SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 65
PHILOSOPHY,
EVOLUTION AND
HISTORY OF
NATUROPATHIC
DIET
DR. SHRUTI BAID
MD. NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
JR1
W H AT I S N AT U R O PAT H I C
M E D I C I N E ?
Naturopathic medicine is a unique
system of primary health care in that it
is not limited to a single modality of
healing and cannot be identified with
any one therapeutic approach.
Naturopathic medicine incorporates
many complementary medical
approaches to treatment.
Practitioners combine the art and
science of medicine, using traditional
forms of healing and modern scientific
knowledge to treat and prevent illness.
Smith MJ, Logan AC. Naturopathy. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Jan;86(1):173-84. doi: 10.1016/s0025-7125(03)00079-8. PMID:
CONCEPT OF HEALTH
Sama dosha sama agnishcha samadhatu mala kriyaaha |
Prasanna atma mana indriyaha swastha iti abhidheeyate ||
||Sushruta Samhita 1. 2||
“Health is a state where in the Tridosha, Digestive fire, all the body tissues &
components, all the physiological processes are in perfect unison and the soul, the
sense organs and mind are in a state of total satisfaction (prasanna) & content”
Naturopathy believes that health is a state when all the systems of body are
functioning optimally, when the blood is free from toxins and toxin producing
pathogens and the vitality is such that the individual possesses the capacity to get rid
of pathogens & toxins naturally without use of external aids like medicines.
https://www.ijcrt.org/papers/IJPUB1703001.pdf
TO X A E M I A : A S T H E
R E A L D I S E A S E
Toxemia is the morbid state of blood and tissues resulting
from the accumulation of un-eliminated toxins.
These toxins can be external i.e. introduced from outside like
ingested food, chemicals from pollutants or internal as a
result of our own metabolic reactions.
Toxins lead to abnormal composition of blood and lymph and
damage of organs leading to acute and chronic diseases.
According to this concept, micro-organisms are not the
primary causative agents. Diseases caused by them are only
secondary to toxemia.
Toxins can also be generated due to psychological reasons.
Toxins generated due to negative mental impulses cause
psychological imbalances and lead to endocrinal
disturbances generating physical toxins causing
psychosomatic diseases.
https://www.ijcrt.org/papers/IJPUB1703001.pdf
PRINCIPLES OF NATUROPATHY
Out of the 10 basic principles 2 principles corelate with nutritional
aspect i.e.
1. FOOD IS A BUILDING MATERAIL, BUT DOES NOT INCREASE
VITALITY
2. FASTING DOES NOT CURE ANY DISEASE BUT PROVIDES AN
OPPORTUNITY TO BODY TO HEAL ITSELF
F O O D I S A B U I L D I N G M AT E R A I L , B U T D O E S
N O T I N C R E A S E V I TA L I T Y
• Food, after all, is a powerless substance to build flesh, blood, bones, and
nerves.
• Only a living breathing organism can convert it into a living tissue. Food is
subordinate to life, to the force inherent in every living creature.
• “it is this mysterious life force that decides which and how much of foods
supplied to the body, shall be built up into body tissues” is a quotation that
suggests that it is the body, not food, which is more important.
• When food is not digested properly it is fermented and decomposed and
resulting in disease
Title and author Journal and year Conclusion
Macronutrient balance
and micronutrient
amounts through growth
and development.
Savarino G
Italian Journal of Pediatrics
2021 May 8
• Both macronutrients and
micronutrients are essential
for children’s nutrition in
proper amounts and
balance.
• The main macronutrients are
proteins, carbohydrates, and
lipids, but also fibers and
liquid intake are important.
• Also, micronutrients are
essential: the lack of even
one of them can have
impairing growth, delaying
maturation, or determining
deficiency diseases
FA S T I N G D O E S N O T C U R E A N Y D I S E A S E B U T
P R O V I D E S A N O P P O R T U N I T Y T O B O D Y T O
H E A L I T S E L F
• The term fasting, implies total or partial abstinence from food or water for
several reasons.
Therapeutic fasting by Arnold Devries
Fasting conserves energy- the body’s vital force
When we eat food as it passes through the body, it must be masticated,
digested, and assimilated, and then the waste is eliminated.
We have 4 organs of elimination- bowel, kidneys, lungs, and skin, for these
organs to work perfectly, the body must build high vital force.
So by just abstaining from food or water we can conserve our vital force
The miracle of fasting by Bragg
Title and author Journal and year conclusion
Fasting as a Therapy
in Neurological
Disease
Phillips MCL
Nutrients.
2019 Oct 17
fasting is a simple, multi-
targeted, and essentially
“metabolic” therapy with
a healthy track record for
treating a variety of
neurological diseases.
PHILOSOPHY OF PANCHATANTRA
3 main principles are:-
1. Two meals in a day
2. Fast once a week
3. Drink plenty of water in a day
TWO MEALS IN A DAY
Title and author Journal and
year
Conclusion
Eating two larger meals a
day (breakfast and lunch)
is more effective than six
smaller meals in a
reduced-energy regimen
for patients with type 2
diabetes: a randomized
crossover study
Kahleova H, et al
Diabetology
2014 Aug
• Hypo energetic diet (a restriction of
2,092 kJ/day) consumed as breakfast
and lunch reduced body weight, HFC,
fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide and
glucagon, and increased calculated
insulin sensitivity (OGIS), more six,
more frequent, meals.
• These results suggest that eating two
larger meals a day (breakfast and
lunch) may be more beneficial for
patients with type 2 diabetes than six
smaller meals during the day.
FAST ONCE A WEEK
Title and author Journal and year Conclusion
Health Benefits of Fasting
and Caloric Restriction
Golbidi S, Daiber A, Korac B,
Li H, Essop MF, Laher I.
Current Diabetes
reports
2017
Fasting or periodic calorie
restriction also prevents
unwanted effects of chronic
energy restriction such as
malnutrition. Intermittent
fasting, by acting as acute
intermittent stressor,
activates stress-response
pathways that lead to
improvement in well-being.
DRINK PLENTY OF WATER IN A DAY
Title and author Journal and year Conclusion
Water as an essential nutrient:
the physiological basis of
hydration
Jéquier E, Constant F.
European Journal of Clinical
Nutrition
2010
Water, a vital nutrient, has
numerous critical roles in the
human body. Its balance is very
