Fundamental science congress 2013

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Fundamental Science Congress 2013, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. Faculty of Science

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Fundamental science congress 2013

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 0
  2. 2. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 “Exploring the Fundamentals” PUBLISHED BY: Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia 2013 1
  3. 3. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 ©(Copyright) 2013 Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without the permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passage in a review written for inclusion in a magazine or newspaper. Fundamental Science Congress 2013 “Exploring the Fundamentals” Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia Editors: Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai, Shamarina Shohaimi, Abdul Halim Shaari, Nurul Huda Osman, Issam Ahmed Muhammed, Jaafar Abdullah, Noor Akma Ibrahim and Leong Wah June. Printed by: Syarikat Perniagaan Weng Sing Lot 452-A Jalan 18/2A Taman Seri Serdang, 43400 Seri Kembangan, Selangor D.E. Malaysia 2
  4. 4. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 CONTENTS PREFACE 4 FOREWORD BY  Deputy Minister, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment 5  Vice Chancellor of UPM 6  Dean of Faculty of Science, UPM 7  Chairman of Organizing Committee of FSC 2013 8 Biology Symposium: 9 Oral presentations 10 Poster presentations 126 Chemistry Symposium: 237 Oral presentations 238 Poster presentations 332 Mathematics Symposium: 431 Oral presentations 432 Physic Symposium: 533 Oral presentations 534 Poster presentations 637 3
  5. 5. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Preface Fundamental science is very important in developing science and technology. By understanding fundamental sciences, scientists can be more creative and innovative on particular subjects or in looking for solutions to human needs or problems. In every field including science, excellence can be achieved when the fundamental basic knowledge is well understood. But today, when science is creating opportunities and competitiveness in business, applied sciences are more emphasised compared to basic sciences. Fundamental science (pure science) is science that describes the most basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing them, such that all other phenomena may be in principle derived from it following the logic of scientific reductionism. We have faith that fundamental science will tell us the facts of each branch of science. Practical application only comes from an understanding of the fundamentals. This congress with the theme “Exploring the Fundamentals”, will explore and share the findings of young researchers. All findings in basic sciences could be merged or may support each other across the fields and disciplines of basic sciences such as biology, chemistry, physic and mathematics. The congress provides the opportunity for members of the faculty to mix around once a year outside of their laboratories to look at for each other’s findings and search for opportunities to collaborate or integrate the findings. Animal behaviours and contaminated habitats could be explained better when chemistry, biochemistry and mathematics are integrated to suggest better ways of habitat management for conservation. Likewise, chemistry and physics can help to support wildlife management and resolve some of the conflicts between humans and wildlife. Fundamental sciences look at basic processes and mechanisms for better application of knowledge, creation of tools and technology for the convenience of human kind. This congress will provide the platform for 116 papers to be presented in the fields of biology, chemistry, physic and mathematics, discussing on the taxonomy and systematic of plant and animals, their ecology and habitat, synthesis and characterisation of nature product and toxicology, properties and optics, and the modelling processes and systems. Wide ranges of fundamental sciences findings compiled in this book can be subsequently analysed and integrated to produce interesting new knowledge and its application. Innovation and application will be stifled when fundamental research is retarded. “Exploring the fundamentals” and their integration with applied research are crucial to problem-solving, innovation and product development. It is hoped that next year new findings in basic sciences will emerge as extensions of this year’s findings. See you again in Fundamental Science Congress 2014. Thank you. PROF. DR. AHMAD ISMAIL Chairman Organizing Committee of Fundamental Science Congress 2013 4
  6. 6. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Foreword from the Deputy Minister, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia May I take this opportunity to extend a very warm welcome to all participants of the Fundamental Science Congress 2013 (FSC2013). I am optimistic that you will have productive sessions during your two days of discussions on “Exploring the Fundamentals”. It is indeed heartening to note that this event is being actively supported by several government agencies and the public, as well as private institutions. Similarly, it also demonstrates how Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics have become an interdisplinary effort in Science and Technology, as well as in agricultural sector where its scope in today’s societal progress has become pertinent. Malaysia is known for its vast biodiversity in terms of flora and fauna as well as microorganisms. For studying their diversity, as part of the scientific community of this country, you are shouldering the responsibilities to identify and exploring their fundamental aspects to determine their further uses for the advancement of science and economy of our country. The continual support for the initiatives that promote the fundamental study in our country is very essential in order to discover their contribution. In this regard, the fundamental study also provides a good opportunity as a platform to discuss many of your research findings, exchange ideas and develop further, so as to attain a global niche by way of publications in high impact factor and other major scientific forums. Once again, I would like to express my appreciation to FSC2013 committee members for their untiring, excellent contribution and support in numerous ways to make this event a success. Take away with you as participants not only knowledge, skills and innovative methods for research and practice in your field but also happy and unforgettable memories of a good congress and stimulating networking activities. Wishing all of you the very best in your endeavours. Y.B. DATO DR. JAMES DAWOS MAMIT Deputy Minister Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) Malaysia 5
  7. 7. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Foreword from the Vice Chancellor of Universiti Putra Malaysia First of all, I would like to welcome all participants of the Annual Fundamental Science Congress. I would like to take the opportunity to congratulate the Faculty of Science for its effort in organizing this meaningful event. It is an annual scientific congress that brings about the achievements for the past year for the students and lecturers of Faculty of Science. This congress is organized in the hope of promoting and sharing innovative ideas, discovering new knowledge and showcase latest discoveries in research and development in the Faculty of Science. The 5th of its series, the Congress aims to promote knowledge sharing in diverse areas of fundamental science, and will serve as a means of networking and collaboration in Research and Development. UPM management greatly supports and encourages all kinds of academic activities, particularly those that are related to Research and Development (R&D), which are in line with our vision to be the leading centre for learning and research that contributes to the creation of the nation’s wealth and the development of mankind. ‘Exploring the Fundamentals’ is this year’s theme. Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are the fundamental of science and by exploring fundamental research, which are the basis of other types of research, we will be able to apply the knowledge directly into other natural sciences fields such as Agriculture, Biotechnology, Engineering, and even Medicine. It is by exploring these sciences, will bring about benefits for the scientific communities, industries and later, the global communities. This is also in accordance to the national agenda and valuable outcomes will be created towards wealth creation, nation building and universal human advancement. I would like to take the opportunity to thank the organizing committee, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for making the event a success. With an open heart and mind, I would like to welcome you to this annual event. Finally, I sincerely hope that all participants would have a fruitful and wonderful time throughout the conference. Thank you. WITH KNOWLEDGE WE SERVE PROF. DATUK DR. MOHD FAUZI HAJI RAMLAN D.M.S.M., J.S.M Vice Chancellor Universiti Putra Malaysia 6
  8. 8. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Foreword from the Dean, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia On behalf of the faculty and the organizers, I would like to extend my warm welcome to all participants of Fundamental Science Congress (FSC) 2013. Fundamental Science Congress was first initiated in 2009 and has been in the Faculty of Science Academic Calendar since then. FSC has given the chance for scientists in the Faculty to share their knowledge and latest updates in research. ‘Exploring the Fundamentals’ is the theme for this year’s Congress. Department of Biology has been given the honour to host this year’s congress. The two day conference will bring about the recent research discoveries of faculty of science, in various fields of fundamental science. Exploring the fundamentals is this year’s theme, and by exploring the essential fundamental of science, we are able to go further in developing other fields of science such as engineering, forestry, agriculture and medicine. Therefore it is crucial that this fundamental aspect of science is being put in the limelight of research. I hope that all participants will have great benefits from FSC2013, in terms of research collaboration, knowledge enhancement and networking. Welcome and hope that all will benefit from this conference. Thank you. PROF. DR. ZAINAL ABIDIN TALIB Dean Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia 7
  9. 9. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Foreword from the Chairman of the Organizing Committee FSC 2013 It is with great pleasure, that we would like to welcome you to the Fundamental Science Congress (FSC) 2013, Universiti Putra Malaysia. This year, Department of Biology has been given the trust to host this year’s conference. Fundamental Science Conference 2013 will be held for two days and aimed at engaging researchers, fellow scientists on the progress of their research in fundamental science; Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics. We are expecting to have about 300 participants, up to the time book was printed, we had registration and payment for about 200 participants, majority are postgraduates from the Faculty. Sessions will consists of distinguished keynote speakers, oral and poster sessions. In this FSC 2013 we will also bring you, an additional Forum on Wildlife Conservation in Malaysia. We hoped that FSC 2013 will be a platform of communication for participants, to further work together and collaborate in fundamental research. I would like to express my sincere and deep gratitude to all the committee members for their effort and hard work in ensuring the success of this event. Thanks to UPM for full support and for Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for allowing us to use their facilities. Thank you also to all participants, speakers and sponsors for making this event successful. Thank you. PROF. DR. AHMAD ISMAIL Chairman Organizing Committee of Fundamental Science Congress 2013 8
  10. 10. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM 9
