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CH.6: HISTORY OF CRETE

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CHAPTER 6
HISTORY OF CRETE

6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 NEW PALACE CULTURE
6.3 OLD PALACE CULTURE
6.4 THE PRE-PALATIAL PERIOD
6.5 DISCUSSION

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

Published in: Education, Travel, Art & Photos
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CH.6: HISTORY OF CRETE

  1. 1. CHAPTER 6HISTORY OF CRETE6.1 INTRODUCTION6.2 NEW PALACE CULTURE6.3 OLD PALACE CULTURE6.4 THE PRE-PALATIAL PERIOD6.5 DISCUSSIONDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSUMMARYThe back side of the disc has 4 turns, encoding the 4 double generations of the NewPalace Culture (1702-1458 BC). In 1628 a Comet Catastrophe happened with c.9,000casualties. The end of this time period is caused by a civil war due to failures in thecourse of the law. The front side has 5 turns, encoding the 5 double generations of theOld Palace Culture (2007-1702 BC). The end of it was caused by insufficient educationand a subsequent civil war, with c.9,000 victims. The edges have a total of 25 passages,encoding the 25 generations of the Pre-Palatial Period (2769-2007 BC). In 2344 a hugeComet Catastrophe happened with c.1,600 casualties on Crete, which was more than halfof the original population.6.1 INTRODUCTIONThe text on the Phaistos Disc (Figs.5.3 & 5.4) deals with government and religion onbehalf of the people of Crete (Ch.5). For this purpose one orients on the Sunreligion ofEgypt. However, the spirals at both sides of the disc turn against the daily movement ofthe holy Sun. This feature deviates from the usual homage to the SunGod(Refs.14-21,33-37). From this aspect it can be concluded the disc also deals with historyof government. Such spirals are also found on the ring of Mavro Spilio (Ch.11), and asdecoration, for instance in the Palace of Knossos (Refs.8-10).The Phaistos Disc has 2 sides, encoding 2 generations. The front side has 31 passages,corresponding with a first generation of 31 years, and the back side has 30 passages,corresponding with a second generation of 30 years. It shows the headlines of govern-ment on Crete extended over a period of 2 generations, which lasted 31+30= 61 years. Italso shows side A deals with older history, and side B deals with more recent history. Theround disc represents the “wheel of the law”. So, each turn on the disc also correspondswith a time period of one double generation, which lasted 61 years.6.2 NEW PALACE CULTUREDurationThe back side describes more recent history. It possesses 4 turns, because Crete had a lateperiod of 4 double generations of good government. So, the 4 turns on the back side andthe total number of 61 passages indicate this late period lasted 4x61= 244 years (Table6.1). The 4 dots at the end of the spiral confirm the 4 double generations. The 4 passagesof the first paragraphs at both sides confirm it twice. The 4 “vine-tendrils” at the backside (Fig.5.2, Table 2.2), symbols of the good life on the island, confirm it, too.The "glove", "waterway" and "fish" occur 4 times on the back side, confirming the 4
  2. 2. double generations of the New Palace Culture. The "burin", "arrow" and "papyrus" occur4 times on the disc, confirming it, again.The disc has a diameter of 162mm, and a thickness of 20mm. The diameter/thickness-ratio of the disc confirms that this period lasted 162/20= 8 generations. The 4 “flowers”on the 2 sites of the disc confirm the late period of 4x2= 8 generations. The 8 petals ofthe flowers confirm it again. The disc contains 2 “palaces” and 6 “temples”, together2+6= 8 sacred buildings, confirming it again (Refs.1-7).This late period is once again confirmed, and maybe slightly corrected, by the total num-ber of 242 symbols on the disc, corresponding to a period of good government of 242years. So, the front side with 123 symbols describes the first 123 years, and the back sidewith 119 symbols describes the last 119 years. The 17 shields each contain 7 burls for atotal of 17x7= 119 burls, confirming this last number of very recent years.The total time period is indicated many times, because the disc deals with these recentyears in particular. It is known as the New Palace Culture, which we calculate from thePhaistos Disc as lasting from 1458+244= 1702 to 1458 (Ch.2). Archaeological researchconfirms this time period from c.1700-1450 BC (Refs.8-13). As is well-known, just afterthe year of 1458, when the disc was made, a civil war took place, at which all palaces,with the exception of Knossos, were destroyed.Civil WarThe Phaistos Disc was made in the year of 1458, represented by last passage B30 (Ch.2).This means the civil war occurred at the end of a second government generation,symbolized by the back side of the disc. So, passage B1 at this side represents the lastdouble generation, as well as the last generation, because the description of the history ofCrete starts at the center of the disc. Its translation reads: “Take care for the course of thelaw”. It states the reason of the civil war, which ended the New Palace Culture.Apparent-ly, the rulers of Crete did not take sufficient care for an appropriate course ofthe law. The sign of the “course of the law” in B1 occurs 4 times on the back side,confirming the 4 double generations of the New Palace Culture.Although less important, passage A1 on the front side may also represent the last doublegeneration and the last generation of this period. Again, the history of Crete starts at thecenter of the disc. Its translation reads: “Please, proclaim it loudly”. It emphasizes thereason of the civil war, mentioned in passage B1: “Take care for the course of the law!”.The signs of the flower and the burin in A1 occur 4 times on the disc, confirming the 4double generations of the New Palace Culture. There is no single trace of information onthe disc about another cause of this disaster. There was no vulcanic eruption, noearthquake, no collision with extra-terrestrial material, and no invasion of Mycaeneansfrom mainland Greece (Refs.8-13).
