BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY
Ethiopian Institute of Textiles and Fashion
SEMINAR ON 3D KNITTING
PREPARED BY: SELAMU TEMESGEN
SUBMITTED TO : Dr.S.Kathirrvelu (Professor Textile Tech.
Classification of 3D knitted fabrics
Manufacturing method for 3d textiles
Properties of weft and warp knitted 3D fabrics
Types of machines used for 3D weft and warp
Application of 3D fabrics
Principles to obtain 3d knitted fabrics
Development of three-dimensional knitted
fabrics dates from the 19thcentury
• The concept of three-dimensional of the textile
materials is not related to the intrinsic value of
dimensions found on the three axes (x, y, z), but to
the relationship between them.
• This relation characterises the importance of the
dimensions in the geometry of the material.
• A three-dimensional fabric, regardless of the
process used, is “a continuous ensemble, with fully
integrated fibre, characterised by multiaxial spatial
Creating a three-dimensional effect on knits is based
on the following techniques:
• I. Insertion of additional yarns along multiple
• II. Knitting and linking independent layers in
• III. Spatial shaping.
Manufacturing Methods –Weft
• Basic technique:
– Forming a loop through previously formed such
• One yarn makes one row of the fabric.
– The specific shape of the individual loops results in an elastic
– Fabric thickness is low – 3D geometry
– Patterning allows manufacturing of tailor-made
Fabric Formation Elements– Weft
Individually controlled needles
Consecutive knitting on every next needle
One thread per row
4. Machines used –Weft
Two kinds of machines:
• – Flat bed
• Possibility to make tubular products, shells, thickness
reinforced (spacer knits) and some complex structures
as a combination of these
• Patterning of shape and loop architecture
• – Circular
• Tubular and spacer tubular fabrics
5.Application Scope –Weft Knitting
• – Somewhat limited 3D application due
to the relatively low thickness of the
Composites (formable matrix)
Reinforcement (Y-pipe, T-Pipe)
Manufacturing Methods –Warp
• Basic technique:
• – Fabric formed by interconnecting loops.
• Machine used-Double needle bar raschel is commonly used
• A set of individual yarns for every needle.
• General properties:
• – Less elastic fabrics
• – Products with considerable thickness – 3D structures
• – Patterning allows repeated structures to be manufactured
5.Principles for Obtaining Three-
Dimensional Knitted Fabrics
• To produce three-dimensional fabrics, the knitted material can be
formed by the technique called spatial fashioning technique (also
known as flechage).
Three-dimensional structures can be created also
by knitting stitches and loops combined with the
lateral movement of the needle bed.
By increasing or decreasing the number of working
needles it is possible to create three dimensional
knitted items on intarsia knits.
The methods of making three-dimensional items on
flat knitting machines are:
1. Incomplete knitted rows technique (spatial
2. The use of patterns with 3D effects – egg. Knitting
tuck stitches patterns combined with racking;
3. Knitting separate fabrics connected in between –
4. Integral knitting /wholegarment.
1. Incomplete Rows Knitting Technique
• Incomplete rows knitting technique is a
technique used by designers of knits to create
three-dimensional knitted items or tubular
2.Use of Patterned Structures with 3D Effects
• The most known example is the so called egg nest fabric, created by
• The pattern is based on cardigan evolutions combined
with successive racking in opposite directions.
• Another example isajerseyfabric witha zonewithmissstitcheswhile the carriersproduce
stitcheson the opposite bed.
• When the missing stitches are discharges, the stitches
produced on the opposite bed are transferred to the
3. Sandwich Fabrics
• A knitted layered item (sandwich) is a 3D structure,
composed from two outer layers knitted together
independent, connected by byarns or other knitted
layers, as shown below
Sandwich fabrics with connection through knitted layers present a large
range of development possibilities :
− increase in the fabric thickness based on the length of the connection
− modification of the geometry of external fabrics due to the use of
connecting layers with different length;
4. Integral Knitting Technique
Integral knitting technique is an improved stage in the development of
technologies for flat knitting machines .
So far it is the most advanced knitting technology through
which a garment is completely assembled on a knitting
machine without the need of sewing. Seamless knitting
technology is a method that cuts off waste and reduces
• The seamless garment is very comfortable and resistant