  11. 11. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 ORAL PRESENTATIONS Prof. Dr. Mohamad Osman Induced mutation-assisted plant breeding: examples from rice, roselle and stevia Prof. Dr. Rosli Hashim Social integration strategies among myrmecophiles in ant societies Prof. Dr. Ahmad Ismail The importance of public support in wildlife conservation Prof. Dr. Djoko T. Iskandar The Sumatran herpetofauna and its relationships with Peninsular Malaysia Prof. Dr. Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah Animal taxonomy - Old issue and exploring new ways Mr. Usman Sadiq Abubakar Geochemical speciation of selected heavy metals in the downstream of Puloh River, Selangor Mr. Cheng Wan Hee Concentrations of Cu and Pb in Nerita lineata collected from Johor Mr. Chew Wei Yun A comparison of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Asystasia gangetica between polluted and clean sites Ms. Siti Aishah Ramsie Phosphorus fractionation in sediments of Sepang Besar River Mangrove Forest, Selangor, Malaysia Mr. Wong Koe Wei Variations of selected in-situ surface water parameters in Langat River Ms. Sow Ai Yin Accumulation of lithogenic and non-lithogenic heavy metals in paddy soils of Kelantan during plowing season Ms. Syazana Mohamad Isa Effects of selected personal care products (PCPs) to the early development stage of Java Medaka (Oryzias javanicus) Ms. Hiap Wei Wei Transport of sex pheromone component in male Carambola fruit fly, Bactocera carambolae, following pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol, a plant-derived potent attractant Mr. Ndatsu Yakubu Effect of curcumin analogue 2, 6-bis (2, 5-dimethoxybenzylidene) cyclohexanone on embryonic development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Ms. Ooi Yue Shin Antennal protein profile following exposure to methyl eugenol in male Bactrocera dorsalis cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance Ms. Sujithra Devi a/p Arunagiri Theva Enhancement of lumbrokinase and collagen in Eudrilus euginiae through manipulation of diet as source of replacement for animal source gelatin 10
  12. 12. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Ms. Tansra Kaur a/p Ranjit Singh Transport of a plant-derived sex pheromone component, raspberry ketone, in male melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Mrs. Nazziwa Aisha Boosted augmented Naïve Bayes classifier for predicting the need for urgent blood resuscitation after gastrointestinal bleeding Ms. Tg. Azia Farahin Ku Hasan Morphology studies of mother plant and plantlet of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cv. MTi2 Dr. Laila Naher Biocontrol performance of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai against Ganoderma boninense Pat. related to infection on oil palm seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Dr. Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin Vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium species isolated from Fusarium ear rot disease in corn Mrs. Noormasshela Ulul Azmi Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticide produced in shrimp pond sludge as alternative culture medium against Bactrocera dorsalis Mrs. Cheong Jee Yin Recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp shells by Aeromonas hydrophilia and mechanical cell disruption Mrs. Nurul Shaziera Abd. Ghafar Assessment of Ganoderma boninense PER 71 as saccharification agent according to lignocellulolytic enzymes activities on pretreated paddy straw hydrolysate Ms. Siti Norhidayah Othman Isolation of partial MADS- Box gene from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Ms. Nurul Syazlin Sulaiman Isolation of partial sequence of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in non-woody tissue (calyx) of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. variety UMKL Mr. Behnam Shafiei Astani Allelic diversity and microsatellite DNA marker analysis for Southeast Asian crocodile “Tomistoma schlegelii” Mr. Yoh Kok Hon Phylogenetic studies of Orchid genus Coelogyne in Peninsular Malaysia as reveal through rbcL sequences 11
  13. 13. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 KEYNOTE SPEAKER Induced mutation-assisted plant breeding: Examples from rice, roselle and stevia O. Mohamad 1,* , 2 3 4 5 K. Hadzim , M. Zainal , M. Muhsin , R. Abdullateef , 5 O. Halimaton Saadiah and A. Lyena Watty Zuraine 6 1 Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Formerly with MARDI Rice Research Centre, Seberang Perai, Penang, Malaysia 3 Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia 4 UKM-MTDC Symbiosis Programme, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia 5 Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia 6 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia * Corresponding author: mbopar2004@yahoo.com Abstract Spontaneous mutations are rare and random events which arise naturally and not as a result of exposure to anthropogenic mutagens. These changes in DNA sequences occur at generally very low frequencies of 10-6 to 10-9, are heritable and therefore can be passed from parent to offspring. There are several natural units of mutation rate such as mutations per base pair per cell division, per gene per generation, or per genome per generation. They arise from a variety of ways in the organisms such as due to errors in DNA replication, unrepaired damage to DNA or RNA genomes, effects of the insertion or deletion of segments of DNA by transposable genetic elements, and influence of mutagens found in our environment. Such naturally occurring mutations have played the underlying and pivotal role in evolution and natural selection since time immemorial. Since the end of the 19 th century, many applications of X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation have generated enormous research interest. Through human intervention, mutations can be induced by the use of radiation (e.g. X-rays, fast neutrons, ion beam sources, γ-rays, and UV light) and chemicals (e.g. nitrous oxides, nitric acid, ethidium bromide, ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), methylnitrosourea (MNU), 12
  14. 14. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 sodium azide and colchicine). Consequently, the mutation rates could be increased considerably by 100- to 1,000-fold compared to that of the rate of spontaneous mutations. Nonetheless, many of these induced mutations are lethal and deleterious. With such demonstration of the ability of these physical and chemical mutagens to alter genetic materials, scientists have routinely induced mutations to create or increase genetic variants in various organisms. Unlike recombinant DNA techniques, induced mutation-assisted plant breeding does not add any foreign genetic material into the plant’s genome. During the 1970s and 1980s, plant breeders attempted mutation breeding techniques in their work and made significant contributions to crop improvement. They induced mutations to randomly alter genetic traits and then selected for improved genotypes among the progeny. To date, more than 3,500 crop varieties have been released worldwide from the results of mutation breeding directly or indirectly. Based on FAO/IAEA data, there have been more than 2,700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world. Approximately 90% of these officially released mutant varieties were produced by irradiation using specific equipment and facilities such as gammacell, gamma greenhouse and gamma field. Recently, methods have been developed to allow scientists to efficiently identify and select for mutations in specific genes. This can enhance the utilization of induced mutations in plant breeding and reduce the usually long breeding time, as changes in genes known to produce specific results can be identified rather than having to screen very large populations of plants to find the rare individuals in their efforts to produce crops with desirable traits. Currently, the techniques of molecular biology have increasingly gained adoption by conventional plant breeders to increase breeding efficiency. Notwithstanding such developments, induced mutations have and will still continue to augment and play important and specific roles in breeding and selection of selected crop species. In rice (Oryza sativa), a trait controlling the elongation trait of cooked rice was inadvertently found in a breeding line called Mahsuri Mutant through a research project on mutation breeding using chemical and physical mutagens, which was jointly undertaken by UKM and MARDI in 1970s. This invaluable quality trait is akin to that of unique and exceptionally high elongation characteristic which makes Basmati rice highly good-tasting and popular. Through backcross breeding, the grain elongation trait has now been successfully transferred to many locallybred high quality rice varieties such as MRQ50 and MRQ74. More recently in 2010, two locally-bred imidazolinone tolerant varieties (IMI-TR varieties) namely MR 220CL1 and MR 220CL2 were officially released to overcome the serious threats posed by weedy rices to direct-seeded rice production culture. Prior to this, several variant AHAS genes conferring imidazolinone tolerance had been discovered in plants through mutagenesis and selection, and were used to create IMI-TR varieties in crops such as maize, wheat, rice, oilseed rape and sunflower. Imidazolinone herbicides, which control a broad spectrum of grass and broadleaf weeds, work by inhibiting the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), a critical enzyme for the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in plants. In 1999, a research project on mutation breeding using γ-irradiation in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was initiated in UKM, culminating in the launch of three new roselle varieties named UKMR-1, UKMR-2 and 13
  15. 15. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 UKMR-3 by UKM in 2009. More recently with stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), induced mutations through γ-irradiation, polyploidization through colchicine treatment and hybridization through Trigona-assisted pollination have been successfully employed and integrated in efforts to generate genetic variants necessary to overcome some intrinsic problems that impede its productivity in terms of leaf yield and rebaudioside A content. This presentation will provide an overview of the induced mutation techniques which have been experimentally employed by plant breeders in the country and their practical aspects and significant contributions to plant breeding by citing examples from rice, roselle and stevia. Keywords: Induced mutation-assisted plant breeding, rice, roselle and stevia. 14
  16. 16. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 INVITED SPEAKER 1 Social integration strategies among myrmecophiles in ant societies Rosli Hashim1,*, Christoph von Beeren2, Volker Witte2 and Munetoshi Maruyama3 1Institute of Biological Science,University of Malaya. 2Ludwigs-Maximilians 3Kyushu University Munich. Museum, Kyushu University. *Corresponding author: roslihashim@um.edu.my Abstract Numerous animals have evolved effective mechanisms to integrate into and exploit ant societies. Chemical integration strategies are particularly widespread among ant symbionts (myrmecophiles), probably because social insect nestmate recognition is predominantly mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The importance of chemical mimicry of host CHCs for social acceptance recently is demonstrated in these studies where we investigated the role of chemical mimicry in the myrmecophilous spider Gamasomorpha maschwitzi and the silverfish Malayatelura ponerophila that co-occurs in the same host, Leptogenys distinguenda. Keywords: Social integration strategies, myrmecophiles, ant societies 15