  3. 3. Fig.6.1 Large amphora-shaped vase found in a tomb at Prosymna, Argolid, the easternpeninsula of the Peloponnesus, 15th century (Courtesy I. Sailko, Refs.9,45). The 8 armsof the Octopus may refer to the 8 generations of the New Palace Culture at nearby Crete, 1702-1458 BC.CreteThe back side has 30 passages. So, passage A5 on the front side may represent Crete, at alatitude of 30+5= 35°N. The literal text of A5 reads: “Cut it in shaved wood”. It probablyshows, that woodworking industry on the island was important. The front side has 31passages. A22, the 4th passage on the edge, may represent the island, at 31+4= 35°N. Itreads: “Make a wooden flute to protect the King.” It confirms, that woodworking wasimportant. A23, the 4th passage on the edge, skipping A19, may symbolize Crete, too. Itreads: “The wood is the power of God!” It confirms it, again. In Chapter 4, dealing withdaily life on the island, details are shown about size and nature of the woodworkingindustry. It appears, that Crete was more or less famous for this activity (Refs.8-10).KingsOne of the most important symbols is the groundplan of the “King’s grave”, shown inpassages A3 and A15. The symbol has also been identified on a stamp elsewhere in Crete(Ref.1). This grave has 2 identical parts, because the headlines of government in Creteextended over 2 generations. The 2 symbols of the grave on the disc confirm it. TheKings on Crete were the substitutes of the Cat-god and the Fish-god (Ch.5). So, one partof the grave is for the Cat-Kings, and the other part is for the Fish-Kings, while the
  4. 4. chamber in the center is the room of justice. Both sides of the grave turn out to have 4chambers. Each generation produced one King. So, the groundplan was made for the4x2= 8 Kings of the New Palace Culture. These 5+3= 8 Kings are shown on both edgesof the disc.PopulationThe "ordinary man" is shown twice in the first paragraph on the front side (Fig.5.3). He isplaced in the center of passages A1 and A4. This means there were 140,000 people onCrete, because a factor 10 smaller or greater would be in both cases unprobable. Inpassage A2 is a "messenger", confirming the 2 numbers (1 and 4), and in passage A6 is a"messenger", and even a "King", confirming the number has to be written down in 6figures. So, the population in 1458 BC, at the end of the New Palace Culture, wasc.140,000 men (Chs.2,3).Comet CatastropheThe first paragraph on the front side has 4 passages, corresponding with the 4 doublegenerations of the New Palace Culture. Passage A3 contains two “corpses”. This means,that 3 double generations ago, a major disaster happened. This is between 1458+3x61=1641, and 1641-61= 1580. The two corpses are with the feet connected, which is unusual.It means, that the total number of casualties is indicated by two consecutive passages withcorpses. These turn out to be the passages A25 and A26.Passage A25 has a “glove” and a “corpse”, indicating a possible number of 250,000casualties worldwide. The corpse in the next or 2nd passage A26 confirms the 2ndnumber (5), and the temple in A30 at the end of the passage shows the number has to bewritten down in 30-24= 6 figures. A26 contains a “cover” and a “waterway”, suggesting“continuous floodings” by the “head and tail of a comet”. The temple in A30 touchespassage A18 above it. It has a joined “boat, corpse”, which will indicate the date of theevent, as shown below. Passage A26 contains the series “cover, waterway, corpse”,showing an additional 260,000 casualties worldwide by floodings as a result of a comet.The King in the next or 2nd passage A27 confirms the 2nd number (6), and thecombination of “shield, King” in A31 at the end of the side indicates the number has tobe written down in 31-25= 6 figures. So, the total number of casualties of this CometCatastrophe was 250+260= c.510 thousand men, worldwide.The two corpses in passage A3 are placed upside down, which is unusual. The last corpsetouches the first one with its leg, and points to passage A9. The first corpse points to the“Queen” in B8. And indeed, passage A9 has two corpses, indicating a possible number of9,000 casualties on Crete, because a factor 10 less or more would be in both casesunprobable. A9 has a “King”, confirming the 1st number (9), and the combination of the“corpse” and the “King” in A12 at the end of the passage confirms the number has to bewritten down in 12-8= 4 figures. The “boat” in this passage touches A6 above it, whichjust indicated the number of people at the end of the New Palace Culture. It may confirmthe number of casualties. Passage B9 on the back side also indicates the c.9,000 casualtiesin Crete, because B12 has the “glove” and the “Cat-god”, confirming the number has tobe written down in 12-8= 4 figures. It was 1.8% of the victims wordwide.Date of the CatastropheThe Catastrophe happened 3 double generations ago, which is 5 or 6 generations ago.Both passages B5 and B6 have a “head of a comet”, which does not provide furtherinformation. However, passage A6 on the front side has the combination of “shield,
  5. 5. King”, also shown in the original passage A3. So, it appears the Catastrophe occurred 6generations ago, between 1458+6x30.5= 1641 and 1641-31= 1610.This generation is a first government generation, so, the 31 passages of the front sidedescribe its 31 years. Note, that passage A13 contains a combination “shield, King”connected in the same way as in passage A6. So, the comet catastrophe happened in the13th year of this generation, which is 1641-13= 1628 (Tables 6.1 and 6.2). Note, thatA13 is the last passage of the series A9-13, which will indicate the c.90,000 victims inEgypte (see Ch.7).The back side of the disc contains 119 symbols, which could be counted from the centertowards the edge. These represent the last 119 years, which is after the year 1457+119=1576. Note, that the “corpse” in passage A18 on the front side touches the “boat”, whichpoints to A9. Passage A9 just indicated the number of casualties of this Catastrophe inCrete. After the “boat” in passage A18 are 52 signs, which can be counted towards theend of the side. These represent the remaining 52 years. So the disaster happened in theyear 1576+52= 1628, which confirms the date.Duration of the CatastropheA13 on the front side gave the date, so B13 on the back side will give the date, too.Passage B10 on this side is almost identical to B13, but the “glove” and the “comet” areconnected, just like the last symbols of A13. So, B10 will give the duration of theCatastrophe. The 30 passages on the back side may represent the 30 days of a month. So,B10 will form a series of 2 passages, finishing with the “head and tail of the comet” inB11. It encodes a duration of 10 days of “continuous floodings”.- The paragraph-line ofB11 points to the end of passage B20, at the end of a kind of paragraph. The total numberof paragraphs on side B now amounts to 9+1= 10, confirming the 10 days of “continuousfloodings”.