essential for the maintenance of
health and life.
On an average, a sedentary adult
should drink 1.5 l of water per day,
as water is the only liquid nutrient
that is really essential for body
hydration and is vital for the body to
function properly.
CONCEPT OF DIET IN NATUROPATHY
Diet (Aahar) is an important component of
naturopathic plan of disease management.
Right food is so much important to health as
per the belief of naturopathy that it is often
regarded as medicine.
Naturopathy insists that our food must be as
natural as possible. It is also believed that food
should be produced under natural condition
and consumed in natural form without being
altered by man.
Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
According to Naturopathy, accumulation of
waste and systemic poison is the cause of
the majority of disease arising within the
human organisms.
Naturopathy aims to reduce these foods in
the natural dietary and to increase the
purifying and eliminating dietary and to
increase the purifying and eliminating fruits
and vegetables. Diet therapy is both an art
and a science.
It aims to encourages that to remain
healthy the food item must contain 80%
alkaline and 20% acidic substance.
Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
Therefore, the quality of food has
much to do with the quality of the
world.
Naturopathy diet is broadly
classified into 3-
• Eliminative diet
• Soothing diet
• Constructive diet
It also believes that ‘food has a great influence on the mind
because everything we eat and drink is transported by the
blood which sustains the nervous system’.
Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
1 . E L I M I N AT I V E D I E T
Dietary item beneficial in the cleansing of the system comes
under eliminative diet.
During the first stage of treatment eliminative diet pattern is
followed which encourages the detoxification of the body by
eliminating the matter and toxins from the system by way of
activating the eliminative organs.
Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
F O O D S O U R C E F O R E L I M I N AT I V E D I E T
• Citric juices
• Lemon water
• Tender coconut water
• Fibrous rich fruits and
vegetables (banana, guava
etc)
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Results
Role of Citrus Fruit
Juices in Prevention of
Kidney Stone Disease
(KSD): A Narrative
Review
Yazeed
Barghouthy 1, Bhaskar K
Somani
Nutrients. 2021 Nov; Review paper • orange juice seems to
play a protective role
against stone
formation,
• Grapefruit was found to
raise the risk of KSD in
epidemiological studies
but had a protective role
in smaller clinical
studies.
• Lemon juice had a
smaller protective role
than orange juice.
Title and Author Journal and
year
Intervention Results
Orange juice
intake by obese
and insulin-
resistant
subjects lowers
specific plasma
triglycerides: A
randomized
clinical trial
Karina Gama Dos
Santos
Clinical
Nutrition
ESPEN
. 2022 Oct
400 ml of
orange juice for
15 days
To 25 patients
aged between
40 to 60 yrs
with obesity and
insulin
resistance.
• After the 15-d intervention, a
significant decrease was
observed in the diastolic blood
pressure and blood lipid profile.
• A strong inter-individual trend was
observed, wherein, compared with
less responsive subjects, the high
responsive subjects displayed the
highest decrease in the
concentrations of altered TG
species, as as well as systolic
blood pressure (decrease of
10.3 ± 6.8 mmHg) and body weight
(decrease of 0.67 ± 0.71 kg).
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result
Randomised clinical
trial: mixed
soluble/insoluble fibre
vs. psyllium for chronic
constipation
A Erdogan , S S C Rao
Alimentary
Pharmacology and
Therapeutics
2016 July
Seventy-two subjects
(mixed fibre = 40;
psyllium = 32) were
enrolled.
Those who were eligible
were randomized to
receive four weeks of
treatment with either 5g
of a plum-derived mixed
fiber supplement,
SupraFiber® (Sunsweet
Growers Inc., CA, USA)
dissolved in 8 oz. of
liquid or 5g of psyllium
(Organic Whole Husk
Psyllium, ORGANIC
INDIA) dissolved in 8
oz. of liquid, both twice
a day after meals.
• Mixed fibre and psyllium
were equally efficacious in
improving constipation
and QoL.
• Mixed fibre was more
effective in relieving
flatulence, bloating and
dissolved better. Mixed
fibre is effective and well
tolerated.
2 . S O O T H I N G D I E T
when the body is almost clean and detoxified, the
patients are kept on soothing diet for sometime
which is slightly filling wherein patient don’t feel as
he or she is fasting and action is not as vigorous as
eliminative diet.
Consists of simple and easy to digest foods which
are light on the stomach
• Fruits,
• Salads,
• Boiled/steamed
vegetables,
• Sprouts,
• Vegetable
soups,
• Butter milk,
• Wheat grass
juice
F O O D S O U R C E F O R
S O O T H I N G D I E T
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result
Beneficial Properties of
Probiotics
Lye Huey Shi,
Tropical Life
Science
Research.
2016 Aug
Review • One of the most known health
effects of probiotics is
preventing and improving bowel
diseases by improving the
immune system.
• Besides that, probiotics are
found to exhibit hypo
cholesterolemic effects via
cholesterol assimilation, binding
of cholesterol to cellular
surface, co-precipitation of
cholesterol, interfering with the
formation of micelle for
intestinal absorption,
deconjugation of bile acids by
BSH, and improving the lipid
profiles.
3 . C O N S T R U C T I V E D I E T
When the body is fully detoxified and patient is free of
disease condition, he is prescribed constructive diet
whereby his new blood, lymph and body cells are
building up normally.
Being alkaline, these diets help in improving health,
purifying the body and increasing immunity.
F O O D S O U R C E F O R C O N S T R U C T I V E
D I E T
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result
Quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa Willd.): An
Overview of the Potentials
of the “Golden Grain” and
Socio-Economic and
Environmental Aspects of
Its Cultivation and
Marketization
Viktória Angeli,
Foods.
2020 Feb
Review paper quinoa has an exceptional
nutritional profile due to its:
• high protein
• balanced amino acid profile
• fiber content
• range of vitamins and minerals
• antioxidants
• absence of gluten
The review indicates that quinoa
has a protein content of between
9.1–15.7 g per 100 g, depending
on where manufacturers cultivate
it.
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result