  17. 17. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 INVITED SPEAKER 2 The importance of public support in wildlife conservation Ahmad Ismail Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: aismail@science.upm.edu.my Abstract Malaysia is one of the top mega—biodiversity countries in the world, yet continuous development for industry, residential and agriculture activities have caused fragmentations of many of its forest area. As a consequence, conflicts between human and animals are bound to happen through killing, poaching, pest and other forms of disturbances known to mankind. Moreover, information gathered on wildlife through various researches would be meaningless if the animals cannot survive or become endangered and ultimately extinct in the wild. This is where public involvement can make a difference. Unfortunately, the importance of public support often not being addressed properly or given the right attention. This presentation tries to highlights two study cases involving the Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea) and Southern Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris convexus) and the importance of public involvement that contributes to their conservation successes. The Milky Stork reintroduction programme that started in 2007 aims to repopulate our country’s Milky Stork population that can be safely regarded as being extinct in the wild. Yet, until late 2008, the programme suffers its first major obstacle as after several releases of Milky Stork groups, almost 90% of the individuals have loss either due to human or environmental factors. The public was then mobilized to aid in the research and conservation processes through continuous surveys and talks conducted since early 2009. With local support and protection, the first successful breeding of the Milky Stork was recorded in April 2010. To date, at least 10 individuals have survived and two individuals have laid new eggs (total of nine eggs) starting mid June 2013. In another case, the Southern Pied hornbills in Sungai Panjang, Sabak Bernam were adapting to ground nesting using abandoned clay jar. However, before 2006 the breeding process was heavily disturbed. The unique characteristic of the species casque have made them an item of trade or precious amulet by some locals. In addition, the bird’s beauty and charm have equally attracted the others to capture the species. To alleviate the problems, public awareness programme was conducted among the locals involving several villages viewed as having the potential to support the birds breeding activity. Ongoing public awareness campaign starting 2009 to promote the hornbills establishment and survival have shown some results. To this date, more than five couples have successfully bred and produced strong juveniles under the local protection and the hornbills still continue to nest in the same area every year. In both cases, public involvement plays an important role in conservation especially when rapid developments continue to reduce foraging and nesting areas for these birds. Keywords: Public support, awareness, milky stork, hornbills, wildlife conservation. 16
  18. 18. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 INVITED SPEAKER 3 The Sumatran herpetofauna and its relationships with Peninsular Malaysia Djoko T. Iskandar School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 10, Jalan Ganesa, Bandung 40132 Indonesia. *Corresponding author: iskandar@sith.itb.ac.id Abstract Despite being a part of the Sundaland, data on the herpetofauna of Sumatra showed that this island should be considered as a separate entity. Even a considerable number of species are shared with Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo or Java. The shared species reduced enormously as many are now known as complex of species even most of them are not yet formalized. A high number of species are recently described from Peninsular Malaysia and changed considerably the count. Our study showed that Sumatra has eventually also a high number of undescribed species and need to be formalized in the near future. Although the Sumatran herpetofauna could be separated into three biogeographic entity, only two of them showed the presence of unique fauna but shared either with Peninsular Malaysia or with Java. Keywords: Sumatran herpetofauna, relationships, Peninsular Malaysia. 17
  19. 19. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 INVITED SPEAKER 4 Animal taxonomy - Old issue and exploring new ways Mohd Tajuddin Abdulah and Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan Department of Zoology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak. *Corresponding author: tabdulla@frst.unimas.my Abstract Biological classification is a science of systematic grouping of biological organisms into similar group based on shared characters. Identification of species boundary has been the center of interest among biologists since the time of Carolus Linnaeus, Charles R. Darwin, Alfred R. Wallace, Ernst W. Mayr and Theodosius G. Dobzhansky. One of the foremost goals in species delimitation is to attain taxonomy that reflects the evolutionary history, which is critical in conservation prioritization, thus illuminating the evolutionary and ecological forces that shaped the population, community and ecosystem. This becomes particularly important in regions with high biodiversity such as Malaysia where the discoveries of new species are prospective, but subjected to habitat disturbances due to very rapid socio-economic development. Therefore, rapid and accurate methods are urgently needed to assess biodiversity and to understand the underlying mechanisms that promote speciation. Our presentation deals with using descriptive method to describe a species, using morphometrics to describe morphological species, DNA for genetic species and the most recent is to use DNA codes to identify cryptic species. Keywords: Animal taxonomy, old issue, exploring new ways. 18
  20. 20. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Geochemical speciation of some selected heavy metals in the downstream of Puloh River, Selangor Usman Sadiq Abubakar, Ahmad Ismail* and Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: aismail@science.upm.edu.my Abstracts Heavy metals contamination was investigated in Puloh River, Selangor. This river has been receiving both industrial and domestic wastes. The sequential extraction technique (SET) was employed to determine the geochemical speciation of selected metals. Results showed elevated level of heavy metals from anthropogenic activities. Cd showed a very high concentration which can pose a serious threat to the aquatic life in the river. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals are urgently needed. Keywords: Geochemical speciation, sediment, heavy metals, anthropogenic, Puloh River. Introduction Heavy metals contamination has been, for long, known to have majorly contributed to environmental pollution, and impacts negatively on health which raises serious concern globally. Sediment is considered as sinks for bio-available metals which show a great tendency to bind to suspended matters and thus, through sedimentation, they become accumulated in the river sediment providing temporal advantage to the quality of the water, but the interaction between water and sediment enhances remobilization of these metals with alarming pollution manifestation in the aquatic systems(Kelderman & Osman, 2007). River sediments, as the main sink of heavy metals not only play an important role in influencing water pollution but can also account for the history of the river pollution(Taylor, Ismail, Badri, & Ramlan, n.d.). The geochemical circle of these metals is influenced by both physical and chemical factors: the total organic carbon (TOC), grain size, temperature, salinity and pH among other things. Industrialization and intense agricultural activities contribute enormously to the loading of these contaminants in the aquatic systems(Naji, Ismail, & Ismail, 2010). In more general terms, anthropogenic activities, which constitutes the discharge of industrial and domestic effluents and from agriculture and mining activities, are the broad sources of heavy metals contamination(Bai et al., 2011). The potentiality for these heavy metals to bioaccumulate and biomagnify resulting to a heavier exposure of some organisms is too obvious to ignore(Gao, Chen, & Bay, 2012). The 19
  21. 21. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 identification and quantification of species of chemicals in a material is referred to as chemical speciation(Naji et al., 2010). Sequential extraction technique (SET) was used to determine the speciation of these metals and to evaluate the concentration of metals in the Sungai Puloh River. Sequential extraction can provide information about the identification of the main binding sites, the strength of metal binding to a particulates and the phase association of trace element in sediment(Naji et al., 2010). SET is divided into four phases: the easily and freely leachable or exchangeable (EFLE), the Acid reducible, the oxidisable organic and The Resistant. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the chemical speciation of some selected heavy metals in the river. Materials and methods Study site: Sampling: Five sites were selected for this study. Using a plastic hand scoop, sediment samples were collected from the surface of the river and put in a polyethylene bags. The samples were put in an ice bag and then transported to the ecology laboratory of the department of biology at UPM. Upon arrival, the samples were stored for 24hours at -100C after which they were oven-dried at temperature of 60oC for 3days and subsequently kept until analysis. The dried sediment samples were ground with an agate mortar and sieved through 63µm sieve(Yap, Ismail, Tan, & Omar, 2002). Chemical analysis (Direct Aqua Regia): In obtaining total concentration of heavy metals, a direct aqua regia method is employed. About 1.0g of dried, ground and sieved sediment was weighed into a digestion tube. The digestion was carried out in 10ml combined solution of concentrated HNO3 (AnalaR grade, BDH 69%) and HClO4 (AnalaR grade BDH 60%) in the ratio of 4:1. The tube was placed in a hot-block digester and digested, first at 40oC for 1 hour and then gradually increasing the temperature until it reaches 140oC for another 3 hours. The sample was allowed to cool and then double distilled water was used to dilute it to a certain volume before filtering into a polyethylene bottle using Whatman No.1 filter paper. About 10g of the sample was weighed into a conical flask for the first phase of the sequential extraction as described above: Phase 1.Easily and freely leachable or exchangeable EFLE. 50ml of 1.0M ammonium acetate (NH4CH3COO), pH 7.0 at room temperature, was mixed with the 10g sediment and shaken continuously for 3 hours and filtered through Whatman No.1 filter paper. Phase 2.Acid-reducible: The residue from phase 1 was shaken with 0.25M hydroxylammonium chloride (NH2OH.HCl) acidified to pH 2.0 using HCl at room temperature. 20
  22. 22. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Phase 3.Oxidisable-organic: Residue from phase 2 was first oxidized with 15ml 30% H 2O2 in a water bath at 95oC. After cooling, the metal released from the organic complexes was continuously shaken for 3 hours with 50ml 1.0M ammonium acetate (NH 4CH3COO), as in phase 1, but this time acidified to pH 2.0 at room temperature Phase 4.Resistant fraction. This was done by direct aqua regia method where the residue from phase 3 was digested in a combination of concentrated HNO 3 (AnalaR grade, BDH 69%) and HClO4 (AnalaR grade BDH 60%) (Yap et al., 2002). Clarifications: 20ml of DDW was used throughout to wash residue from each fraction and the residues were measured before the next extraction. Whatman No.1 filter paper was used for filtration throughout the extraction and the filtrates from the four phases were used to determine the concentration of the metals. Results The ranges of the concentrations of the metals analyzed in the three fraction; EFLE, Acidreducible and oxidisable organic, to stations; S-1,2,3,4 and 5 as follows: Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni showed concentrations between 21