“The head and tail of the comet” in passage B1 are connected, just like the first signs inB10. It is the first passage in the first paragraph, which represents the New PalaceCulture. B1 forms a series of 2 passages, finishing with the Cat-god in B2. It confirms aduration of the Catastrophe of 10 days, because the number has to be written down in 2figures. The group of other signs “boat, hammer, bee” in B2 is also shown in passage B9,which indicated the number of victims of the Catastrophe in Crete. Baillie (Refs.26,31)confirms this Catastrophe, probably caused by a cosmic collision of the planet Earth withthe tail of a comet. It has been dated, a.o. by the tree-ring method, 1628 BC, indeed.Last YearsThe disc of Phaistos possesses 2 sides A and B with 31+30= 61 passages, because thedisc especially deals with the last 2 generations of 61 years, so from 1458+61= 1519 to1458. Each passage represents a year. Per passage the disc possesses on the average242/61= 4 symbols. These 4 symbols indicate the 4 seasons of the year: spring, summer,autumn, and winter.The disc of Phaistos possesses 2 sides A and B with 31+30= 61 passages, because thedisc especially deals with the last 61 months, so about 61/12= 5 years, which is from1458+5= 1463 to 1458.The disc of Phaistos possesses 2 edges, each with 12 passages, because the disc especiallydeals with the last 12 months, c.1458 (Ch.4). Per passage the disc possesses on the
  6. 6. average 242/61= 4 symbols. So, the 4 weeks of the month are indicated, corresponding tothe 4 faces of the Moon: New Moon, First Quarter, Full Moon, and Last Quarter(Refs.14-16).The disc of Phaistos possesses 2 sides A and B with 31+30= 61 passages, because thedisc especially deals with the last 2 months with 61 days, in the year 1458. Per passagethe disc possesses on the average 242/61= 4 symbols. So, per natural day the morning,the afternoon, the first half and the last half of the night are indicated.The disc of Phaistos possesses 2 sides encoding a day and a night, and 2 edges each with12 passages, because the disc especially deals with the last 2x12= 24 hours, c.1458 BC.The history of government of Crete was fixed down very accurately on the Phaistos Disc.This history shows, the civil war of c.1458 BC had been predicted by the authoritiesyears in advance. The reason of the crisis was, that the course of the law had not beencorrect. As a result the last King was missing. The back side only contains 5 Kings and 2Queens, so 5+2= 7 Rulers, instead of 8 Rulers. The edge of side A and the inner part ofside B contain together only 5+2= 7 Kings, confirming it.6.3 OLD PALACE CULTUREDurationThe front side possesses 5 turns, because Crete had an early period of 5 double genera-tions of good government. So, the 5 turns on the front side and the 61 passages of the discindicate, this early period lasted 5x61= 305 years. The 5 dots at the end of the spiralconfirm it. The 5 passages of the 2nd paragraph confirm it. The 5 combinations of "horn"and "falcon", symbols for the power of God, confirm it. The 5 burls on the "scroll of thelaw" confirm it. The "hammer", and the 5 leaves of the "branch", both occurring 5 timeson this side, confirm it, too.On the back side, the 5 passages B5-9 of paragraphs 2 and 3 confirm the 5 doublegenerations of the Old Palace Culture. The important symbols of "messenger", "boat","corpse", "King", "temple", and "religion" each occur 5 times on this side, confirming it.The 5 fingers of the "glove", occurring 5 times on the disc, confirm it, too (Refs.1-7).For this time period each passage represents 5 years. The front side, with 31 passages,descibes the first 31x5= 155 years, and the back side, having 30 passages, describes thelast 30x5= 150 years. This total time period of 155+150= 305 years is known as the OldPalace Culture, which we calculate from the Phaistos Disc as lasting from 1702+305=2007 to 1702. Archaeological research confirms this time period from c.2000-1700 BC(Refs.8-13,33-37). The start of this period coincides with the start of the MiddleKingdom, at the beginning of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt, also at 2007 (Ch.7).
  7. 7. Fig.6.2 The grand staircase is part of the original design of the first Palace of Phaistos(Crete, Ch.3) at the start of the Old Palace Culure (c.2007 BC, Refs.1,9). Its 12 stepsrefer to the simultaneous start of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, alsoc.2007 BC (Ch.7).KingsEach generation produces its own King. So, during the 5x2= 10 generations of this periodthere were 10 Kings. When the two symbols of passage B3 are combined to 1 “Queen”(the King’s virgin), the inner parts of both sides show these 9+1= 10 Kings (Table 2.2).The inner part of side A has 9 Kings and 1 Queen, together 9+1= 10 Rulers, confirmingit.PopulationLast passage A31 of the front side marks the end of the Old Palace Culture. Thecombination of the last four symbols equals passage A6, one of the 5 passages of the 2ndparagraph, representing the 5 double generations of the Old Palace Culture. So, passageA6, containing a "messenger", provides information about the population of Crete beforethe civil war, in 1702. It indicates the population was c.60,000, because a factor 10 less ormore would be unprobable. The "King" in passage A6 confirms the single number (6),and the "King" in passage A10 shows the number should be written down in 10-5= 5figures.Daily LifeThe front side of the disc symbolizes the Old Palace Culture. It may provide someinformation about daily life at the end of this period, around the year of 1702. The temple(#24) in A30 points to the “square” above it, which is also the next sign of the nextpassage. So, it encodes c.30 “lower schools” (Ch.4). The palace (#14) occurs in passageA9, which finishes with a “King”. It encodes c.9 “higher schools”.The “boat” in A12 forms a series of 2 passages, finishing with the “King”, and the boat inA18 also forms a series of 2 passages, finishing at the end of the inner part. Both boatspoint to passages belonging to the second paragraph, which represents the Old PalaceCulture, the last one to A9, encoding the last generation of it. B9 at the back side, with aboat, also represents this generation. So, in 1702, the fleet of Crete possessed a total of12+18+9= c.39 seaworthy ships. The front side has 31 passages, so B9 may also be