Antioxidants and Exercise
Performance: With a
Focus on Vitamin E and C
Supplementation
Madalyn Riley Higgins,
International
Journal of
Environmental
Research and
Public Health.
2020 Nov
Review A suitable source of dietary vitamin
E indicates may protect the body
against physical stress during
exercise.
HISTORY OF
NATUROPATHIC
DIET
http://thehinduforum.com/index.php?threads/hindu-quotes-on-food-hindu-quotes-on-vegetarianism.155/
Jushasva sapratastumum vacho devapsrastamum
havya juvhaana aasaani (Rigveda 1/75/1)
If you wish to achieve bodily and spiritual happiness,
then be simple in your diet, in your daily routine and
deeds and observe celibacy
Sooyavasaad bhagavati hee bhooya adha vayum bhagavantaha
syaam Addhi trunamaghnye vishwadaanim peeba
shuddhamudakamaacharanti (Atharvaved 9/15/20)
0 men! Just as the cow, by eating hay and drinking clean water,
gives to the world the excellent materials like milk and ghee
(butter-oil), similarly you too oblige the world by taking ‘saatvik’
(simple) food.
http://thehinduforum.com/index.php?threads/hindu-quotes-on-food-hindu-quotes-on-vegetarianism.155/
āhāra śhuddhau sattva śhuddhiḥ
(7.26.2)
“By eating pure food, the mind
becomes pure.”
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
400 BC HIPPOCRATES Let thy food be thy medicine
and thy medicine be thy
food.“
"It is necessary for a
physician to know about
nature, and be very eager to
know, if he is going to perform
any of his duties... what man
is in relation to what he eats
and drinks, and in relation to
his habits generally, and what
will be the effect of each upon
each individual.“
https://www.ediblewildfood.com/bios/hippocrates.aspx
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1747 JAMES LIND A Scottish doctor, was
a pioneer of
naval hygiene in
the Royal navy. By
conducting one of the
first ever clinical
trials, he developed
the theory that citrus
fruit cured scurvy.
Baron JH. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind--a reassessment. Nutr Rev. 2009 Jun;67(6):315-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-
4887.2009.00205.x. PMID: 19519673.
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1770 ANTOINE
LAVOISER
The ‘Father of Nutrition
and Chemistry’ discovered
the concept of
metabolism, the transfer
of food and oxygen into
heat and water in the
body creating energy.
•https://ruffino3.medium.com/the-father-of-nutrition-
and-chemistry-24534bdc32e6
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1912 CASIMIR
FUNK
Polish doctor
Coined the term Vitamins
as essential factors in diet.
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1912 E.V McCOLLUM He began using rat instead of
humans in his experiments rather
than cows and sheep.
He founded the first fat soluble
vitamin, vitamin A.
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1930s- 1940s FREDERICK
KLENNER
He used very high dose vit. C
intravenously in patient with
viral infection.
KLENNER FR. Massive doses of vitamin C and the virus diseases. South Med Surg.
1951 Apr;113(4):101-7. PMID: 14855098.
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1933 ROGER
WILLIAMS
American
Biochemist
He is known for work on vitamins
and human nutrition. He had
leading roles on the discovery of
folic acid, pantothenic acid,
vitamin B6, lipoic acid and
alvidin.
He wrote ‘Biochemical Individuality’
which emphasises on the
uniqueness of each person in their
metabolic makeup and
micronutrients need.
Davis, Donald R.; Hackert, Marvin L.; Reed, Lester J. (2008). "Roger J. Williams: 1893–
1988" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE
SCIENTIST OR
DOCTOR
CONTRIBUTION
1934 IRWIN STONE
American
biochemist,
chemical engineer
And writer
He was the 1st person to use
Ascorbic Acid
In the food processing
industry as a preservative
and published the hypothesis
that human require much
larger amount of vitamin C
for optimal health.
He also worked on the
antioxidant property of
ascorbate [Vit.C].
Dr. Irwin Stone- A Tribute Allan Cott, M.D, given at the symposium of the Academy of
Orthomolecular Psychiatry just after Dr. Stone's death. From Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 1984,
Volume ??, Number ?, p. 150
The long journey that started in a
humble one-room laboratory at
Coonoor (now in Tamil Nadu) in 1918
to a colossus of the nutrition research
in the country today is dotted with
several interesting vignettes
The emergence of nutrition as
modern science almost
synchronised with the starting of
systematic nutrition research in
1918 when Beri Beri Enquiry unit
was established at Coonoor
Gavaravarapu SM, Hemalatha R. National Institute of Nutrition: 100 years of empowering the nation through nutrition. Indian J Med Res. 2018
Nov;148(5):477-487. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2061_18. PMID: 30666974; PMCID: PMC6366263
Sir Robert McCarrison, the founder Director of National Institute of
Nutrition, is justifiably credited to be the father of nutrition research in India.
The journey of nutrition research in India began from a one-room laboratory in
the Pasteur Institute. Two years later, due to McCarrison's concerted efforts, it
was restored as the Deficiency Diseases Enquiry.
In 1926, the members of the Royal Commission paid a visit to Coonoor to
acquaint themselves with the work, and McCarrison took this opportunity to
submit a memorandum on ‘Malnutrition as a cause of physical inefficiency
and ill health among masses in India’, which highlighted the connection
between nutrition and agriculture.
It was in 1929 that the unit in Coonoor came to be known as the NRLs and
became the only institution in India to be exclusively devoted to research in
human nutrition.
SIR ROBERT Mc CARRISON
Gopalan's research led to a midday meal scheme for school
children and a goiter prevention program.
He founded the National Nutrition Foundation, which
published Nutritive Value of Indian Foods.
Gopalan's works on Indian foods also are commendable. He analyzed
over 500 Indian foods for their Nutritive Values and published a
detailed study report of that. This work was used for calculating dietary
in-take of all nutrients.
This made India the first developing country to have its own
recommended dietary allowances
"Obituary: Coluthur Gopalan (1918-2019)". downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
Dr. COLUTHUR
GOPALAN
K . T. A C H AYA
• K. T. Achaya (6 October 1923 – 5
September 2002) was an oil chemist, food
scientist, nutritionist and food historian.