  23. 23. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Table 1: Mean concentration of metals from the SET at various stations (µg/g)±SD STATIONS (S) S1 Cd Cu Pb Zn Ni Fraction 1 0.133(0.009) 0.074±0.015 0.644±0.385 222.9±63.78 1.282±0.602 Fraction 2 0.160±0.080 0.074±0.081 0.396±0.138 577.6±196.8 3.626±1.819 Fraction 3 0.375±0.096 19.49±7.616 29.25±2.319 726.8±221.8 32.90±11.21 Fraction 1 0.995(0.018) 0.096±0.007 0.509±0.294 275.0±17.89 1.425±0.064 Fraction 2 0.138±0.029 0.341±0.020 0.248±0.061 656.0±84.15 4.542±0.013 Fraction 3 0.514±0.012 20.86±0.764 29.70±1.237 911.4±7.354 37.68±0.460 Fraction 1 0.082(0.003) 0.126±0.045 0.360±0.099 215.1±26.59 1.108±0.269 Fraction 2 0.109±0.011 0.341±0.002 0.537±0.062 725.9±20.79 3.574±0.553 Fraction 3 0.602±0.020 22.35±1.322 36.92±2.461 1025±5.798 36.76±2.680 Fraction 1 0.093(0.018) 0.158±0.064 0.312±0.104 215.0±3.041 0.754±0.092 Fraction 2 0.242±0.013 0.436±0.063 0.526±0.183 553.4±21.64 2.343±0.085 Fraction 3 0.290±0.059 14.60±3.903 31.77±6.625 585.0±128.3 25.62±3.528 Fraction 1 0.054±0.003 0.158±0.015 0.254±0.111 242.9±0.495 0.754±0.175 Fraction 2 0.168±0.035 0.419±0.017 0.493±0.044 583.1±34.79 2.692±0.195 Fraction 3 0.392±0.059 19.40±3.960 36.26±0.870 723.6±46.24 28.57±0.827 S2 S3 S4 S5 22
  24. 24. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Table2. Concentration in all the five stations selected (fractions 1-3) Stations Cd Cu Pb Zn Ni 1 0.667 19.63 30.29 1507 37.85 2 0.750 21.30 30.46 1842 43.65 3 0.821 22.82 37.82 1966 41.44 4 0.625 15.19 32.61 1354 28.71 5 0.614 19.98 37.01 1550 32.02 Cd Cu Pb Zn 23
  25. 25. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Ni Acknowledgement Participation in FSC2013 was funded by Vot no. FRGS 5524152. References Bai, J., Cui, B., Chen, B., Zhang, K., Deng, W., Gao, H., & Xiao, R. (2011). Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from a typical plateau lake wetland, China. Ecological Modelling, 222(2), 301–306. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.12.002 Gao, X., Chen, C. A., & Bay, B. (2012). Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay. Water Research, 46(6), 1901–1911. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2012.01.007 Kelderman, P. Ã., & Osman, A. A. (2007). Effect of redox potential on heavy metal binding forms in polluted canal sediments in Delft ( The Netherlands ), 41, 4251–4261. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.05.058 Naji, A., Ismail, A., & Ismail, A. R. (2010). Chemical speciation and contamination assessment of Zn and Cd by sequential extraction in surface sediment of Klang River, Malaysia. Microchemical Journal, 95(2), 285–292. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2009.12.015 Qian, Y., Zheng, M. H., Gao, L., Zhang, B., Liu, W., Jiao, W., Zhao, X., et al. (2005). Heavy metal contamination and its environmental risk assessment in surface sediments from Lake Dongting, People’s Republic of China. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 75(1), 204–10. doi:10.1007/s00128-005-0739-3 Taylor, P., Ismail, A., Badri, M. A., & Ramlan, M. N. (n.d.). Heavy metal contamination in fiddler crabs ( Uca annulipes ) and hermit crabs ( Clibanarius sp .) in a coastal area of 24
  26. 26. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 northern peninsular Malaysia Heavy Metal Contamination In Fiddler Crabs ( Uca annulipes ) And Hermit Crabs ( Clibanarius sp .) In A Coastal Area Of Northern, (June 2013), 37–41. Yap, C. K., Ismail, a, Tan, S. G., & Omar, H. (2002). Correlations between speciation of Cd, Cu, Pb And Zn in sediment and their concentrations in total soft tissue of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Environment international, 28(1-2), 117–26. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12046948 25
  27. 27. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Concentrations of Cu and Pb in Nerita lineata collected from Johor Cheng Wan Hee1,*, Yap Chee Kong1, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria2, Ahmad Zaharin2 and Tan Soon Guan3 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Environmental Forensics Laboratory, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 3Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: wheec@hotmail.com Abstract Samples of the Nerita lineata and sediments were collected from six locations in Johor between April 2011 and May 2012. These sampling sites are well known for their industrial, shipping and aquacultural activities. The objective of this study is to determine the ability of the N. lineata as a good biomonitor for Cu and Pb. Collected samples were digested with nitric acid for metal extraction and analysed using the air-acetylene Perkin-Elmer™ flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer model Analyst 800 for Cu and Pb. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of Cu ranged from 3.87-6.23, 3.91-7.85 and 11.69-25.82 for shells, opercula and soft tissues, respectively. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of Pb ranged from 38.99-68.70, 45.56-65.92 and 1.03-50.47 for shells, opercula and soft tissues, respectively. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of Cu and Pb in the surface sediments ranged from 7.30-24.72 and 25.36-172.57, respectively. The heavy metal accumulations were recorded in a decreasing pattern of soft tissues>opercula>shells for the essential metals (Cu) while for the non-essential metal (Pb), they were in the decreasing order of shells>opercula> soft tissues. The Pb levels of the snail samples were found to correlate well with the Pb levels in the sediments while Cu does not show any correlation between snail samples and sediments. Therefore, this study reconfirmed that N. lineata is a good biomonitor of Pb pollution in tropical intertidal areas. Keywords: Heavy metals, sediments, Nerita lineata, biomonitor and Johor. 26
  28. 28. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Introduction Biomonitoring studies have been globally used to assess heavy metal pollutions and to remedy environmental degradation (Hellou, 2011). Efforts have been made to utilize different species species of gastropods as biomonitors for heavy metal pollution assessments in different environmental conditions (Kang et al., 2000; Yap et al. 2008; Yap et al. 2009; Rizo et al. 2010). In this study, the potential of the N. lineata snail as a good biomonitor for heavy metals (Cu and Pb) is investigated. The samples of snails and sediments were collected from Johor at some of the most polluted sites in the area. The results of this study will be compared with previous studies done by Yap et al. (2009) to determine the concentrations heavy metals of N. lineata to support and confirm the utility of the snail as a good biomonitor of Cu and Pb pollution. Materials and Methods Samples were collected from 6 sites at Johor. Dissected tissue parts (shells, opercula and soft tissues) and sediments were dried separately at 60 °C until constant dry weights are achieved. The samples were then digested in concentrated nitric acid (AnalaR grade, BDH 69%) for the snails and a mixture of nitric acid (69%) and perchloric acid (60%) at 1:4 ratio for sediments in a microwave digester. Analysis was done by using the air-acetylene Perkin-Elmer™ flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer model Analyst 800 for Cu and Pb. Results and Discussion The concentrations of Pb and Cu is shown in Table 1. The level of concentrations of Pb in the opercula was the highest followed by shells and soft tissues. The highest concentrations of Cu were recorded in the soft tissues followed by opercula and shells. Copper is an essential metal for the snails (Yap et al., 2009), resulting in higher levels of them being accumulated there in the soft tissues compared to shells and opercula. Positive correlations (P<0.05) between the shells, opercula and soft tissues with the total aqua-regia sediments for Pb were in agreement with those reported by Yap et al. (2008; 2009), while there were no correlations shown between all the tissues with sediments for Cu. This has further confirmed that the N. lineata is a good biomonitor for Pb while Cu needs further studies in the future. 27
  29. 29. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Table 1: Heavy metal concentrations (mean + standard error µg/g dry weight) of shells, opercula and soft tissues of N. lineata collected from Johor. (N=6) Shells Cu Kpg. Pasir Puteh Tj. Piai Sg. Ayam Kpg. Sg. Melayu Kukup Tj. Langsat Opercula Pb Soft Tissues Cu Pb Cu Pb 5.65 ± 0.5 38.99 ± 1.02 6.22 ± 0.37 45.56 ± 2.53 14.17 ± 1.16 1.03 ± 0.12 4.1 ± 0.14 45.35 ± 2.96 4.55 ± 0.18 46.65 ± 1.34 16.87 ± 1.06 15.37 ± 3.74 5.95 ± 0.37 68.7 ± 2.47 6.83 ± 0.47 65.92 ± 0.92 25.82 ± 0.69 50.47 ± 1.24 6.23 ± 0.27 50.47 ± 1.66 7.85 ± 0.37 46.94 ± 2.38 14.42 ± 0.84 12.04 ± 0.42 4.56 ± 0.29 50.92 ± 1.62 5.62 ± 0.16 53.79 ± 1.16 13.15 ± 2.07 12.31 ± 0.75 3.87 ± 0.38 55.68 ± 1.56 3.91 ± 0.36 54.51 ± 0.72 11.69 ± 1.01 15.71 ± 1.87 Table 2: Heavy metal concentrations (mean + standard error µg/g dry weight) of sediments collected from Johor. (N=10) Sites Cu Pb Kpg. Pasir Puteh 28.71 ± 0.88 30.72 ± 0.34 Sg. Ayam 20.48 ± 0.52 172.57 ± 3.61 14.5 ± 0.58 29.22 ± 1.04 Kukup 11.31 ± 0.11 28.1 ± 0.5 Tg. Langsat 11.26 ± 0.37 31.03 ± 0.68 Kpg. Sg. Melayu Acknowledgement The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support via Research Grant Scheme (RUGS) (Vot no. 91986) provided by Universiti Putra Malaysia. References Hellou, J. 2011. Behavioural ecotoxicology, an “early warning” signal to assess environmental quality. Environmental Science Pollution Resources 18: 1–11. Kang, S.G., Wright, D.A. & Koh, C.H. 2000. Baseline metal concentration in the Asian periwinkle Littorina brevicula employed as a biomonitor to assess metal pollution in Korean coastal water. The Science of the Total Environment 263: 143-153. Rizo, O.D., Reumont, S.O., Fuente, J.V., Arado, O.D., Pino, N.L., Rodrίguez, K.D., Lόpez, J.O.A., Rudnikas, A.G. & Carballo, G.A. 2010. Copper, Zinc and Lead Bioaccumulation in 28
  30. 30. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Marine Snail, Strombus gigas, from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 85: 330–333. Yap, C.K. & Cheng, W.H. 2008. Heavy metal concentrations in Nerita lineata: the potential as a biomonitor for heavy metal bioavailability and contamination in the tropical intertidal area. Marine Biodiversity Records 2: e46 doi:10.1017/S1755267209000505 Yap, C.K., Cheng, W.H., Ismail, A., Ismail, A.R. & Tan, S.G. 2009. Biomonitoring of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the west intertidal area of Peninsular Malaysia by using Nerita lineata. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 91(1): 29–41. 29
  31. 31. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 A comparison of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Asystasia gangetica between polluted and clean sites Chew Wei Yun1, Yap Chee Keong1,*, Umi Kalsom Yusof1 and Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria2 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Centre of Excellence for Environmental Forensics, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: yapckong@hotmail.com Abstract Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined in Asystasia gangetica that was collected from one polluted site at industrial areas in Juru (Pulau Pinang), and a clean site, Cheneh (Terengganu). Samplings in these locations were done between 23 July 2011 and 2 August 2011. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in accumulations of heavy metals of Asystasia sp. in polluted areas and cleaner areas. Heavy metals concentration ranges in this study were 0.03–3.98 µg/g (Cd), 7.59–88.3 µg/g (Cu), 34.9–28598 µg/g (Fe), 0.03–24.8 µg/g (Ni), 1.36–262 µg/g (Pb), and 18.7–262 µg/g (Zn). In this study, we found that higher heavy metals concentrations in soil resulted in higher heavy metals concentrations in plants collected in industrial areas in Juru. In conclusion, this study showed that Asystasia sp. is a potential biomonitor of the six heavy metals but further study are required to verify our claim. Keywords: Asystasia gangetica, biomonitor, heavy metals. Introduction In general, heavy metals pollution is a major issue in modern society due to its public health concerns. Various human activities, such as heavy industries, agricultural activities, landfill emissions and so on, are contributing to the anthropogenic heavy metals pollution via various pathways. It is often vital to check heavy metals levels in the human affected areas as high heavy metals contamination might cause unwanted health complications. Hence, in order to determine heavy metals concentrations that in an area, there are numerous researchers uses plant as biomonitors of the anthropogenic sources (heavy metals and PAHs) in urban area (Aksoy and Demirezen, 2006). Asystasia gangetica (L.) Anders. (Subspecies micrantha) is a common weed and highly invasive species in Southeast Asia. Asystasia gangetica (L.) was introduced into Malaysia 30