  8. 8. considered as 31+9= B40. The boat in B40 may form a series of 2 passages, finishing atthe end of a paragraph with the sign of “religion”. It confirms a total of c.40 ships. Note,that B10 equals B5, which represents the last double generation of the Old Palace Culture(Refs.38,39).Civil WarThe New Palace Culture finished after 8 generations with a civil war, at the end of asecond government generation. Eight generations is an even number. This means the civilwar at the end of the Old Palace Culture also occurred at the end of a second governmentgeneration. This generation is symbolized by the back side of the disc. Passage B5 on theback side represents the last double generation of the Old Palace Culture, 5 doublegenerations ago, between 1458+5x61= 1763 and 1763-61= 1702. The 5 fingers of the“glove” and the sign of “religion” both occur 5 times on the disc, confirming it. Thetranslation of the passage reads: “The teacher learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt” (Ch.5). Itappears that insufficient education on Crete was the cause of the civil war.Passage B9 on the back side represents the last generation of the Old Palace Culture, 9generations ago, between 1458+9x30.5= 1732 and 1732-30= 1702. The translation of thepassage reads: “The teacher is softly explaining the full truth”. It confirms the meaning ofB5, and also our conclusion, that insufficient education on Crete was the cause of thecrisis.Although less important, passage A5 on the front side may also represent the last doublegeneration of the Old Palace Culture. Its translation reads: “Fix it down in writing”. Itemphasizes the meaning of passage B5, just discussed. Although less important, passageA9 may also represent the last generation of this period. Its translation reads: “Spreadingknowledge leads to peace in the Palace of the holy King”. It confirms the cause of thecrisis, again.Apparently, a civil war was the cause of the massive destructions at the end of the OldPalace Culture, c.1702. Nearly all palaces on Crete have been destroyed (Refs.8-13).Passage A9, just mentioned, contains two “corpses”, indicating 9,000 victims, because afactor 10 less would be unprobable. A9 has a “King”, confirming the 1st number (9), andthe combination of the “corpse” and the “King” in A12 confirms the number has to bewritten down in 12-8= 4 figures. The “boat” in this passage points to A6, which indicatedthe number of people before the civil war. It also points to the 2nd paragraph, whichrepresents the Old Palace Culture. It confirms the number of casualties.Passage B9 on the back side, just mentioned, contains one “corpse”, confirming the 9,000casualties. The sign of the “glove” (education, Table 5.1) in B12, at the end of aparagraph, confirms the number has to be written down in 12-8= 4 figures. So, c.9,000people were killed during the civil war, which is 15% of all men, women and children.The New Palace Culture started with a population of 60,000-9,000= c.51,000 men.Again, there is no single trace of information on the disc about another cause of thisdisaster. The reason of the civil war was that the last King was missing. The inner part ofthe front side only contains 9 Kings, instead of the necessary 10 Kings at the end of thistime period. The edges of sides A and B contain together 5+3= 8 Kings and 1 Queen,together 9 Rulers, confirming it.Palaces, Temples, and BoatsOn the front side the symbol of a “palace” is shown in passage A9. It is Knossos, the
  9. 9. biggest and most important palace of Crete (Ch.3). The sign was placed at the end of the2nd paragraph, which symbolizes the start of the Old Palace Culture. It appears, that theoriginal palace dates from 9 double generations ago, which is between 1458+9x61=2007, and 2007-61= 1946. The symbol of the palace is placed above A17, and it is evenconnected to this passage by a thin line. It means that Knossos dates from 17 generationsago, which is between 1458+17x30.5= 1976, and 1976-30= 1946.On the back side the symbol of the palace is shown in passage B17. It is the Palace ofPhaistos itself, the largest palace of Crete, but one. The sign has been placed near the endof the inner part, which also symbolizes the start of the Old Palace Culture. Apparently,the original palace also dates from 17 generations ago, which is between 1976 and 1946.Both dates are confirmed by Carbon-14 measurements from samples of the sites(Refs.8,9,12,13).On the front side the “temple” is shown in passage A30. It turns out to represent thePalace of Malia (see Ch.3). It has been placed on the edge, because Malia is situatedalong the coast. For a long time period, Malia had been a satellite of the much biggerPalace of Knossos, shown in A9 on this side. It is located c.29km NE of Knossos. Forthat reason, passage A23 may also represent the Palace of Malia, at the right side aboveA9. It contains the “horn and the “falcon”, symbols for the power of God. A23symbolizes the holy Tropic of Cancer, and the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N(Refs.14,33,37). It is the center of the Sunreligion, and the site of Malia was based on thatreligion.The temple in passage A30 touches A18 at the end of the inner part. It means, that Maliadates from 18 generations ago, which is between 1458+18x30.5= 2007, and 2007-31=1976. So, it appears to be 1 generation older than the Palace of Knossos. The edge is the5th turn of the front side. It symbolizes Egypt, 5° south of Crete, at 35-5= 30°N. Thepassage number of A30 confirms the latitude. The temple is situated in the 12th passageof the edge. It suggests, that Malia was founded at the start of the 12th Dynasty (2007),which is at the start of the Old Palace Culture, indeed. The “horn” in A23 points to theend of passage A12. It may confirm, that Malia was founded at the start of the 12thDynasty.On the back side two temples are shown in passage B18. These may represent HagiaTriada and Pyrgos, both satellites of the Palace of Phaistos, shown in previous passageB17. However, these sites date from the New Palace Culture. During the Old PalaceCulture the two satellites of Phaistos were Apodoulou and Monastiraki, at distances of 25and 45km, respectively (Refs.1,2). So, the temples in B18 clearly represent these twosites. The symbols are placed near the lower edge of the disc, in agreement with thegeographic locations near the south coast of central Crete (Fig.1.1). The position of thetemples in B18 suggests the sites date from 18 generations ago.The temple of passage B21, on the edge at the right side of the disc, represents the Palaceof Zakros at the east coast of Crete. The temple of passage B26, on the edge at the leftside, represents the Palace of Chania (Kydonia) in the west of Crete, located at the northcoast. The second temple of passage B18 touches the edge. It suggests that all fourmentioned palaces date from 18 generations ago, which is between 1458+18x30.5= 2007,and 2007-31= 1976.The edge is the 4th turn. So, it may symbolize the northern Nile Delta, 4° south of Crete,
