages,respectively, finishing at the end of a paragraph with the “King”. Finally, A18 forms 2passages, finishing at the end of the inner side. So, added up, 50+1,200+140+18= c.1,408people are working in this branch.On the inner part of the back side, probably symbolic for the interior, the sign of thehammer (#23) occurs in passages 2, 3, 6, and 9. Again, one may wonder how many peopleare working to build palaces, temples, schools, etc., besides the number of men indicated
  27. 27. on the front side. Again, the groups of passages have to be chosen in a careful way. Thechoices have to be logic and harmonic. B2 forms 3 passages, finishing at the end of theparagraph. B3 forms 1 passage with the “King”. B6 does not form 4 passages, because theresulting number becomes too high. So, B6 forms 3 passages, finishing with B8. The textof it reads: “The wood leads to this care”. The hammer of B3 accurately points to the endof this passage. So, the maker of the disc is helping us, again. Finally, B9 forms asubsequent series of 2 passages, finishing at the end of a paragraph with the sign of“religion”, in which one believes. So, added up, 200+3+600+90= c.893 people areworking in this competitive branch. In total, 1,408+893= c.2,301 laborours are buildingpalaces, temples, and schools.Ship buildingOn the edge of the front side, probably symbolic for the coast, the sign of the hammer(#23) occurs in passage A20. One may wonder how many people are working in shipbuilding and related activities. We will choose for short series, because we have already acontribution of c.6,000 people working for this goal (see §4.1). So, A20 forms 1 passage,finishing with the "King", who owns many ships. It encodes c.2 men, because only thefirst figure (2) is confirmed.- [There is also an alternative possibility. In that case A20forms 3 passages, again finishing with the “King”, who owns many ships. Now it encodesc.200 men (20, written in 3 figures).] •On the edge of the back side, symbolic for the sea, the sign of the hammer (#23) occurs inpassages B25 and B28. Again, one may wonder how many people are working in shipbuilding, etc. We have to choose the groups of passages in a careful manner. B25 forms 2passages, finishing at the “temple”, where people get their salaries. It encodes c.25 men(25, written in 2 figures).- [There is also an alternative possibility. In that case B25 forms3 passages, finishing with the sign of “religion” at the end of the paragraph. Now itencodes c.250 men (25, written in 3 figures).] •B28 forms a group of 3 passages, finishing at the end of the side with the “King”, theHead of State. So, added up, 25+280= c.305 people are working in this competitivebusiness. In total, 2+305= c.307 labourers are working to build ships (Ref.24).- [In thealternative case, 250+280= c.530 people are encoded on this side, and a total number of200+530= c.730 labourers are working to build ships.] •4.9 DISCUSSIONTable 4.2 provides an overview of all the information encoded on the Phaistos Disc relatedto daily life on Crete at the end of the New Palace Culture, c.1458 BC. In seven cases thenumbers of different objects are given (ships, lower and higher schools, bee-hives, vine-tendrils, olive trees, and pets or cats). The yearly production of 14 different kinds of goodsare shown, 3 of these for the export (grapes or wine, olives, and wood), all expressed innatural units per year. For 17 functions of the government, 8 functions in education &religion, 3 in health care, 3 around funerals, and 7 functions in other areas, the numbers ofpeople (men and women) are given, who are working in these jobs. For 28 different kindsof goods, and 7 of these for the export, the numbers of people are provided, who producethese items.We should realize, that all numbers of people calculated in this Chapter, relate to both menand women. This means, that the numbers of people, who are really working in thementioned areas, are probably about half of these listed in Table 4.2. The majority of thewomen probably stayed at home. The numbers of prisoners and prostitutes are also given.