  32. 32. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 from India as ornamental plants in year 1876 and year 1923 (Kiew and Vollesen, 1997). Today, this species can be found all across the urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia in large abundance. Because of the large abundance of this plant in Peninsular Malaysia, this species was selected for this study to determine it’s potential as a biomonitor of heavy metals pollution in Peninsular Malaysia. Materials and Methods Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined in Asystasia gangetica that was collected from one polluted site at industrial areas in Juru (Pulau Pinang), and a clean site, Cheneh (Terengganu). Samplings on these locations were done on 23 July 2011 and 2 August 2011 for the collections of plant and soil samples. Plant samples were divided into different parts, namely leaves, stems, and roots. All parts of plant samples were dried in 80°C for 2 to 3 days and soil samples were dried in 60°C for 5 to 6 days. Acid digestion was done on both plant and soil samples prior to the heavy metals determination using air-acetylene flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Perkin-Elmer Model AAnalyst 800 checked with Certified Reference Material (CRM) recovery (92%±112%). Additionally, Sequential Extraction Technique (SET) was conducted on soils samples to determine the fractionation of the heavy metals in soil. Further analysis was done using statistical software. Results and Discussion Table 1 show that the stems and leaves of the plant samples collected from Juru has generally higher in Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentration as compared to Cheneh. The heavy metals concentrations in soils sampled from Juru was also found higher compared to Cheneh. The soil samples collected from Juru shows that it received significant enrichment of heavy metals from the surrounding industrial environments. Hence, we suspect that the high heavy metals concentrations in plant samples from Juru were due to the plant uptake of elevated heavy metals concentrations in soil. In this study, Asystasia sp. was found to have exhibit different behaviors in heavy metals allocation depending on heavy metals level in soil. Table 2 shows that the plants collected from Juru tends to translocate more heavy metals to the leaves from roots (TF>1, Leaf to Root). Whereas, the plant sampled from Cheneh translocate more heavy metals (in exceptions to Cd) to the roots (TF<1, Leaf to Root). This behavior may have been because this plant in the area of high heavy metals level contaminations in soil could detoxify heavy metals accumulated in root by chelation and translocate heavy metals to the shoot through xylem (Rascto and Navari-Izzo, 2011). 31
  33. 33. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Table 1: Concentrations of heavy metals in plant and soil samples of Cheneh and Juru, in (mean ± SEM) ng/g Place Type Cd Mea n Cu SE M Mea n Cheneh Root 0.03 0.00 18.76 Juru Root 0.03 0.00 13.20 Cheneh Stem 0.54 0.06 7.59* Juru Stem 0.29 0.07 9.72* Cheneh Leaf 0.03 0.00 Juru Leaf 0.03 Cheneh Soil 0.48* Juru Soil Cheneh Cheneh Enrich ment Factor Enrich ment Factor Igeo Juru Igeo Juru Fe SE M Ni Mean 1.52 SEM 566.91 50.12 0.31 431.40 0.61 34.88* 0.38 15.65 1.80 0.00 19.77 0.10 9.19* 3.98* 0.30 8.98 Mea n Pb SE M 2.13 0.29 14.99 1.01 0.08 1.99 0.53* 0.21 579.24* 58.32 2.20* 0.17 135.50* 19.80 0.03* 0.58 1299.49* 29.67 0.97 11038.34 * 88.25 * 2.95 27887.2 5* 4.65 1.33 0.07 53.31 6.42 5.19 -1.71 2.42 0.21 0.00 2 Mean 3.49 Zn SE M Mean SEM 1.18 56.44* 3.78 8.28 1.34 161.10* 7.28 1.36* 0.77 26.93* 1.93 7.79* 0.21 147.89* 10.34 0.00 3.23* 0.24 18.68* 3.75 3.73* 0.25 21.79* 3.57 159.95* 3.84 2.38* 0.27 20.23 * 4.05 15.06* 0.06 24.77 * 0.67 261.93 * 12.5 3 2368.71 * 584.2 4 N/A 0.14 0.01 4.55 0.17 0.93 0.06 0.66 N/A 0.59 0.05 19.14 4.20 50.41 5.73 -0.51 0.02 -0.42 -0.19 0.01 -6.58 2.11 -0.41 0.017 0.74 0.04 -1.42 -0.58 0.03 0.33 0.02 0.22 0.001 709.0 9 0.42 * significant differences in comparison between sites (p<0.05) Table 2: Translocation factor matrices of plant samples from both sites. Translocation Factor Leaf to Root Cu Fe Ni Pb Zn Cheneh 0.96 0.83 0.24 0.01 0.93 0.33 1.00 1.50 3.01 3.70 2.63 0.99 Cheneh 0.05 2.06 3.89 0.05 2.37 0.69 Juru 0.09 2.03 2.24 1.69 2.80 1.08 Cheneh 20.17 0.40 0.06 0.25 0.39 0.48 Juru Stem to Root Cd Juru Leaf to Stem Sites 10.51 0.74 1.34 2.18 0.94 0.92 Conclusion Asystasia sp. generally shown that they found higher in heavy metals concentrations in Juru, which has higher concentration of heavy metals in soil as compared to Cheneh. Furthermore, we also found that Asystasia sp. exhibit different behaviors in heavy metals allocation in their tissues depending on heavy metals level in soil. Asystasia sp. could be a potential biomonitor based on these characteristics. References Aksoy, A., and Demirezen, D. (2006). Fraxinus excelsior as a Biomonitor of Heavy Metal Pollution. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 15(1):27-33. 32
  34. 34. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Kiew, R., and Vollesen, K. 1997. Asystasia (Acanthaceae) in Malaysia. Kew Bulletin 52(4): 965-971. Rascio, N. and Navari-Izzo, F. (2011). Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Science. 180: 169-181. Yap, C. K., Ismail, A., Tan, S.G., and Omar, H., (2002). Correlations between speciation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediment and their concentrations in total soft tissue of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Environment International. 28(12):117-126. 33
  35. 35. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Phosphorus fractionation in sediments of Sepang Besar River Mangrove Forest, Selangor, Malaysia Siti Aishah Ramsie1, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli1,*, Ferdaus Mohamat-Yusuf2 and Ahmad Ismail1 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: syaizwan@science.upm.edu.my Abstract Eutrophication could become one of the major cause for water pollution in Malaysia. Phosphorus (P) is recognized to play an important part for algae growth and reproduction. The study was focused on inorganic P as it releases most P to water system. The main source of P on a river is mainly caused by runoff, industrial wastes and municipal effluents. The Sepang mangrove forest reserve located at state boundaries between Negeri Sembilan and Selangor has been chosen as a sampling site to determine P fraction in surface sediments. P concentration is best to be expressed in fractionation instead of the total P content. In general, it was found that the loosely-sorbed P was highest at the first five stations from the river mouth of Sepang River compared to the upper reaches of the river. This loosely-bound P may have originated from porewater or decaying of bacterial biomass. In the studied river, the mean of NH4Cl-P which represents the loosely sorbed P in sediment were the lowest among five fractions. It ranged from 0.69 to 1.70 mg/kg. In contrast, the extracted metal bound P (aluminium, Al and iron, Fe), respectively was found highest at upper reaches of the river and ranged from 1.60 to 4.48 mg/kg. The metals are exchangeable with –OH anion of organic ligand and inorganic P compound soluble in bases. The fractionation of P in sediment collected from study area could be used to predict potential pollution events in the future. Keywords: Phosphorus, P-fractionation, eutrophication, phosphorus sediment, phosphorus release. Introduction Phosphorus is essential elements responsible for enormous productivity and growth for algal and weeds. The algal and weeds responds to luxurious amount of phosphorus by increasing its population and cover a whole area of lakes (Conley et al., 2009) and river (This study). The 34
  36. 36. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 organic and inorganic phosphorus are two main categories of phosphorus in soil/sediment. The inorganic phosphorus is insoluble in water can occur in various combination with metals such as iron, aluminium and calcium, whereas the organic phosphorus can be found in organic material, humus and fumic acid. The main source of phosphorus on a river is mainly caused by non-point source such as runoff, industrial waste, municipal effluents (Chao et al., 2008), rainfall and soil leaching (Han et al., 2011). Eutrophication may become one of the critical mangrove water system pollution in Malaysia as it is widely recognized that phosphorus plays an important parts to algae growth and reproduction. The phosphorus tends to accumulate and sink on sediment for longer period and can be released to environment when condition is favourable (Wu et al., 2001). It occurs as the negatively charged phosphate ion H2PO4- in acidic soils or HPO4- in alkaline soil. Those ions are called orthophosphate. The ions may react with iron, aluminium and manganese elements in acidic soils whereas react with calcium compounds in alkaline soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphorus content in sediment fractionation to predict future eutrophication along Sungai Sepang Besar and coastal area of Bagan Lalang. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in Sepang Besar River (approximately 15km in length) located at state boundary between the states of Negeri Sembilan and Selangor, Malaysia. Ten sampling stations (St.1, St.2, St.3, St.4, St.5, St.6, St.7, St.8, St.9, and St.10) were employed along the river to collect intertidal muddy region sediment surface samples at 0-5 cm depth. The average distance between each station was between 0.5-1.5 km. The sedimentary were collected using a pre-cleaned Ekman sampling device, put in air-sealed plastic bags and kept cool in an icebox to prevent further biological and chemical reaction until transportation to the laboratory. The samples was dried in an oven at temperature between 55-60⁰C for 3 days or until constant weight was obtained. The samples were then crushed using an agate mortar and pestle and sieved through a 2mm stainless steel sieve to homogenized samples and to reduce coarse particles, then separated to sand-sized (2mm - 63µm). The soil P fractions were sequentially extracted on the basis of their relative solubilities in extractants. The sediments was subjected to sequential chemical extraction with 1M ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, 0.5M ammonium fluoride, NH4F, 0.1M sodium hydroxide, NaOH, 0.3M sodium citrate, Na3C3H6O7/ 1M sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3/ 1.0g sodium dithionate, NaS2O4, and 0.25M sulphuric acid, H2SO4. The extraction of P forms was performed in triplicates. The sequential extraction procedure divided inorganic P in Sepang Besar River sediment into loosely sorbed P, reductant soluble P, metal oxide bound P and calcium bound P (apatite P). As a precaution step, all chemical needed for this study was freshly prepared with deionized water. 35