  10. 10. at 35-4= 31°N. The second temple of B18 touches passage B30. It may symbolize thesouthern Nile Delta, at 30°N. B30 is part of the edge. The edge consists of 12 passages,suggesting that all four temples date from the start of the 12th Dynasty, around the yearof 2007.The “temple” in passage B6 was placed above the “palace” in B17. It probably representsthe site of Tylissos, located north of Phaistos. It was another satellite of Knossos (may bethe center, B1), about 13km to the east. The temple in B6 points to the “boat, hammer” inB2, also present in B9. For that reason, we think Tylissos dates from 9 doublegenerations ago, which is between 1458+9x61= 2007, and 2007-61= 1946. The temple inB6 points to B2. It might confirm, that also this site dates from the start of the 6x2= 12thDynasty. An old date is confirmed by archaeological research (Refs.8-13).The dates of the two palaces mentioned on the disc appear to be firm, and these areprobably correct. However, there is some doubt whether the dates of all temples arecorrect. The disc contains an aweful lot of information, and sometimes it is notimmediately clear where the intended stream of data stops. One should realize, that thedate of construction of a temple is not of the utmost importance.Passage A18 on the front side contains a “boat”. It means, that the first seaworthy boatmade in Crete dates from 18 generations ago, which is between the years of 2007 and1976. The boat points to passage A9. So, it is confirmed, that the first boat dates from 9double generations ago. The boat also appears in passage A12. Here it is confirmed,again, that the first seaworthy boat in Crete dates from the start of the 12th Dynasty ofEgypt, around the year of 2007.On the back side of the disc the boat appears in passage B9. This boat touches the sign ofa hammer. Again, it is confirmed, that the first seaworthy boats were made in Crete 9double generations ago, which is between 2007 and 1946. The three boats on the edgerepresent the fleet of Crete (Ch.4). The edge is the 4th turn of the side. It symbolizes thenorthern Nile Delta, at 35-4= 31°N. The edge contains 12 passages. So, the fleet of Cretedates from the start of the 12th Dynasty, around the year of 2007. The boat of B22 pointsto passage B12, confirming the 12th Dynasty.The boat of B27 refers to the center of the United Egyptian Empire, at 27°N. It is locatedhalfway between the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N, and the Northern EgyptianEmpire, at 31°N. It shows, that the technology for making the boats was descended fromEgypt, the greatest civilization on Earth (Refs.38,39).The Palace CultureThe first paragraph on the front side has 4 passages, representing the 4 double generationsof the New Palace Culture. The second paragraph on the front side has 5 passages,representing the 5 double generations of the Old Palace Culture. In total this is 4+5= 9passages, symbolizing the Palace Culture on Crete, which lasted 9 double generations, or9x61= 549 years, which is from 2007 to 1458. The first three paragraphs on the back sidealso have a total of 9 passages, confirming the Palace Culture. Archaeological researchconfirms this cultural period from c.2000-1450 BC (Refs.8-13).The symbol of the vine-tendril (Table 2.2, #36) consists of 2 branches, symbolizing theOld and the New Palace Culture. The left branch has 5 bunches of grapes, encoding the 5double generations of the Old Palace Culture. The right branch has 4 bunches of grapes,
  11. 11. encoding the 4 double generations of the New Palace Culture. The symbol occurs 4 timeson the back side, confirming the last time period, because the Phaistos Disc was made atthe end of the New Palace Culture, in the year of 1458 (Ch.2).The symbol of the burin (#10) has 2 sides, symbolizing the Old and the New PalaceCulture. The left side has 5 dashes, encoding the 5 double generations of the Old PalaceCulture. The right side has 4 dashes, encoding the 4 double generations of the NewPalace Culture. The symbol occurs 4 times on the front side, confirming the last timeperiod, because the Phaistos Disc was made at the end of the New Palace Culture, in theyear of 1458.Each generation produces a King. The inner part of the front side contains 18 passages,encoding the 18 generations and 18 Kings of the Palace Culture. The inner part of theback side also contains 18 passages, confirming it. When the last two symbols of B3 arecombined to a "Queen" (the King’s virgin), the disc contains 18 Kings in total,confirming it. On the front side, the "Kings Grave" occurs in important passages A3 andA15, for the 3+15= 18 Kings of the Palace Culture. On the back side, the “Queen” occursin passages B3 and B15, confirming the 3+15= 18 Rulers of the Palace Culture.
  12. 12. Fig.6.3 The “Prince of Lilies” (Knossos, Crete, c.1690 BC)IntermezzoThe famous “Prince of Lilies” from Knossos has a complicated headgear (Fig.6.3). Itconsists of 5 horizontal ‘8-signs’, encoding a time period of five double generations (=5x61= 305 years) since the start of the Minoan Civilization, in c.2007 BC. This startcoincided with the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (Middle Kingdom), asshown by the 12 steps of the staircase of the Palace of Phaistos, which still exists(Fig.6.2). This time period is known as the Old Palace Culture, which lasted fromc.2007 till 2007-305= c.1702.The Prince has a plume on top of his head, with another ‘8 sign’. It means, the muraldates from after the Civil War. It dates from the first double generation of the NewPalace Culture, which is from c.1702 till 1702-61= c.1641. However, the plume consistsof two parts. The bottom part is quite big, suggesting it dates from the first generation of31 years. The top of the plume touches the edge, confirming it. This god appears to be
  13. 13. younger than 31 years, confirming it, too. It means we know for sure the painting datesfrom the first generation, which is from c.1702 BC to 1702-31= c.1671 BC. So, the“Prince of Lilies” dates from c.1690 BC.6.4 THE PRE-PALATIAL PERIODIt is obvious that the time period before the Palace Culture will be indicated on the edgesof the disc. The 13+12= 25 passages on sides A and B show the Pre-Palatial Period onCrete lasted 25 generations, or 25x30.5= 762 years, which we calculate as lasting from2007+762= 2769 to 2007. Archaeological research confirms this period fromc.2800-2000 BC (Refs.8-13). The start of this period on Crete coincides with the start ofthe 3rd Dynasty of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, which is also at 2769 (Ch.8).The 13 passages on the edge of the front side correspond with the 13 generations of theEarly Pre-Palatial Period, lasting from 2769 to 2769-13x30.5= 2373. The 12 passages onthe edge of the back side correspond with the 12 generations of the Late Pre-PalatialPeriod, lasting from 2373 to 2373-12x30.5= 2007. The start of this last period coincideswith the beginning of the 6th Dynasty of Egypt, the last one of the Old Kingdom, also at2373 (Ch.7).Comet CatastrophePassage A15 on the front side contains two “corpses”. This means, that 15 double genera-tions ago, a major disaster happened (Refs.22-32). This is between 1458+15x61= 2373,and 2373-61= 2312, which turns out to be at the start of the Late Pre-Palatial Period(2373-2007). The two corpses are with the arms connected, which is unusual. It means,that the number of casualties is indicated by two consecutive passages with corpses.These turn out to be the neighboring passages A25 and A26.Passage A25 has a “glove” and a “corpse”, indicating a possible number of 2,500,000casualties worldwide. The corpse in the next or 2nd passage A26 confirms the 2ndnumber (5), and the King in passage A31 at the end of the side shows the number has tobe written down in 31-24= 7 figures. This appears to be a major calamity, indeed.Passage A26 contains a “cover” and a “waterway”, suggesting “continuous floodings” bythe “head and tail of a comet”.Passage A26 contains the series “cover, waterway, corpse”, showing 2,600,000 casual-ties worldwide by floodings as a result of a comet. The King in the next or 2nd passageA27 confirms the 2nd number (6), and the “bow and arrow” in the last passage A19 ofthe inner part indicate the number has to be written down in (31-25)+1= 7 figures. Thebow and arrow suggest that this number is more precise.Passage B26 on the back side contains a “mummy”, again confirming a number of2,600,000 casualties worldwide. The corpse in the next or 2nd passage B27 confirms the2nd number (6), and the King in passage B20 shows the number has to be written downin (20-18)+(30-25)= 7 figures. In view of the paragraph-line of B11, passage B20 may beconsidered as the end of a kind of paragraph. Note, that B11 has a “cover” and a “water-way”, confirming “continuous floodings” by a “comet”.Passage B27 has a “corpse”, indicating a possible number of 2,700,000 casualtiesworldwide. The King in the next or 2nd passage B28 confirms the 2nd number (7), andthe “comet” in B21 shows the number has to be written down in (21-18)+(30-26)= 7figures. All four series are on the edge of the round disc, referring to casualties world-wide. Note, that the Catastrophe happened one and a half century after the discovery of
  14. 14. America, c.2500 BC (Refs.14-21,Chs.9,10). So, people knew the approximate worldpopulation.When there are as much as c.2.6 million victims, one might ask the question how manypeople survived. These people will continue to live in the Late Pre-Palatial Period,indicated on the edge of the back side. The first “cover”, or “head of a comet”, is shownin passage B21. The “temple” and the “draughtscreen” in this passage are also shown atboth ends of the series B26-20, which indicated the number of casualties. However, B21is situated in the east, which is symbolic for the “Land of the Living” (Refs.14,33-37).So, the “cover” in passage B21 indicates the number of survivors, 2,100,000 men. The“boat” and the sign of “religion” in the next or 2nd passage B22 confirms the 2nd number(1), and the same signs in B27, with the “corpse”, at the end of the paragraph, indicatesthe number has to be written down in 27-20= 7 figures.B23 has a “cover” or “comet”, too. The series “square, messenger, scroll of the law” inthis passage is also shown in A31, the last passage of the series A25-31, which indicatedthe number of victims. The “messenger” and “club” in passage B23 indicates the numberof survivors, 2,300,000. The messenger and club in the next or 2nd passage B24 confirmsthe 2nd number (3), and the series “cover, waterway, corpse” in B29, referring to thevictims of the comet, indicates the number has to be written down in 29-22= 7 figures.The passages A21 and A23 on the front side confirm the number of survivors, on theaverage c.2.2 million men. So, the number of people that survived was less than half theoriginal world population, 2.6+2.2= c.4.8 million men.Date of the CatastropheThe Comet Catastrophe happened 15 double generations ago (A15), which is 29 or 30generations ago. The last passages B29 and B30 on the back side represent these genera-tions. The back side describes more recent history. It appears the calamity happenedexactly 30 generations ago, shown by B30. This passage represents the first generation ofthe long period after this terrible event. This generation is between 1458+30x30.5= 2373and 2373-31= 2342, which is at the start of the Late Pre-Palatial Period, indeed. PassageB30 has a “cover” or “head of a comet”, confirming it. Counted from the center, it is the15th “cover” (Table 2.2), confirming the 15 double generations, just mentioned.The years of this first generation are described by the 31 passages of the front side. Pas-sage A29 on this side (equal to B11) has the signs of “cover, waterway”, confirming thatthe calamity happened because of “continuous floodings” by the “head and tail of a co-met”. Passage B29 on the back side has the same combination of symbols, including a“corpse”, strongly confirming it. Both passages indicate the disaster happened in the 29thyear of this generation, which is in the year of 2373-29= 2344. This huge Catastrophe,dated by the tree-ring method c.2345, is confirmed in the literature (Refs.24-31).Duration of the CatastropheThe 30 passages of the back side represent the 30 days of the month. Passage B11 onthis side is identical to A29. The paragraph-line of B11 points to the end of the seriesB26-20, which gave the number of victims. It also points to the start of the seriesB21-27, which provided the number of survivors. B11 has the “head and tail of acomet”, showing “continuous floodings”.B11 is at the start of a series of 3 passages, encoding a time period for the Catastropheof c.110 days. The “glove” and the Cat-god in the next passage confirm the 2nd
  15. 15. number (1), and the “comet” and the Cat-god in the last passage B13 shows thenumber has to be written down in 13-10= 3 figures. The glove was the first symbol ofA25, which indicated the number of victims for the first time. Note, that theparagraph-line of B13 points to the messenger of B23, which indicated the number ofsurvivors. Counted from the center, B13 has the 11th “cover” of this side, confirmingthe c.110 days.The “head of the comet” in B1 forms a series of 3 passages, encoding a time period of100 days. The “comet” and the King in B3 indicates the number should be writtendown in 3 figures. The “tail of the comet” in B1 forms a series of 2 passages, finishingwith the Cat-god in B2. It corresponds with another 10 days. So, it is confirmed thatthe Catastrophe lasted a total of 100+10= c.110 days.B1 points to passage B10. The “glove” and the “comet” in this passage are at the startof a series of 3 passages, finishing with the Cat-god at the end of the paragraph. Itcorresponds with a time period of 100 days. B10 also forms 2 passages, finishing withimportant passage B11. It encodes another 10 days of “continuous floodings”. Again,it is confirmed, that the Catastrophe lasted a total of 100+10= c.110 days.Passages A10 and A11 on the front side confirm the long duration of this disaster. B1on the back side has the important signs of the “head and tail of the comet”. It is thefirst passage of the first paragraph. This paragraph has 4 passages, encoding a durationof the Catastrophe of approximately 4 months, or about 120 days. The first paragraphon the front side confirms it. The 4 turns of the back side confirm this duration ofabout 4 months, once again.