• He is the author of Indian Food: A Historical
Companion, The Food Industries of British
India, and A Historical Dictionary of Indian
Food.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
• Due to the limited number of early hominin fossil and the
nearly complete absence of chimpanzee –lineage fossils, it is
difficult to reconstruct the diet of the earliest hominins.
• Classically it had been the thought that the earliest hominins
moved from forested habitats to a savanna(open with tall
grass) which made a shift to the harder and tougher food
items which was more common in the new environment.
EARLY HOMININS
• However, there is some disagreement over the specific food for which dental
morphology might have been used. However other researchers focus on starch
rich underground storage organs such as bulbs and corns
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
The earliest evidence for meat-eating in
hominins dates to ~2.5 Mya.
Some of the fossil findings are consistent with
scavenging activities, but on the whole, there is
still considerable uncertainty about the relative
importance and timing of scavenging versus
hunting in hominin evolution.
HUNTER AND GATHERERS
Beyond the high caloric gains from the consumption of animal source foods,
meat also provides proteins, iron, zinc, vitamins, and other critical dietary
components
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
Homo habilis still had some ape-like features of the skull
and limb bones, but with the appearance of Homo
erectus soon after 2 Ma this all changed.
There was total reliance on terrestrial living, with greater
emphasis on eating animal products, greater brain size and
smaller gut.
FIRE COOKING
Homo erectus was the first hominin not only to spread out of Africa but to extend its range across
Europe and Asia to Java within a period so close in time that their times of arrival cannot be
discriminated with present methods of dating (1.8 Ma in Kenya, Georgia and Java).
It has been proposed that the adaptation that promoted all these changes was the controlled use
of fire for food that has been cooked is both easier to digest and produces more energy per food
item
• It made all kinds of food easier to eat and digest, adding to the
nutritional value of the food; vegetables become softer and easier to
chew, and animal products become denatured and easier to digest,
yielding energy more quickly.
• Evidence for controlled use of fire is hard to distinguish from natural
fire, but the presence of burned bones and ash deposits in
Wonderwerk Cave is perhaps the best substantiated use of fire and
dates to at least 1Ma
• The oldest incontrovertible evidence for human-controlled fire dates to
800,000 years ago (800 kya) in Israel. There are other, less certain,
sites dating to as early as ~1.5 Mya (18, 165).
• Wrangham and colleagues suggest that cooking food may have been
part of hominin culture as early as ~1.9 Mya, based on the tooth size
reduction observed in Homo erectus that suggests a shift to the
processing of softer foods.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
The Neolithic Revolution, or the
(First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-
scale transition of many human cultures during
the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and
gathering to one of agriculture and settlement,
making an increasingly large population possible.
These settled communities permitted humans to
observe and experiment with plants, learning how
they grew and developed. This new knowledge led
to the domestication of plants into crops.
AGRICULTURE
Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel (29 July 2011). "When the World's
Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic
Demographic Transition". Science. 333(6042): 560–
561. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..560B. doi:10.1126/science.12088
80. PMID 21798934. S2CID 29655920.
The Green Revolution, was a period of technology
transfer initiatives that saw greatly increased crop
yields and agricultural production.
These changes in agriculture began in developed
countries after World War II and spread globally till the
late 1980s.
In the late 1960s, farmers began incorporating new
technologies such as high-yielding varieties of cereals,
particularly dwarf wheat and rice, and the widespread
use of chemical fertilizers (to produce their high yields,
the new seeds require far more fertilizer than
traditional varieties), pesticides, and
controlled irrigation.
The evolution of food products has lead to formation of
various diet for the modern world-
• Vegan diet
• Paleo diet
• Keto diet
• DASH diet
• Mediterranean diet and etc.
MODERN DIET
Veganism is the practice of abstaining
from the use of animal product—
particularly in diet—and an associated
philosophy that rejects the commodity
status of animals.
An individual who follows the diet or
philosophy is known as a vegan.
 Reduce your risk of heart disease by
lowering cholesterol levels
 Lower your chances of getting
certain types of cancer, such
as colon cancer
 Manage diabetes by lowering A1C
levels
V E G A N I S M D I E T
Coronary Artery Disease Signs & Symptoms | Rush System
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Conclusion
The Impact of Vegan Diet
in the Prevention and
Treatment of Type 2
Diabetes: A Systematic
Review
Nutrients.
2021 June
Finally, the vegan diet may be
considered an acceptable and safe
alternative to Western diets and seems
to be comparable to other
recommended healthful eating models
(e.g., vegetarian, Mediterranean, Dietary
Approaches to Stop Hypertension
(DASH), etc.),
it must be stated that it has been
considered to be a therapeutic diet
with adverse effects associated with the
long-term exclusion of some nutrients.
M E D I T E R R A N E A N D I E T
• The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating
habits and traditional food typical of Crete, much of the
rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early 1960s.
• The principal aspects of this diet include proportionally
high consumption of unprocessed cereals, legumes, olive
oil, fruits, and vegetables, and moderate consumption
of fish, dairy products (mostly cheese and yogurt),
and meat products.
• Olive oil has been studied as a potential health factor for
reducing all-cause mortality and the risk of chronic
diseases.