  37. 37. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Results and Discussion The results of inorganic P were tabulated in Table 1. Table 1 Analytical results of inorganic phosphorus, P obtained in Sepang Besar River sediment samples in dry weight basis (mg/kg) Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Organic Matter % 5.54 6.75 6.94 8.09 6.96 11.08 15.05 18.73 18.74 18.63 Loosely bound P 0.04±0.01 0.04±0.01 0.05±0.02 0.06±0.04 0.08±0.02 0.04±0.02 0.04±0.03 0.03±0.02 0.04±0.01 0.04±0.03 Al-P Fe-P 0.13±0.02 0.12±0.02 0.14±0.04 0.09±0.02 0.28±0.04 0.33±0.04 0.48±0.10 0.59±0.08 0.68±0.06 0.55±0.04 0.15±0.05 0.12±0.02 0.12±0.02 0.12±0.03 0.18±0.03 0.28±0.04 0.36±0.04 0.39±0.08 0.32±0.09 0.44±0.06 Reductant soluble P 0.05±0.06 0.08±0.02 0.04±0.04 0.04±0.04 0.07±0.06 0.06±0.08 0.06±0.07 0.09±0.05 0.08±0.08 0.10±0.09 Ca-P 0.09±0.01 0.08±0.05 0.08±0.02 0.11±0.07 0.14±0.06 0.18±0.03 0.20±0.05 0.22±0.05 0.21±0.03 0.23±0.06 The extraction of P using NH4Cl and NH4-F represents the loosely-sorbed P. It was most originated from porewater, P release from CaCO3 associated phosphorus or from decaying of bacterial biomass (Gonsiorczyk et al., 1998l; Pettersson, 2001) available in water-logged condition of mangrove sediment. In the studied river, the mean of loosely-sorbed P were among the lowest among the five P fractions. This distribution is similar to research done to Yangtze River area in China (Shengrui et al., 2006). The highest loosely-sorbed P was observed in Station 4 and 5. The concentration of P is decreasing towards the river mouth at Station 1. It was reported by Pulatsu and Topcu (2009) that the porewater soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) is known as good indicator to determine eutrophic level of lake system. It is not known whether it can be a good indicator for river system with complex water dynamicity, in this study. This fraction was determined to extract P bound to metal hydroxides or oxides which was mainly Fe and Al. The metals are exchangeable with –OH anion of organic ligand and inorganic P compound soluble in bases. The phosphorus available in this fraction was an indicator for algal reproduction (Zhou et al., 2001). Acknowledgment This study was jointly supported by the Research University Grant Scheme (RUGS) (Project No.: 03-01-11-1155RU) awarded by Universiti Putra Malaysia, the Fundamental research Grant Scheme (FRGS) awarded by the Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education (Project No. FRGS/1/11/ST/UPM/02/12; Vot no. FRGS 5524152) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Asian CORE Program). References Chao, W., Jin, Q., Zhi-yong, G., Li, Z. and Xiao-chen, L. (2008). Vertical distributions of phosphorus fractions in sediments of three typical shallow urban lakes in P.R. China. Polish J. Environ. Stud. 17(1): 155- 162. 36
  38. 38. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Wu, F.C. Qing, H.R. and Wan, G.J. (2001). Regeneration of N, P, and Si near the sediment/ water interface of lakes from south-western China plateau. J. Wat. Res. 35 (5): 1334. Conley, D.J., Paerl, H.W., Howarth, R.W., Boesch, D.F., Seitzinger, S.P., Havens, K.E., Lancelot, C. and Likens, G.E. (2009). Controlling eutrophication: Nitrogen and phosphorus. Science. 323: 1014-1015. Han, L., Huang, S., Stanley, C.D. and Osborne, T.Z. (2011). Phosphorus fractionation in core sediments from Haihe River mainstream, China. Soil. Sediment. Contam. 20(1): 30-53. Pulatsu, S. and Topcu, A. (2009). Seasonal and vertical distribution of porewater phosphorus and iron concentration in a macrophyte-dominated eutrophic lake. J. Environ. Biol. 30(5): 801-806. Shengrui, W., Xiangcan, J., Haichao, Z. and Fengchang, W. (2006). Phosphorus fractions and its release in the sediments from the shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River area in China. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects. 273: 109-116. 37
  39. 39. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Variations of selected in situ surface water parameters in Langat River Wong Koe Wei1, Yap Chee Kong1,*, Rosimah Nulit1, Ahmad Zaharin Aris2 and Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah3 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 3Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: yapckong@hotmail.com Abstract Surface water samples were measured (between April 2012-March 2013) in situ for temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH in three geographical sampling sites along Langat River. Twenty two sampling sites were included in the present study namely Pangsun (8 subsites), Semenyih (8 subsites) and Kajang (6 subsites). These sites included an upstream remote village at Pangsun, an recreational area at Semenyih and a busy township at Kajang. The ranges (minimum- maximum) of the water parameters in all the samples were 24.89-30.88°C for temperature, for 1.8-321 μS/cm for EC, 0.00-0.14 ppt for salinity, 1.12-7.68 mg/L for DO and 5.09-7.16 for pH. When compared to sites at Semenyih and Pangsun, sampling site at Kajang showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher values of conductivity and salinity and a significantly (p<0.05) lower DO level. This condition could be due to the Kajang site receiving more anthropogenic inputs with a mixture of urban wastes and land-based activities. Our findings also indicated that conductivity and DO can be used as direct and simple indicators of water quality deterioration at Langat River. Lastly, Kajang area should be given priority in future experimental ecotoxicological studies. Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters, pH, DO, salinity, conductivity. Introduction Langat River is a river in Selangor. The Langat River is 120 km long and originates from the Titiwangsa Range in Gunung Nuang. It drains westward to the Straits of Malacca. The major tributaries of Langat River are the Sungai Semenyih and Sungai Labu. The water flows from 38
  40. 40. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 the upstream area in Hulu Langat to Kuala Selangor at the downstream area where the Langat River becomes the main river in the basin which flows in southwest direction and drains into the Straits of Malacca. The river basin has an area of about 2423 m 2 (Azrina et al., 2006). Due to the river’s importance, there is necessity to constantly monitor the water quality of this important river. Water Quality Index (WQI) has been adopted as a major mean of water quality assessment in Malaysia (DOE, 2011). By Malaysian Standard by DOE (2011), the physico-chemical parameter like Dissolved Oxygen (DO, mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, mg/L), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (mg/L), Total suspended solid (TSS, mg/L) and pH level. This standard employed by Malaysia ignored the electrical conductivity of water which is known to be related to dissolved ions which may contain harmful heavy metal pollutants. BOD and COD are definitely relevant for the WQI, but it is time consuming to determine and requiring laboratory study respectively, therefore, it is recommended that a field ready water quality assessment should be developed with minimal laboratory study needed throughout the assessment therefore can be measured in situ by personnel with minimal training or even by automated probe. For this study, water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity, salinity and pH were chosen based on their ability to be determined in situ and their theoretical relationship with the water pollution. The objective of this study is to assess the pollution level of Langat River by comparing the EC, Salinity, DO and pH between sites studied. Materials and Methods The physico-chemical parameters were recorded in situ from 3 sites along Langat River namely Pangsun (8 subsites), Semenyih (8 subsites) and Kajang (6 subsites). Triplicates of each parameters namely temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, dissolved oxygen level (DO), and pH of the river water were measured by YSI 556 MPS handheld multiparameter instrument in situ. The replication of measurements were done by measuring the selected parameters by choosing different location at the same site to allow the measurement to be representative to the whole volume of water at the site. To ensure that the measurement of the multiparameter instrument is correct and accurate, calibration were done every time before the field trip were commenced, and its accuracy ensured by testing the probe with solution with known value of each parameters. Besides, the mean of the replicates were used for data analysis to increase accuracy. 39
  41. 41. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Results and Discussion Table 1: Comparisons of values (mean ± SE) in surface water parameters among the three sampling sites on Langat River. Temp (°C) pH 27.42 ± 0.313 0.05 ± 0.009 0.01 ± 0.001 6.49 ± 0.235 6.22 ± 0.069 (31-144.5) (0.01-0.075) (4.17-7.68) (5.68-6.69) 29.23 ± 0.189 0.03 ± 0.014 0.02 ± 0.005 6.95 ± 0.106 5.90 ± 0.076 (1.8-216) (0-0.09) (6.09-7.57) (5.09-6.45) 29.55 ± 0.349 0.19 ± 0.015 0.08 ± 0.008 3.35 ± 0.397 6.74 ± 0.156 (27.8-30.88) Kajang DO (mg/L) (27.42-30.05) Semenyih Sal (ppt) (24.89-28.93) Pangsun Cond (mS/cmc) (87-321) (0.03-0.14) (1.12-5.88) (5.61-7.16) Note: Letters which appear differently are significantly different (P< 0.05).Temp= temperature; Cond = conductivity; Sal = salinity; DO = dissolved oxygen. The physico-chemical parameters as shown in Table 1 that ranged from 24.89-30.88°C for temperature; 1.8-321 μS/cm for EC ; Salinity 0.00- 0.14ppt for Salinity; 1.12-7.68 mg/L for DO and 5.09- 7.16 for pH. The lowest temperature was found at Pangsun as the sampling area was shaded by trees and bamboo grove at the bank in contrast with the Semenyih and Kajang site which are lack of shading trees nearby and therefore their surface water temperature are higher. The temperature of water of all three sites were fluctuating between 24.89ºC and 30.88ºC and it didn’t show any increasing or decreasing trend from upstream to downstream. Our finding are in agreement with Lim et al. (2013) which they studied the same Langat River but more focusing on midstream to downstream area, their finding (temperature range: 26.80-29.90ºC) also shows that the downstream of this river also maintaining similar temperature range like upper stream. Previous study in year 1997 (Yap et al., 2011) on Semenyih River (temperature range: 26.0-29.5ºC), a contributory of this Langat River shows that the temperature of this river has not increase in the past decade. These finding showed that the temperature range of this study are normal, and this might mean the absence of thermal pollution of the area studied in this study. Compared to other parameters studied, the temperature is not as significant as others, evidenced by the fact that temperature are not included in both WHO and Malaysia DOE consideration in water quality, but it has a profound effect on the solubility of nearly every substances, therefore it is directly affecting other parameters such as electrical conductivity, salinity, DO and even pH. Throughout the course of Langat River from upstream to downstream, the EC and salinity are generally lower in Pangsun and Semenyih site than Kajang site. The higher conductivity and salinity at Kajang site could be possibly due to higher anthropogenic inputs discharged. This is in agreement with those reported by Kalff (2002) and Henriksen (1980) that the anthropogenic activities contributed to major of ionic composition at Rhine River. Higher in 40
  42. 42. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 EC as well as salinity means the increase of overall dissolved ions, be it natural input or anthropogenic input of ions. However, sudden increase of EC and salinity may be indicative of the presence of anthropogenic input of pollutants. According to Chapman (1996), the EC of most freshwaters ranges from 10 to 1000 µS/cm. But if the water is polluted or receiving significant amount of land run-off, it may exceed 1000 µS/cm. The range of the electrical conductivity measured is 1.8-321 μS/cm, where the highest value was measured in Kajang. But the EC value never exceed the 10 to 1000 µS/cm normal value mentioned by Chapman (1996) indicated that although Kajang was more polluted when compared with Pangsun and Semenyih, it still cannot be considered as severely polluted area considering its freshwater nature. The measurements of DO are generally decreasing from upstream (Pangsun and Semenyih) to downstream sites (Kajang) were found to be generally lower in Kajang. The lowest was found in Kajang (1.12 mg/L) and the highest value was found in Pangsun (7.68mg/L). Chapman (1996) also stated that the DO concentration below 5 mg/L may cause adverse effect on the functioning and survival of a aquatic biological community and any DO below 2.0mg/L may be fatal to most fish. For Chapman (1996) standard, all of the DO measurement in Pangsun and Semenyih site are well above the level of 5 mg/L and it show that these two sites can be considered free of pollution. However, the DO measurement of Kajang sites shows worrying trend that the DO levels in Kajang site are not only consistently lower than Pangsun and Semenyih site, but also lower than 5mg/L DO limit set by Chapman (1996), indicating that the life under Kajang section of Langat River may be suffocated. The lowest mark (DO=1.12mg/L) was obtained from KJ120727, as compared with the water temperature of that particular sampling at Kajang was high as compared with other sampling attempts. The EC and salinity are especially high as well. World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) that suggest that pH of drinking water usually falls in the range of 6.5 to 8.5, this range of pH also been adopted by Malaysia as one of the requirement for Class I water in malaysia. In this study, all the pH readings taken were within the range of 5.09-7.16 and the mean was 6.23. This result showed that the mean of pH level in Langat River was fell within the range of Class I water according to Malaysian Standard (DOE, 2012) and drinking water standard by WHO (2011), but a minor off limit of its lower range from the standard indicates that the river water are slightly more acidic than the standards (WHO, 2011; DOE, 2012). Malaysian Standard wise, While it not totally fulfilled the pH standard of Class I water (pH 6.5-8.5), Class IIA and Class IIB (pH 6-9), The Class III pH requirement (pH 5-9) were fulfilled. In conclusion, the present finding indicated that EC and DO can be used direct and simple indicators of water quality deterioration at Langat River. Lastly, Kajang are should be given priority in future experimental ecotoxicological studies. 41