- Baillie shows in a review article (Ref.26), that the Floodof the Bible was caused by the same event: a cosmic collision of the planet Earth withthe tail of a huge comet. According to the holy book of the Christians the Flood lasted5 months, which is approximately correct (Ref.32).PopulationThe front side deals with older history (prehistory). The edge of it contains 13 passages,encoding the 13 generations of the Early Pre-Palatial Period of Crete. Passage A17 has a“messenger”, encoding a population of 170 men (!) on Crete, 2 generations before thestart of this period (A19). The King in the next or 2nd passage A18 confirms the 2ndnumber (7), and the “bow and arrow” in A19 shows this number has to be written downin 19-16= 3 figures. So, these primitive people possessed the bow and arrow.Passage A21 has a “messenger”, encoding a population of 210 men, 3 generations afterthe start of this period (A19). The King in the next or 2nd passage A22 confirms the 2ndnumber (1), and the “horn” and the “falcon” in A23 confirms the number has to bewritten down in 23-20= 3 figures. It appears, these people ate olives (the branch), andpossessed some cattle, which was also shown in passage A17. At the start of the EarlyPre-Palatial Period, represented by passage A19, the average population was about 190men. This was in the year of 2769 BC.Passage A31 represents the end of the Early Pre-Palatial Period, 13 generations (pas-sages) later. It contains a “boomerang” and a “messenger”, suggesting a possible popula-tion of 3,100 men. The passage itself contains a King, only confirming the first number(3). The next or 2nd passage A19 does not contain a King, which means that the 2ndnumber (1) is not confirmed. Passage A21 contains a “comet” and a messenger, showingthe number has to be written down in 21-18+1= 4 figures. So, the population before the
  16. 16. “Comet Catastrophe” was about 3,000 men. This was in the year of 2373 BC.The big Comet Catastrophe resulted in many victims on Crete. Passage A15 indicatedthis Catastrophe in the first place. The King at the end of this passage touches A16. Theparagraph-line of A16 points to the “comet” of A29 on the edge, which indicated thedate, the year of 2344. The ”tail of the comet” in this passage almost touches A16, andpoints to the King. So, passage A16 gives the number of casualties on Crete, c.1,600men. The next or 2nd passage has a “messenger”, indicating number of people, whichconfirms the 2nd number (6), and B19 at the end of the inner part has the “bow andarrow”, again, showing that the number has to be written down in 19-15= 4 figures. So,the number of victims was more than half the original population of Crete.The number of survivors will be shown on the inner part of the back side. Passage B23was used for the number of survivors worldwide. The separation-line at the end of thispassage points to the “messenger” of passage A14, encoding c.1,400 survivors on Crete.The “Queen” in the next or 2nd passage confirms the 2nd number (4), and the “boome-rang, hut, and saw” of passage B17 confirms the number should be written down in17-13= 4 figures. This is less than half the original population of Crete, indeed.Passage B19 symbolizes the end of the Late Pre-Palatial Period, 19 generations ago. Itcontains a “messenger”, encoding a population of c.19,000 men. The horn and the Kingin the next passage B20 confirms the 2nd number (9), and the messenger in B23 confirmsthe number should be written down in 23-18= 5 figures. The last symbol shows peoplepossessed bronze axes by now (c.2007 BC). The series “boomerang, messenger, club” inthis passage also occurred in A31, which gave the population at the end of the Early Pre-Palatial Period. Last passage B23 encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer and the SouthernEgyptian Empire, at 23°N. This is the center of the Sunreligion (Tables 6.1 and 6.2).6.5 DISCUSSIONTable 6.2 shows the chronology of the history of Crete, according to the Phaistos Disc. Ithas been described by the ruling elite in the Palace of Phaistos, c.1458 BC. Table 6.3gives the headlines of the current chronology according to Schliemann and Evans, asshown by Willetts (Ref.8). Most archaeologists involved in ancient Crete use theseheadlines. It is remarkable, that there is no agreement between both chronologies at all.The simple conclusion is, that the current chronology of ancient Crete is completelywrong. It should be abandoned immediately.The Comet Catastrophe of 2344 BC, which wiped out more than half of the Cretanpopulation, is an important turning point in the Pre-Palatial Period. The start of the OldPalace Culture, 2007 BC, is most important for the civilization on the island. These datesshould always have prominent positions in a time-table. The same is true for the civilwars at the end of the Old and the New Palace Cultures. It should be emphasized, that thePalace Culture on Crete had its own identity. The chronology of its history is not directlyrelated to changes in Greece and Egypt, as shown in old Table 6.3.The current chronology is named after the legendary King Minos of Crete. However, webelieve “Minos” was not only the name of a King, but also a divine title, similar to“Pharaoh” in Egypt. Homer, a poet from the 8th century BC, described “Minos” as anine-term King (enneoros, Ref.8). Because of this description, we believe it was a divinetitle (like “King”) during the 9 double generations of the Palace Culture. This means, itwould be correct to call this whole time period the Minoan Civilization. However, it
  17. 17. implies that the time period before 2007 should be called Pre-Minoan, and the timeperiod after 1458, Post-Minoan. This is completely different from the currentchronology, as shown in Table 6.3. The time period before 2007 BC, for instance, cannever be called “Minoan”, because in that early time period there were no “Kings” onCrete. (Refs.40-44)TABLE 6.1THE HISTORY OF CRETE ACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCEARLY PRE-PALATIAL PERIODStart: 2769 (c.2800 BC*) (Start of 3rd Dynasty of Egypt, Old Kingdom)Population: c.190 men[c.2745 ‘Volcano Catastrophe’ (Famine Stela), c.9,000 casualties in Egypt (4.3%)][Ch.8]Duration: Edge side A= 13 passages= 13 generations= 13x30.5= 396 yearsLATE PRE-PALATIAL PERIODStart: 2373 (Start of 6th Dynasty of Egypt)Population: c.3,000 menComet Catastrophe (floodings during c.110 days) in 2344 (1st generation): c.1,600 casualties (c.2.6 million worldwide) Population which survived: c.1,400 men[c.2026/4/0 ‘Volcano Catastrophe’, c.90,000 casualties, world population c.3.5 million 440 victims on Crete (2.6%), population of c.17,000 men] [Ch.7]Duration: Edge side B= 12 passages= 12 generations= 12x30.5= 366 yearsOLD PALACE CULTUREStart: 2007 BC (c.2000 BC*) (Start of 12th Dynasty of Egypt, Middle Kingdom)Population: c.19,000Duration: 5 turns side A= 5x2= 10 generations= 10x30.5= 305 yearsSide A: 5x31= first 155 yearsSide B: 5x30= last 150 yearsBuilding of Palaces and Temples, lower and higher schools, seaworthy boats (OPC, I**)Malia, Apodoulou, Monastiraki, Zakros, Chania (Kydonia), Tylissos (OPC, Ia**)Knossos, Phaistos (OPC, Ib**)c.1899 Comet Catastrophe, c.260,000 casualties (6.2%), world population c.4.2 million c.53,000 victims in Egypt, population c.850 thousand (floodings during 11 days)[Ch.7] c.1,900 victims in Crete, population c.31 thousand (OPC, IIb**)End: 2 Palaces, 6 Temples, c.30 lower schools, c.9 higher schools,c.39 seaworthy shipsPopulation: c.60,000End: civil war, because of insufficient education, c.9,000 casualtiesc.1702 BC (c.1700 BC*)NEW PALACE CULTUREStart: 1702 BC (c.1700 BC*)Population: 60,000-9,000= c.51,000