Willett, WC (June 1995). "Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating". The American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 61 (6): 1402S–1406S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/61.6.1402S. PMID 7754995. Retrieved 24
February 2023.
Duarte, A., Fernandes, J., Bernardes, J. & Miguel, G. (2016). "Citrus as a Component of the
Mediterranean Diet". Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics - JSOD. 4: 289–304.
Larsson, S (2022). "Can Small Amounts of Olive Oil Keep the Death
Away?". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 79 (2): 113–
115. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2021.11.006. PMID 35027107. S2CID 245933
012.
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Conclusion
Mediterranean
vegetable soup
consumption increases
plasma vitamin C and
decreases F2-
isoprostanes,
prostaglandin E2 and
monocyte chemotactic
protein-1 in healthy
humans
Concepción Sánchez-
Moreno 1, M Pilar
Cano, Begoña de
Ancos, Lucía
Plaza, Begoña
Olmedilla, Fernando
Granado, Antonio Martín
The Journal of
Nutritional
Biochemistry
Volume 17, Issue
3,
2005.07.001
Twelve healthy
volunteers (six men and
six women) were
enrolled in this study.
The subjects' age was
22±0.5 years, and their
body mass index
(kg/m2) was 22.5±0.9
and did not change
during the study. All the
subjects continued their
habitual diets during the
study.
vitamin C may play a critical role in
oxidative and inflammatory
processes, and Mediterranean diet
helps to increase the vitamin C
level.
A ketogenic diet primarily consists of high
fats, moderate proteins, and very low
carbohydrates.
The dietary macronutrients are divided into
approximately 55% to 60% fat, 30% to 35%
protein, and 5% to 10% carbohydrates.
Specifically, in a 2000 kcal per day diet,
carbohydrates amount up to 20 to 50 g per
day.
K E T O D I E T
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499830/
Title and Author Journal and
year
Intervention Conclusion
Effects of a ketogenic
diet in overweight
women with polycystic
ovary syndrome
Antonio Paoli
Journal of
Translational
Medicine
2020
Fourteen overweight
women with diagnosis of
PCOS underwent to a
ketogenic diet with
(KEMEPHY) for 12 week.
Changes in body weight,
body mass index (BMI), fat
body mass (FBM), lean
body mass (LBM), visceral
adipose tissue (VAT),
insulin, glucose etc were
evaluated.
results suggest that a Keto Diet
may be considered as a valuable
non pharmacological treatment for
PCOS.
Longer treatment periods should
be tested to verify the effect of a
KD on the dermatological aspects
of PCOS
• The Paleolithic diet, Paleo diet, caveman diet,
or stone-age diet is a modern fad diet consisting of
foods thought by its proponents to mirror those eaten by
humans during the Paleolithic era.
• The diet avoids processed food and typically
includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and
excludes dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes,
processed oils, salt, alcohol, and coffee.
• Historians can trace the ideas behind the diet to
"primitive" diets advocated in 19th century. In the
1970s Walter L. Voegtlin popularized a meat-centric
"Stone Age" diet; in the 21st century the best-selling
books of Loren Cordain popularized the Paleo diet.
PALEO DIET
1. de Menezes et al. 2019: "The Paleolithic diet has been
gaining ground in the field of fad diets. It is based on food
patterns of human Paleolithic ancestors, about 2.6 million to
10,000 years ago, a period that precedes the advent of
industrial agriculture and is different from today's modern
society".
2.^ British Dietetic Association 2014 - "The Paleo diet (also
known as the Paleolithic Diet, the Caveman diet and the
Stone Age Diet) is a diet where only foods presumed to be
available to Neanderthals in the prehistoric era are
consumed and all other foods, such as dairy products,
grains, sugar, legumes, 'processed' oils, salt, and others like
alcohol or coffee are excluded."
3.^ Ask EN 2010; Johnson 2015; Fitzgerald 2014.
4.^ Decker 2019.
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result
Benefits of a Paleolithic
diet with and without
supervised exercise on
fat mass, insulin
sensitivity, and
glycemic control: a
randomized controlled
trial in individuals with
type 2 diabetes
Diabetes
Metabolism
Research and
Review
2017 Jan
Thirty-two patients with
type 2 diabetes (age 59
± 8 years) followed a
Paleolithic diet for 12
weeks. Participants
were randomized to
either standard care
exercise
recommendations (PD)
or 1-h supervised
exercise sessions
(aerobic exercise and
resistance training)
three times per week
(PD-EX).
• A Paleolithic diet improves fat
mass and metabolic balance
including insulin sensitivity,
glycemic control, and leptin in
subjects with type 2 diabetes.
• Supervised exercise training
may not enhance the effects on
these outcomes, but preserves
lean mass in men and
increases cardiovascular
fitness.
The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop
Hypertension) is a dietary pattern promoted by the U.S.-
based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute(part of
the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of
the United States Department of Health and Human Services)
to prevent and control hypertension.
The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and
low-fat dairy foods.
It includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts, and beans, and is limited
in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and
added fats.
In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is designed to be
a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public
DASH DIET
Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result
Effects of Sodium
Reduction and the
DASH Diet in Relation
to Baseline Blood
Pressure
Stephen P Juraschek
Journal of
American College
of Cardiology
2017 Dec
The DASH-Sodium trial,
adults with pre- or stage 1
hypertension and not
using antihypertensive
medications, were
randomized to either
DASH or a control diet. On
either diet, participants
were fed each of 3 sodium
levels (50, 100, and 150
mmol/day at 2,100 kcal) in
random order over 4
weeks separated by 5-day
breaks.
The combination of reduced
sodium intake and the DASH
diet lowered SBP throughout
the range of pre- and stage 1
hypertension, with
progressively greater
reductions at higher levels of
baseline SBP.
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Dietary supplements for sports athletes
Dietary supplements for sports athletesDietary supplements for sports athletes
Dietary supplements for sports athletesPalak Agrawal
 