  43. 43. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Acknowledgement Participation in FSC2013 was funded by Vot no. RUGS 9199849 References Azrina M.Z., Yap C.K., Rahim Ismail A., Ismail A., Tan S.G. 2006. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64:337–347. Chapman D. Water Quality Assessments - A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring, Second Edition. UNESCO/WHO/UNEP. 1996. DOE, Malaysia. Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2011. Publication section, Strategic communication division, Department of Environment. 2011. Henriksen, A. 1980. Acidification of freshwater – a large scale titration. Pp. 68-74. In D Drabløs, and A. Tollan (eds.) Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation. SNSF-Project #1432, Oslo. Kalff, J. 2002. Limnology, inland water ecosystem. Prentice-Hall Inc. pp 219. Lim W.Y., Aris A.Z., Tengku Ismail T.H., Zakaria M.P. 2013. Elemental hydrochemistry assessment on its variation and quality status in Langat River, Western Peninsular Malaysia. Environ Earth Sci DOI 10.1007/s12665-012-2189-7. WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, fourth edition. World Health Organization. 2011. Yap C.K. and Rahim Ismail A. 2011. Relationships of Distribution of Macrobenthic Invertebrates and the Physico-chemical Parameters from Semenyih River by Using Correlation and Multiple Linear Stepwise Regression Analyses. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 34 (2): 229 – 245. 42
  44. 44. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Accumulation of lithogenic and non-lithogenic heavy metals in paddy soils of Kelantan during plowing season Sow Ai Yin, Ahmad Ismail* and Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: aismail@science.upm.edu.my Abstract Excessive application of agrochemical fertilizers and pesticides onto paddy fields system could cause great concern toward human health and life styles. To maintain a good quality, better crop performance, and controlling population of pest organisms in agricultural areas, farmers were likely to apply a large amount of agrochemical fertilizers and pesticides in the paddy cultivation areas. Hence, the main objective in this study is to investigate the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in the paddy soil. Soil samples collected were treated with sequential extraction technique to distinguish the non-lithogenic and lithogenic origin of heavy metals. Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb were found highest in the resistant fraction thus showing that most of these metals were in unavailable form. The lowest accumulation was observed in ELFE and oxidisable-organic fractions in Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb respectively. This situation reflected that the applications of agrochemical fertilizers and pesticides have not elevated the concentrations of heavy metals in the paddy soils. However, the enrichment factors for Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb showed that the levels of heavy metals may exert an environmental risk. Therefore, continuous and regular monitoring should be conducted for food security purpose. Keywords: accumulation, non-lithogenic, lithogenic, heavy metals, paddy soils. Introduction Majority of paddy cultivation areas in located in Kelantan are under Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (Kemubu). Kelantan is well known as one of the major rice producers in Malaysia, second after Kedah. Paddy is staple food around the world which supplies the energy sources to human beings which commonly could be found in paddy fields. Apart of paddy, many living organisms particularly small fishes, paddy eels and apple snails inhabit the paddy fields as their habitats. In order to produce large amounts of rice, there are four stages involved in a paddy cycle, which are plowing, seedling, growing and harvesting seasons. In Malaysia, the most common practised by farmers involves the tillage of flooded soil (puddling), followed by rice transplantation or scattering of seed and growing the crop in a 43
  45. 45. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 submerged environment from crop establishment to close to harvest (Gong, 1983; Sahrawat, 2005). Today, many farmers have applied different agrochemical fertilizers and pesticides to make sure their crops in better condition withstand disease infection and produce more yields. Subsequently, this situation may let to the severe accumulation of pollutants especially heavy metals into the paddy soil. In addition, the paddy eel and other aquatic living organisms might be affected and contaminated by heavy metals. In paddy soil, the heavy metals are likely to bind to the various components of the soil like Fe-Mn-oxyhydrates, carbonates, clay minerals, sulphides, and organic or biological substances (Khairiah et al., 2009a). Sequential extraction procedure was applied in this study to investigate the mobility and bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb collected from paddy cultivation areas of Kelantan. The data obtained could be beneficial to the human beings toward the accumulation of heavy metals in paddy soil and living organisms which could cause a great concern to them potentially. Material and Methods Table 1 A comparison of certified value (PACS-2) of Pb, Cd, Ni , Zn, and Cu with measured value (µg•g-1 dw). Element Certified Value (a) Measured Value (b) Pb Cd Ni Zn Cu 183.00 ± 8.00 2.11 ± 0.15 39.50 ± 2.30 364 ± 23 310 ± 0.15 181.30 ± 4.61 2.88 ± 0.08 35.12 ± 0.83 274.92 ± 0.12 262.17 ± 0.11 Percentage of recovery (b/a) 98.91 136.49 88.91 75.53 84.57 The study areas were conducted in paddy fields, located in Kelantan with the coordinate of N06º08.454’ E102º8.430’ for March and N06º08.558’ E102º8.344’ for April. The soil samples were collected by using a plastic scoop and directly transferred into a polyethylene plastic bag. All collected samples were transported to the laboratory and stored in the freezer at ultra low temperature (-20ºC). Prior to analysis, the soils were dried for at least 5 to 7 days at 60ºC until a constant weight is obtained. Afterwards, the soil sample was ground by using mortar and pestle and sieved through 63 µm size stainless steel sieve and shaken vigorously to produce homogeneity. In order to obtain the geochemical fraction of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb, the paddy soil was extracted based on modified Sequential Extraction Technique as described by (Badri and Aston, 1983). For the accuracy, all glassware used was acid-washed and rinsed many times in order to avoid possible contamination. The quality of the analysis applied to sample was checked with a certified reference material for soil (PACS-2) as shown in Table 1. In this study, enrichment factor (EF) was used to estimate the degree of metals enrichment in the soils (Huu and Damme, 2010). Therefore, the EF of heavy metals presence in the paddy soil was calculated by using below formula: 44
  46. 46. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Result In this study, the accumulation of heavy metals in paddy soil on March was abundant in resistant fraction, which reflected the highest accumulation of Pb (77.48±3.97 µg/g), followed by Zn (46.40±1.46 µg/g) and the lowest was found in Cd (0.70±0.08 µg/g). The others 2 metals which are Ni and Cu in resistant fraction were 14.34±1.16 µg/g and 19.00±1.21 µg/g respectively. Pb, Ni and Cu were found low in oxidisable-organic fraction and EFLE respectively. Similarly, the results obtained on April showed that, the resistant fractions gave relatively higher levels of Pb (41.01±3.48 µg/g), Cd (0.83±0.19 µg/g), Ni (11.96±0.75 µg/g), Zn (52.33±3.97 µg/g) and Cu (15.76±2.02 µg/g) in paddy soil than the bioavailable form (EFLE, acid-reducible, and oxidisable-organic fractions). However, the lowest accumulations of heavy metals were recorded in Pb (3.86±0.91 µg/g), Cd (0.04±0.01 µg/g), Ni (0.20±0.10 µg/g), and Cu (0.13±0.06 µg/g) were detected in the acid-reducible fraction except Zn metal which 1.55±0.49 µg/g. Enrichment factor (EF) of paddy soil for March and April’s plowing season were Pb (2.85), Cd (16.04), Ni (0.30), Zn (0.67) and Cu (0.70) and Pb (2.74), Cd (5.63), Ni (0.15), Zn (0.54) and Cu (0.60) respectively. Discussion The highest accumulation of Pb in paddy soil was in resistant fraction on March and April. The finding was similar with the study did by Khairiah et al. (2009a) on heavy metals in Felda Chini soil. Besides, the low distribution of anthropogenic sources might be another factor. In addition, Cd showed the highest in resistant fraction on March and April, thus, indicate that, the paddy soil of Tumpat, Kelantan was naturally rich with Cd element. Similar to Pb and Cd, Ni also showed the same pattern, which highest in resistant. The low accumulation of Ni was in acid-reducible and EFLE fractions for both months, thus reporting the low Ni concentration in lithogenic form. Khariah et al. (2009c) reported that, Ni was found undetected in the non-lithogenic form. For Zn, the accumulation was high in resistant fraction, thus contributing to the high in lithogenic form than non-lithogenic form. Based on Habibah et al. (2011), Zn accumulation was found to be high in lithogenic fraction. However, the low Zn concentrations showed the application of pesticides and fertilizers would not elevate the Zn levels in paddy soil. Cu was found high in oxidisable-organic fraction and lithogenic fraction on March and April respectively. According to Adriano (1986), there is a strong relationship between soil Cu and the organic fraction. The present of high Cu in lithogenic fraction explained that Cu mainly rich in paddy soil of Tumpat, Kelantan. 45
  47. 47. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 The low accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in EFLE, acid-reducible and oxidisableorganic fraction showed the low input of anthropogenic sources into paddy soil. The EF value showed the levels of heavy metals studied ranged from unpolluted of Cd < moderately polluted (Pb, Ni and Cu) < heavily polluted (Zn). Conclusion All selected heavy metals were not bioavailable for accumulation because they exist mostly in lithogenic form. However, continuous and regular monitoring should be conducted to prevent any heavy metals toxicity to human health. Acknowledgement This study was supported by the Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS) Project No: ERGS/1-2012/5527109) awarded by the Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). Reference Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer-Verlag, New York. Badri MA. & Aston SR (1983) Observations on heavy metal geochemical associations in polluted and non-polluted estuarine sediments. Environ Pollut (Series B) 6:181-193. Gong ZT (1983) Pedogenesis of paddy soil and its significance in soil classification. Soil Sci 135: 5-10. Habibah J, Lee PT, Khairiah J, Ahmad-Mahir R, Fouzi BA & Ismail BS (2011) Speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils from selected areas in Kedah and Penang, Malaysia. African J. of Biotech 10(62):13505-13513. Huu, H.H., Rudy, S. and Damme, A.V. (2010). Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cau Ong harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geologica. Belgica., 13(1-20): 37-47. Khairiah J, Habibah J, Ahmad Mahir R, Maimon A, Aminah A & Ismail BS (2009a) Studies on heavy metal deposits in soils from selected agricultural areas of Malaysia. Advances in Environ Biol 3(3): 329-336. Khairiah J, Habibah J, Anizan I, Maimon A & Ismail BS (2009b) Content of heavy metals in soil collected from selected paddy cultivation areas in Kedah and Perlis, Malaysia. J of Applied Sci Res 5(12):2179-2188. 46