  18. 18. Duration: 4 turns side B= 4x2= 8 generations= 8x30.5= 244 yearsSide A: 123 symbols= first 123 yearsComet Catastrophe (floodings during 10 days) in 1628 (NPC, IIa**): c.9,000 casualties (c.510 thousand worldwide, 6.7%) [Ch.7]Side B: 119 symbols= last 119 yearsEnd: 2 Palaces, 6 Temples, c.102 lower schools, c.26 higher schools,c.149 seaworthy shipsPopulation: c.140,000End: civil war, because of failures in course of the law,c.1458 BC (c.1450 BC*)* according to archaeological research** See Table 6.2TABLE 6.2THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORY OF CRETEACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCTHE PRE-PALATIAL PERIOD- 25 generations= 763 years* (2769-2007 BC)The Early Pre-Palatial Period- 13 generations= 397 years* (2769-2373)The Late Pre-Palatial Period- 12 generations= 366 years* (2373-2007)THE PALACE CULTURE (THE MINOAN CIVILIZATION)9 double generations= 18 generations= 549 years* (2007-1458 BC)OLD PALACE CULTURE (O.P.C.)5 double generations= 10 generations= 305 years* (2007-1702 BC)OPC, Ia (2007-1976)OPC, Ib (1976-1946)OPC, IIa (1946-1915)OPC, IIb (1915-1885)OPC, IIIa (1885-1845)OPC, IIIb (1854-1824)OPC, IVa (1824-1793)OPC, IVb (1793-1763)OPC, Va (1763-1732)OPC, Vb (1732-1702)NEW PALACE CULTURE (N.P.C.)4 double generations= 8 generations= 244 years* (1702-1458 BC)NPC, Ia (1702-1671)NPC, Ib (1671-1641)NPC, IIa (1641-1610)NPC, IIb (1610-1580)NPC, IIIa (1580-1549)NPC, IIIb (1549-1519)
  19. 19. NPC, IVa (1519-1488)NPC, IVb (1488-1458)* 1 generation = 30.5 years, a= 31 years, b= 30 yearsTABLE 6.3WRONG HEADLINES OF CURRENT CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT CRETEAccording to Schliemann and Evans (R.F. Willetts, Ref.8)Early Minoanc.3000 (Start of Archaic Period of Egypt, Dynasty 1)Middle Minoanc.2200 (Start of Early Helladic III, Greece)Late Minoanc.1580 (Start of New Kingdom in Egypt)Sub-Minoanc.1040 (End of Sub-Mycenaean, Greece)LITERATURE (Ch.6)1. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995 (ISBN960-7549-02-3).2. Kober, A.E., The Minoan Scripts: Fact and Theory, American Journal of Archaeology 52, 1948, 82-103.3. Covey, C., Fischer vs. Fell Phaistos Disk Decipherments, Midw. Epigr. Newsl., Vol.19, Nr.4 (2002).4. Bayley, H., The Lost Language of Symbolism, Citadel Press, 1990, reprint (ISBN 0-8065-1100-1).5. Homer, The Iliad and the Odyssey, transl. Murray, Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann, London(1919).6. Strabo, Complete Works, Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann, London (1923-32).7. Plato, The Dialogues, transl. W. Taylor, Univ. of London Press (1902).8. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).9. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Thames and Hud-son, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8).10. Herberger, C.F., The Minoan Cultural Response: the Feminine Emphasis, Midwestern EpigraphicJournal, Vol.18/9, pgs.47-55, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).11. People of the Stone Age: Hunter-gatherers and Early Farmers, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahonsPoint, Australia (1995).12. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).13. Zwart, A.H. e.a., De Oude Grieken, 7000 Jaar Wereldgeschiedenis, Lekturama, Rotterdam, 1977.(Dutch)14. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, How the Sungod Reached America, A Guide to Megalithic Sites,MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-33-92,also on CD.15. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, Website: www.howthesungod.com.16. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z&K, Utrecht/ Antwerpen, 1996(ISBN 90-215-2846-0). (Dutch)17. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Migration & Diffusion,Vol.3, No.11, pgs.69-109 (2002).18. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’sStonehenge”, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2002).19. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Germany’s Bronze Age Disc Reveals Transatlantic Seafaring”,
  20. 20. Ancient American, Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).20. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006).21. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Stone Rows of Tormsdale: A Voyage to Central America,the Realm of the Dead” (Caithness, NE Scotland, c.1600 BC), Ancient American, Vol.11, No.70,pgs.28-34 (2006).22. Jonge, R.M. de, and Wakefield, J.S, “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC, (Mougau-Bihan,Com-mana, Brittany)”, to be published.23. Jonge, R.M. de, and Wakefield, J.S, “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC, (The Kermorvanmenhir and the Tressé grave, Brittany)”, to be published.24. Peiser, B.J., Palmer, T., Bailey, M.E., Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilizations, BARInternational Series 728, Oxford, 1998 (ISBN 0-86054-916-X).25. Bruce Masse, W., Earth, Air, Fire, and Water, The Archaeology of Bronze Age Cosmic Cata-stroph-es, Ref.24, pgs.53-92.26. Baillie, M.G.L., Hints that Cometary Debris played some Role in several Tree-Ring DatedEnviron-mental Downturns in the Bronze Age, Ref.24, pgs.109-117.27. Peiser, B.J., Evidence for a Global Disaster in the Late 3rd Millennium BC, Ref.24, pgs.117-140.28. Courty, M.-A., The Soil Record of an Exceptional Event at 4000 BP in the Middle East, Ref.24,pgs.93-109.29. Pankenier, D.W., Heaven-Sent: Understanding Cosmic Disaster in Chinese Myth and History,Ref.-24, pgs.187-197.30. Joseph, F., Survivors of Atlantis, Their Impact on World Culture, Bear & Co., Vermont 2004(ISBN 1-59143-0-040-2).31. Baillie, M., Exodus to Arthur, Catastrophic Encounters with Comets, BT Batsford Ltd., London,1999 (ISBN 0-7134-8681-3).32. Palmer, T., Catastrophes, the Deluvial Evidence,Website: http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/ce102899.html.33. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.34. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.35. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0167-2).36. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.37. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrec tion, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN0-486-22780-4).38. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-525-47545-1).39. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age, Levant, College Station, Texas,1998.40. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and theCopper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, WaUSA 98033.41. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge42. De Jonge, R.M., Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC), Ref.41.43. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge44. Kofoú, A., Kreta, met alle musea en archeologische opgravingen, Ekdotike Athenon, Athene, 1994(ISBN 960-213-060-1). (Dutch)45. Sailko I., National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece (2008)

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