Healthy%20 Breakfast%20 Slides
Healthy%20 Breakfast%20 SlidesHealthy%20 Breakfast%20 Slides
Healthy%20 Breakfast%20 SlidesSarette Vermaak
 
Dietary supplements
Dietary supplementsDietary supplements
Dietary supplementsjarmanjo
 
Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?
Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?
Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?Jeff Crown
 
Nutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussain
Nutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussainNutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussain
Nutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussainfarwa hussain
 
Dietary supplements
Dietary supplementsDietary supplements
Dietary supplementsNecola27
 
Junk food and health care
Junk food and health care Junk food and health care
Junk food and health care Sekhar Varma Kls
 
Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy
Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy
Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy Blake Morgan
 
8 Benefits of Eating Healthy
8 Benefits of Eating Healthy8 Benefits of Eating Healthy
8 Benefits of Eating HealthyScullivan
 
Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain.
Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain. Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain.
Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain. Rachel V. Gow, PhD
 
Herbalife nutrition india all products
Herbalife nutrition india all products Herbalife nutrition india all products
Herbalife nutrition india all products hannanfitcoachKolkat
 

What's hot (20)

Functional foods
Functional foodsFunctional foods
Functional foods
 
Dietary supplements for sports athletes
Dietary supplements for sports athletesDietary supplements for sports athletes
Dietary supplements for sports athletes
 
Food & Mood
Food & MoodFood & Mood
Food & Mood
 
Nutrition during old age
Nutrition during old ageNutrition during old age
Nutrition during old age
 
Healthy%20 Breakfast%20 Slides
Healthy%20 Breakfast%20 SlidesHealthy%20 Breakfast%20 Slides
Healthy%20 Breakfast%20 Slides
 
Dietary supplements
Dietary supplementsDietary supplements
Dietary supplements
 
VAC class 9 060123.pptx
VAC class 9 060123.pptxVAC class 9 060123.pptx
VAC class 9 060123.pptx
 
Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?
Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?
Why the Nutritional Supplements Need for Our Body?
 
Importance of food habits
Importance of food habitsImportance of food habits
Importance of food habits
 
Nutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussain
Nutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussainNutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussain
Nutraceuticals and-functional-foods. farwa hussain
 
Top 10 Nutrition Myths
Top 10 Nutrition MythsTop 10 Nutrition Myths
Top 10 Nutrition Myths
 
Great Business Opportunity
Great Business OpportunityGreat Business Opportunity
Great Business Opportunity
 
Dietary supplements
Dietary supplementsDietary supplements
Dietary supplements
 
Junk food and health care
Junk food and health care Junk food and health care
Junk food and health care
 
Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy
Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy
Herbalife Global Nutrition Philosophy
 
8 Benefits of Eating Healthy
8 Benefits of Eating Healthy8 Benefits of Eating Healthy
8 Benefits of Eating Healthy
 
Mediterranean diet
Mediterranean diet Mediterranean diet
Mediterranean diet
 
Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain.
Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain. Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain.
Nutritional Neuroscience: Thinking Twice about the Foods that Feed your Brain.
 
Herbalife nutrition india all products
Herbalife nutrition india all products Herbalife nutrition india all products
Herbalife nutrition india all products
 
Supplement Your Dietary Supplement IQ
Supplement Your Dietary Supplement IQSupplement Your Dietary Supplement IQ
Supplement Your Dietary Supplement IQ
 

Similar to PHILOSOPHY, EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF NATUROPATHIC DIET.pptx

Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,
Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,
Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,Dr Roohi Banu
 
Medicine
MedicineMedicine
Medicinetkaatz
 
Medicine
MedicineMedicine
Medicinetkaatz
 
Food as medicine everyday reclaim your health with whole foods
Food as medicine everyday  reclaim your health with whole foodsFood as medicine everyday  reclaim your health with whole foods
Food as medicine everyday reclaim your health with whole foodsMehediridoy3
 
Dr. Sujatha concepts of naturopathy
Dr. Sujatha   concepts of naturopathyDr. Sujatha   concepts of naturopathy
Dr. Sujatha concepts of naturopathydrsujathakj
 
Change your food change your mood
Change your food change your moodChange your food change your mood
Change your food change your moodPatrick Garrett, DC
 
MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...
MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...
MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...Ram Kanth
 
Review of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdf
Review of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdfReview of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdf
Review of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdfTarek Hadedy
 
English cocurricular.pdf
English cocurricular.pdfEnglish cocurricular.pdf
English cocurricular.pdfdollyrani7
 
7 Keys To Optimal Health
7 Keys To Optimal Health7 Keys To Optimal Health
7 Keys To Optimal HealthGo BellaVita
 
Hot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptx
Hot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptxHot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptx
Hot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptxssuser1fae2b
 
Dietology as a science topic 1 Fundamentals
Dietology as a science topic 1 FundamentalsDietology as a science topic 1 Fundamentals
Dietology as a science topic 1 Fundamentalssarahwhitepr1234
 
Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slides
Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slidesPhytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slides
Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slidesmilfamln
 
Naturopathy and its overview
Naturopathy and its overviewNaturopathy and its overview
Naturopathy and its overviewShweta Mishra
 

Similar to PHILOSOPHY, EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF NATUROPATHIC DIET.pptx (20)

Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,
Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,
Principles of health promotion, disease prevention,
 
Diet in naturopathy
Diet in naturopathyDiet in naturopathy
Diet in naturopathy
 
Natural nutrition
Natural nutritionNatural nutrition
Natural nutrition
 
Reversive medicine
Reversive medicineReversive medicine
Reversive medicine
 
Nutrition Food
Nutrition FoodNutrition Food
Nutrition Food
 
Medicine
MedicineMedicine
Medicine
 
Medicine
MedicineMedicine
Medicine
 
Food as medicine everyday reclaim your health with whole foods
Food as medicine everyday  reclaim your health with whole foodsFood as medicine everyday  reclaim your health with whole foods
Food as medicine everyday reclaim your health with whole foods
 
Dr. Sujatha concepts of naturopathy
Dr. Sujatha   concepts of naturopathyDr. Sujatha   concepts of naturopathy
Dr. Sujatha concepts of naturopathy
 
Change your food change your mood
Change your food change your moodChange your food change your mood
Change your food change your mood
 
MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...
MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...
MY PRESENTATION @ CSIR NEIST SRTP ON - STRENGTHENING THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE TH...
 