  48. 48. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Khairiah J, Ding-Woei Y, Habibah J, Amad-Mahir R, Aminah A & Ismail BS (2009c) Concentration of heavy metals in Guava plant parts and soil in the Sungai Wangi plantation, Perak, Malaysia. Inter J of Agri Res 4(10): 310-316. Sahrawat KL (2005) Fertility and organic matter in submerged rice soils. Current Sci 88:735739. 47
  49. 49. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Effects of selected personal care products (PCPs) to the early development stage of Java medaka (Oryzias javanicus) Ahmad Ismail*, Syazana Mohamad Isa and Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding author: aismail@science.upm.edu.my Abstract This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of selected personal care products (PCPs) in different concentrations to the early stage development of Java medaka. The active ingredient which is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) was chosen specifically to be tested on the testing organism. Java medaka has been used as the experimental tool because it is easy to maintain in laboratory and has short life span. The PCPs ranging from 0.2ml to 20ml, and each were diluted in 20ml of aged tap water. Ten eggs of F1 generation were exposed in each concentration in different Petri dishes. The abnormalities were observed every day. Early results had shown that all of the PCPs concentrations were lethal to the Java medaka eggs as none of them managed to survive and hatched. At low concentrations which were 0.2ml to 0.8ml of PCPs, the eggs shrunk with protruding structure and darker colouration. At medium concentrations which were 1ml to 4ml of PCPs, the results were similar to the low concentrations. At high concentrations which were 5ml to 20ml of PCPs, the eggs were completely shrunk and the colour was brighter than the ones in low and medium concentrations. This shows that PCPs exposure has lethal effects even to the early stage development of Java medaka. Further research using lower concentrations of PCPs will be done to get better insight or view on the effects of PCPs to the early life stage of Java medaka. Keywords: Java medaka, personal care products (PCPs), development. Introduction The finding of abundant personal care products (PCPs) in our environment has drawn attention and public awareness because of their potential negative impacts on public health and also ecological (Halling-Sorensen et al., 1997; Kummerer, 2001). There were numerous studies have been done and researchers found that several of PCPs exist in surface water and wastewater (Kasprzyk-Hordern et al., 2008; Kosma et al., 2010). Personal care products (PCPs) are a various group of compounds used in toothpaste, fragrances, soaps, lotions, detergents and many more. If pharmaceuticals are made for internal use, PCPs are products made for external use on the human body and therefore, PCPs 48
  50. 50. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 are not subjected to metabolic alterations. Thus, enormous quantities of PCPs go into the environment unaltered through regular usage (Ternes et al., 2004). A lot of of these compounds are used in huge quantities, and recent studies show loads of PCPs are actually environmentally persistent, bioactive, and possible for bioaccumulation (Mackay and Barnthouse, 2010). Bio-monitoring is a research which studies and analyzes the tissues of living organisms to identify and assess the exposure of chemicals either natural and synthetic or man-made. Java medaka (Oryzias javanicus) has been proposed as a new marine test fish for ecotoxicology a few years ago by Koyama et al., (2008). Koyama has stated that Java medaka is a good test organism because they are easy to maintain in the laboratory, have low mortality at early stages, they usually takes only 100 days or 3 month to mature from hatching, have high adaptability to different salinities, they can be used not only for short term toxicity test, but also for early life stage toxicity tests and also have relatively high sensitive to endocrine disrupting chemicals (Imai et al., 2005). For this study, we choose to use Java medaka as my bio-monitoring agent based on their abilities and suitable characteristics for this experiment. My objectives for this study are  To assess the effects of different concentrations of PCPs to early development of Java medaka’s embryo.  To study the effects of different concentrations of PCPs to juvenile Java medaka.  To determine potential risk of PCPs release into aquatic environments. Materials and Methods The testing organisms which are Java medaka were collected from the specific river (e.g: Linggi river) and were cultured in the aquarium in fresh water condition which is 0.00ppt. The eggs were separated from the female Medakas by using forceps and then surface sterilized were done by using a mixture of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2H2O, MgSO47H2O and methylene blue for 5 min. A control condition was made at 0.00 ppt fresh water without any addition of PCPs. Few PCPs were selected (eg: shampoo, shower foam, facial foam, detergent) prior to the most used brand of PCPs in our society nowadays. After the selection, the PCPs were diluted and few concentrations of PCPs were made ranging from 0.2ml to 20.0ml. These concentrated PCPs were introduced into Petri dishes filled with 10 eggs of F 1 generation of Java medaka. Exposures were done under semi-static system where the test solutions were renewed every 24 hours. Observations on the development of the embryos were made every 24 hours using stereomicroscope. 49
  51. 51. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Results and Discussions After the exposure of Java medaka to the different concentration of PCPs, different concentrations give different kind of effects to the eggs. Early results had shown that all of the PCPs concentrations were lethal to the Java medaka eggs as none of them managed to survive and hatched. At low concentrations which were 0.2ml to 0.8ml of PCPs, the eggs shrunk with protruding structure and darker colouration. At medium concentrations which were 1ml to 4ml of PCPs, the results were similar like the low concentrations. At high concentrations which were 5ml to 20ml of PCPs, the eggs were completely shrunk and the colour was brighter than the ones in low and medium concentrations. This shows that PCPs exposure has lethal effects even to the early stage development of Java medaka. The eggs shrunk may be caused by the hypertonic environment of the PCPs concentration, thus drawing water and solvent from the eggs out. Previous study from some researchers suggest that normal incubation period for the embryos is about 12–14 days. However, embryos that took more than 15 days to hatch are considered to be slow developing embryo. Other than that, premature hatching happens when hatching occurs before the 12th day. The exposure will cause premature hatch for the eggs, and after hatching, they are most probably die after few days. Meanwhile, for Java medaka’s eggs in control condition, they were healthy and had normal growth. These eggs managed to hatch and survived. Acknowledgement I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Ahmad Ismail who acts as a pillar to this research and for his endless brilliant ideas to help me to conduct this experiment. I would also show my gratitude to Dr. Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli for his kindness in guiding me throughout this research. Thank you to all the lecturers, staffs, and fellow researchers in Biology Department, University Putra Malaysia who have been very helpful to me. Participation in FSC2013 was funded by Vot no. RUGS 9199763 References: Halling-Sorensen, B., Nielsen, S.N., Lanzky, P.F., Ingerslev, F., Lutzhft, H.C.H., Jorgensen, S.E. (1997). Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment – a review. Chemosphere Vol 36, pp: 357–393. Imai, S., Koyama, J., and Fujii, K. (2005). Effects of 17β-estradiol on the reproduction of Javamedaka (Oryzias javanicus), a new test fish species, Marine Pollution Buletin. Vol 51, pp: 708–714. 50
  52. 52. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M., Guwy, A. J. (2008). The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Res. Vol 42 (13), pp: 3498-3518. Kosma, C. I., Lambropoulou, D. A., Albanis, T. A. (2010). Occurrence and removal of PPCPs in municipal and hospital wastewaters in Greece. J. Hazard. Mater. 179 (1e3), 804e817. Koyama J., Kawamata, M., Imai, S., Fukonaga, F., Uno, S., Kakuno. A. (2008). Java Medaka: A Proposed New Marine Test Fish for Ecotoxicology. Environmental Toxicology Vol 23, pp: 487-491. Kummerer, K. (2001). Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals in relation to other sources – a review. Chemosphere Vol 45, pp: 957–969. Mackay, D., Barnthouse, L., (2010). Integrated risk assessment of household chemicals and consumer products: addressing concern about triclosan. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manage. Vol 6, pp: 390–392. Ternes, T. A., Joss, A., Siegrist, H.( 2004). Scrutinizing pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol 38, pp: 392A–399A. 51
  53. 53. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 2013 20th – 21st August 2013 Transport of sex pheromone component in male Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, following pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol, a plantderived potent attractant Hiap Wei Wei* and Alvin Hee Kah Wei Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan. *Corresponding author: wwei_hiap@yahoo.com Abstract Males of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are highly attracted to and compulsively feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a highly potent male attractant found as a component of essential oil in more than 480 plant species from 80 families. Following feeding, ME is biotransformed to a male sex pheromonal component, (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF) that is stored in the rectal gland prior to release during courtship. However, it is unclear on how CF is transported to the rectal gland of ME-fed male B. carambolae. In addition, there is also insufficient information on the temporal changes in the amount of CF in haemolymph of ME-fed B. carambolae males. Current results of this work showed that CF is detected in haemolymph of male B. carambolae almost immediately after ME feeding. This suggested that CF is rapidly transported from the crop, to the rectal gland of ME-fed males via the haemolymph. Highest amount of CF was detected in the haemolymph at 3 hours after ME feeding and it decreased thereafter. It is further suggested that CF is probably transported continually to the rectal gland of ME-fed male flies until ME as the pheromone precursor is completely metabolized. These findings demonstrated the unique phenomenon of sex pheromone transport in males of B. carambolae following pharmacophagy of ME. Keywords: Bactrocera carambolae, (E)-coniferyl alcohol, sex pheromone, haemolymph, transport. Introduction The carambola fruit fly (CFF), Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is ubiquitous and found readily throughout Southeast Asia, particularly Brunei, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (Clarke et al., 2005). This species has been recognised as a rapidly spreading invasive species causing great damage to agricultural and horticultural production (Clarke et al., 2005). It has a wide host range of 52

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