  28. 28. Finally, the number of children on Crete are shown. The total number of people calculatedfrom Table 4.2 amounts to c.140,122 (or maybe as high as c.140,545). In previous Chapter3 the disc indicated a total number of inhabitants on Crete of c.140,000 (or maybe as highas c.141,000). So, as far as the total number of people is concerned, the list is quiteaccurate. (Refs.25-27)TABLE 4.2DATA ABOUT DAILY LIFE ON CRETE, c.1458 BC,ACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC *§4.1 SHIPSc.30 seaworthy ships produced/year, A/B.(IP), #25c.6,000 employees assembling ships, A/B.(IP), #1,#25c.149 seaworthy ships, Fleet of Crete, B(E), #25c.7,400 people working on ships, B(E), #1,#25c.13,400 = Total Number of people§4.2 FISHERY, CATTLE-BREEDING, AND AGRICULTUREc.450,000 fresh water fishes caught/year, A/B.(IP), #33c.45 professional fresh water fishers, A/B.(IP), #33c.2,700,000 seafishes caught/year, A/B.(E), #33c.400 professional seafishers, A/B.(E), #33c.280,000 big hoofed animals slaughtered/year, A(IP), #28c.12,700 cattle-breeders of big hoofed animals, A(IP), #28c.400,000 small hoofed animals slaughtered/year, B(IP), #30c.4,000 cattle-breeders of small hoofed animals, B(IP), #30c.260,000 poultry slaughtered/year, A+B, #32c.440 poultry-breeders, A+B, #32c.3,009 bee-hives, A+B, #34c.300 bee-keepers, A+B, #34c.73,000 vine-tendrils for interior use, B(IP), #36c.20,000 vine-tendrils for export, B(E), #36c.84 wine-farmers, B, #36c.50,000 olive trees for interior use, A(IP), #35,#12c.95 olive farmers, interior use, A(IP), #35,#12c.23,023 olive trees for export, A(E), #35,#12c.45 olive farmers, export, A(E), #35,#12c.5,980 homeless pets (cats), A(E), #29c.16,000 pets (cats), B(IP), #29c.18,109 = Total Number of people§4.3 GOVERNMENT IN THE PALACES AND TEMPLES2 Heads of State: King or Queen, B(E), #26, #2c.11 ministers, B(IP), #45c.1,000 senior officers, B(IP), #45c.7,000 officers, B(IP), #45c.460 co-workers of internal policy, A(IP), #26, #31c.23 co-workers of foreign policy, A(E), #26, #31c.224 co-workers of intelligence service, B(E), #40
  29. 29. c.15,003 co-workers of administration, A(IP), #37c.550 co-workers of judicature, A(E), #45c.29 judges, B(E), #451 urban head of police, B(IP), #13c.200 urban police sergeants, A(IP), #13c.600 urban police officers, A(IP), #132 rural heads of police, B(E), #13c.23 rural police sergeants, B(E), #13c.310 rural police officers , A(E), #13c.4,500 prostitutes, B(IP), #6c.2,700 prisoners, A(E), #4c.1,053 co-workers of defence, A(E), #12c.1,900 bows and arrows produced/year, A(E), #11, #39c.190 employees of production bows and arrows, A(E), #11, #39c.1,900 spears produced/year, B(IP), #39c.190 employees of production spears, B(IP), #39c.31,371 = Total Number of people§4.4 EDUCATION & RELIGIONc.28,000 children, B(E), #5c.2.8 children/couple, B(E), #5c.102 lower schools, A+B, #24c.26 higher schools, A+B.(IP), #14c.11,470 pupils and students, B(IP), #8c.800 teachers, A(IP), #17c.300 professors of "inner-faculties", A(IP), #27c.51 professors of science and law, A(E), #271 head of science and philosophy, B(IP), #22c.50 co-workers of science and philosophy, B(IP), #223 national religious leaders, B(E), #22c.27 local religious leaders, B(E), #22c.220 co-workers of religious services, B(E), #22c.40,922 = Total Number of people§4.5 BUSINESSc.2,500 employees of meat industry, A(E), #44c.220 employees for skin-preparation, B(E), #42c.2,400 employees of garment factories, A(E), #40c.500 employees of paper industry, B(E), #37c.2,300 employees of road building, B(E), #15c.2,698 employees of bronze production, A(IP), #12c.326 employees of bronze production for export, B(E), #12c.2,400 harpoons produced/year, B(E), #39c.240 employees of production harpoons, B(E), #39c.2,500 employees of leather industry, A(E), #8c.2,400 employees of production household articles, A(E), #17c.1,490 employees of production of hides and clothing, B(IP), #27c.2,199 employees of production of hides and clothing for export, B(E), #27c.1,800 co-workers competitions and happenings, B(IP), #9c.1,701 co-workers of art and engraving industry, A(IP), #10c.2,320 music instruments produced/year, A(E), #41