Review of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdf
Review of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdfReview of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdf
Review of the 10 top books of weight loss tarekhadedy88.pdf
 
English cocurricular.pdf
English cocurricular.pdfEnglish cocurricular.pdf
English cocurricular.pdf
 
7 Keys To Optimal Health
7 Keys To Optimal Health7 Keys To Optimal Health
7 Keys To Optimal Health
 
Hot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptx
Hot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptxHot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptx
Hot Topics In Integrative Medicine Jill Schneiderhan.pptx
 
Dietology as a science topic 1 Fundamentals
Dietology as a science topic 1 FundamentalsDietology as a science topic 1 Fundamentals
Dietology as a science topic 1 Fundamentals
 
Eat Right, Feel Right
Eat Right, Feel RightEat Right, Feel Right
Eat Right, Feel Right
 
Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slides
Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slidesPhytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slides
Phytonutrients and Cardiovascular Disease webinar slides
 
History and concepts of nutrition
History and concepts of nutritionHistory and concepts of nutrition
History and concepts of nutrition
 
Naturopathy and its overview
Naturopathy and its overviewNaturopathy and its overview
Naturopathy and its overview
 

Recently uploaded

Call Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfHemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfMedicoseAcademics
 
Book Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbers
Book Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbersBook Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbers
Book Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbersnarwatsonia7
 
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...narwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment Booking
Call Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment BookingCall Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment Booking
Call Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment BookingNehru place Escorts
 
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAAjennyeacort
 
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...narwatsonia7
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...
Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...
Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...narwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaCall Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaPooja Gupta
 
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...narwatsonia7
 
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort ServiceCollege Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort ServiceNehru place Escorts
 
Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...narwatsonia7
 
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsHematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsMedicoseAcademics
 
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosBook Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photosnarwatsonia7
 
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptxCase Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptxNiranjan Chavan
 
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy PlatformSee the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy PlatformKweku Zurek
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Call Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jayanagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfHemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
 
Book Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbers
Book Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbersBook Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbers
Book Call Girls in Kasavanahalli - 7001305949 with real photos and phone numbers
 
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
Russian Call Girls Gunjur Mugalur Road : 7001305949 High Profile Model Escort...
 
Call Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment Booking
Call Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment BookingCall Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment Booking
Call Girls Service Nandiambakkam | 7001305949 At Low Cost Cash Payment Booking
 
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
97111 47426 Call Girls In Delhi MUNIRKAA
 
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
 
Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...
Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...
Russian Call Girls Chickpet - 7001305949 Booking and charges genuine rate for...
 
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaCall Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
 
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
Call Girls Frazer Town Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Avail...
 
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort ServiceCollege Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
College Call Girls Vyasarpadi Whatsapp 7001305949 Independent Escort Service
 
Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
Call Girls Electronic City Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service A...
 
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes FunctionsHematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
Hematology and Immunology - Leukocytes Functions
 
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosBook Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
 
Epilepsy
EpilepsyEpilepsy
Epilepsy
 
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptxCase Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
Case Report Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.pptx
 
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy PlatformSee the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
See the 2,456 pharmacies on the National E-Pharmacy Platform
 

PHILOSOPHY, EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF NATUROPATHIC DIET.pptx