  30. 30. c.43 employees of production music instruments, A(E), #41c.500 employees of jewel industry for interior use, A(IP), #38c.200 employees of jewel industry for export, A(E), #38c.190 employees of flower trade, B(E), #38c.24,207 = Total Number of people§4.6 HEALTH CAREc.2,694 co-workers of primary services, B(IP), #7c.2,452 individual health care (doctors, therapeutists), B(E), #7c.2,389 co-workers of hospitals, A(E), #7c.7,535 = Total Number of people§4.7 FUNERALSc.45 co-workers of important graves, A(IP), #21c.180 co-workers of funeral services, B(IP), #20c.26 co-workers of grave maintenance, B(E), #20c.251 = Total Number of people§4.8 WOODWORKING INDUSTRYc.12,680 trees (cypresse) cut for interior/year, B(IP), #35c.251 woodcutters, for interior, B(IP), #35c.2,390 trees cut for export/year, B(E), #35c.50 woodcutters, for export, B(E), #35c.170 co-workers of sawing wood for interior use, B(IP), #16c.250 co-workers of sawing wood for export, B(E), #16c.130 co-workers of planing wood for interior use, A(IP), #19c.220 co-workers of planing wood for export, A(E), #19c.250 co-workers of polishing wood, B(E), #43c.307 projectors of palaces, temples, schools, A+B.(IP), #18c.91 projectors of ships, A+B.(E), #18c.2,301 builders of palaces, temples, schools, A+B.(IP), #23c.307 builders of ships, A+B.(E), #23[c.730 builders of ships, A+B.(E), #23] •c.4,327 = Total Number of people[c.4,750 = Total Number of people] •UNITS OF TIME2 sides, or 2 generations1 side, or 1 generation61 passages, or 61 years (2 generations)30/31 passages, or 30/31 years (1 generation)1 passage, or 1 yearPOPULATION OF CRETEc.140,122 inhabitants of Crete according to this table[c.140,545 inhabitants of Crete according to this table] •c.140,000 inhabitants of Crete according to the disc (Ch.3)[c.141,000 inhabitants of Crete according to the disc (Ch.3)] •# number of corresponding symbol (see Table 4.1)* all numbers relate to both men and women
  31. 31. • high, alternative valueLITERATURE (Ch.4)1. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995 (ISBN960-7549-02-3).2. Duhoux, Y., Le disque de Phaistos, Louvain-le-Neuve 1978. (French)3. Miller, J., Ancient American, The Phaistos Disk, March/April 1994, p.37.4. Grimes, J.P., Ancient American, Vol.2, Nr.12, p.35.5. Covey, C., Fischer vs. Fell Phaistos Disk Decipherments, Midw. Epigr. Newsl., Vol.19, Nr.4 (2002).6. Bayley, H., The Lost Language of Symbolism, Citadel Press 1990 reprint (ISBN 0-8065-1100-1).7. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).8. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Thames and Hud-son, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8).9. Herberger, C.F., The Minoan Cultural Response: the Feminine Emphasis, Midwestern EpigraphicJour-nal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 47-55, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).10. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).11. Zwart, A.H. e.a., De Oude Grieken, 7000 Jaar Wereldgeschiedenis, Lekturama, Rotterdam, 1977.(Dutch)12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, How the Sungod Reached America, A Guide to Megalithic Sites,MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-33-92,also on CD.13. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, Website: www.howthesungod.com.14. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z&K, Utrecht/ Antwerpen, 1996(ISBN 90-215-2846-0). (Dutch)15. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.16. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.17. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrec tion, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN0-486-22780-4).18. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090631-6) (Dr.Stecchini).19. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddes ses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0167-2).20. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.21. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-525-47545-1).22. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age, Levant, College Station, Texas,1998.23. Heyerdahl, T., The Ra Expeditions, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1971.24. Cirlot, J.E., A Dictionary of Symbols, Ed. Routledge, 1971 (ISBN 0-8022-2083-5).25. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge26. De Jonge, R.M., Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC), Ref.19.27. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge

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