  • 1. PHILOSOPHY, EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF NATUROPATHIC DIET DR. SHRUTI BAID MD. NUTRITION AND DIETETICS JR1
  • 2. W H AT I S N AT U R O PAT H I C M E D I C I N E ? Naturopathic medicine is a unique system of primary health care in that it is not limited to a single modality of healing and cannot be identified with any one therapeutic approach. Naturopathic medicine incorporates many complementary medical approaches to treatment. Practitioners combine the art and science of medicine, using traditional forms of healing and modern scientific knowledge to treat and prevent illness. Smith MJ, Logan AC. Naturopathy. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Jan;86(1):173-84. doi: 10.1016/s0025-7125(03)00079-8. PMID:
  • 3. CONCEPT OF HEALTH Sama dosha sama agnishcha samadhatu mala kriyaaha | Prasanna atma mana indriyaha swastha iti abhidheeyate || ||Sushruta Samhita 1. 2|| “Health is a state where in the Tridosha, Digestive fire, all the body tissues & components, all the physiological processes are in perfect unison and the soul, the sense organs and mind are in a state of total satisfaction (prasanna) & content” Naturopathy believes that health is a state when all the systems of body are functioning optimally, when the blood is free from toxins and toxin producing pathogens and the vitality is such that the individual possesses the capacity to get rid of pathogens & toxins naturally without use of external aids like medicines. https://www.ijcrt.org/papers/IJPUB1703001.pdf
  • 4. TO X A E M I A : A S T H E R E A L D I S E A S E Toxemia is the morbid state of blood and tissues resulting from the accumulation of un-eliminated toxins. These toxins can be external i.e. introduced from outside like ingested food, chemicals from pollutants or internal as a result of our own metabolic reactions. Toxins lead to abnormal composition of blood and lymph and damage of organs leading to acute and chronic diseases. According to this concept, micro-organisms are not the primary causative agents. Diseases caused by them are only secondary to toxemia. Toxins can also be generated due to psychological reasons. Toxins generated due to negative mental impulses cause psychological imbalances and lead to endocrinal disturbances generating physical toxins causing psychosomatic diseases. https://www.ijcrt.org/papers/IJPUB1703001.pdf
  • 5. PRINCIPLES OF NATUROPATHY Out of the 10 basic principles 2 principles corelate with nutritional aspect i.e. 1. FOOD IS A BUILDING MATERAIL, BUT DOES NOT INCREASE VITALITY 2. FASTING DOES NOT CURE ANY DISEASE BUT PROVIDES AN OPPORTUNITY TO BODY TO HEAL ITSELF
  • 6. F O O D I S A B U I L D I N G M AT E R A I L , B U T D O E S N O T I N C R E A S E V I TA L I T Y • Food, after all, is a powerless substance to build flesh, blood, bones, and nerves. • Only a living breathing organism can convert it into a living tissue. Food is subordinate to life, to the force inherent in every living creature. • “it is this mysterious life force that decides which and how much of foods supplied to the body, shall be built up into body tissues” is a quotation that suggests that it is the body, not food, which is more important. • When food is not digested properly it is fermented and decomposed and resulting in disease
  • 7. Title and author Journal and year Conclusion Macronutrient balance and micronutrient amounts through growth and development. Savarino G Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 May 8 • Both macronutrients and micronutrients are essential for children’s nutrition in proper amounts and balance. • The main macronutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, but also fibers and liquid intake are important. • Also, micronutrients are essential: the lack of even one of them can have impairing growth, delaying maturation, or determining deficiency diseases
  • 8.
  • 9. FA S T I N G D O E S N O T C U R E A N Y D I S E A S E B U T P R O V I D E S A N O P P O R T U N I T Y T O B O D Y T O H E A L I T S E L F • The term fasting, implies total or partial abstinence from food or water for several reasons. Therapeutic fasting by Arnold Devries Fasting conserves energy- the body’s vital force When we eat food as it passes through the body, it must be masticated, digested, and assimilated, and then the waste is eliminated. We have 4 organs of elimination- bowel, kidneys, lungs, and skin, for these organs to work perfectly, the body must build high vital force. So by just abstaining from food or water we can conserve our vital force The miracle of fasting by Bragg
  • 10. Title and author Journal and year conclusion Fasting as a Therapy in Neurological Disease Phillips MCL Nutrients. 2019 Oct 17 fasting is a simple, multi- targeted, and essentially “metabolic” therapy with a healthy track record for treating a variety of neurological diseases.
  • 11. PHILOSOPHY OF PANCHATANTRA 3 main principles are:- 1. Two meals in a day 2. Fast once a week 3. Drink plenty of water in a day
  • 12. TWO MEALS IN A DAY Title and author Journal and year Conclusion Eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than six smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study Kahleova H, et al Diabetology 2014 Aug • Hypo energetic diet (a restriction of 2,092 kJ/day) consumed as breakfast and lunch reduced body weight, HFC, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide and glucagon, and increased calculated insulin sensitivity (OGIS), more six, more frequent, meals. • These results suggest that eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) may be more beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes than six smaller meals during the day.
  • 13. FAST ONCE A WEEK Title and author Journal and year Conclusion Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction Golbidi S, Daiber A, Korac B, Li H, Essop MF, Laher I. Current Diabetes reports 2017 Fasting or periodic calorie restriction also prevents unwanted effects of chronic energy restriction such as malnutrition. Intermittent fasting, by acting as acute intermittent stressor, activates stress-response pathways that lead to improvement in well-being.
  • 14. DRINK PLENTY OF WATER IN A DAY Title and author Journal and year Conclusion Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration Jéquier E, Constant F. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Water, a vital nutrient, has numerous critical roles in the human body. Its balance is very essential for the maintenance of health and life. On an average, a sedentary adult should drink 1.5 l of water per day, as water is the only liquid nutrient that is really essential for body hydration and is vital for the body to function properly.
  • 15. CONCEPT OF DIET IN NATUROPATHY Diet (Aahar) is an important component of naturopathic plan of disease management. Right food is so much important to health as per the belief of naturopathy that it is often regarded as medicine. Naturopathy insists that our food must be as natural as possible. It is also believed that food should be produced under natural condition and consumed in natural form without being altered by man. Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
  • 16. According to Naturopathy, accumulation of waste and systemic poison is the cause of the majority of disease arising within the human organisms. Naturopathy aims to reduce these foods in the natural dietary and to increase the purifying and eliminating dietary and to increase the purifying and eliminating fruits and vegetables. Diet therapy is both an art and a science. It aims to encourages that to remain healthy the food item must contain 80% alkaline and 20% acidic substance. Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
  • 17. Therefore, the quality of food has much to do with the quality of the world. Naturopathy diet is broadly classified into 3- • Eliminative diet • Soothing diet • Constructive diet It also believes that ‘food has a great influence on the mind because everything we eat and drink is transported by the blood which sustains the nervous system’. Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
  • 18. 1 . E L I M I N AT I V E D I E T Dietary item beneficial in the cleansing of the system comes under eliminative diet. During the first stage of treatment eliminative diet pattern is followed which encourages the detoxification of the body by eliminating the matter and toxins from the system by way of activating the eliminative organs. Rastogi R, Rastogi S. Concept and role of diet as a component of Naturopathy and yoga therapy.
  • 19. F O O D S O U R C E F O R E L I M I N AT I V E D I E T • Citric juices • Lemon water • Tender coconut water • Fibrous rich fruits and vegetables (banana, guava etc)
  • 20. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Results Role of Citrus Fruit Juices in Prevention of Kidney Stone Disease (KSD): A Narrative Review Yazeed Barghouthy 1, Bhaskar K Somani Nutrients. 2021 Nov; Review paper • orange juice seems to play a protective role against stone formation, • Grapefruit was found to raise the risk of KSD in epidemiological studies but had a protective role in smaller clinical studies. • Lemon juice had a smaller protective role than orange juice.
  • 21. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Results Orange juice intake by obese and insulin- resistant subjects lowers specific plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial Karina Gama Dos Santos Clinical Nutrition ESPEN . 2022 Oct 400 ml of orange juice for 15 days To 25 patients aged between 40 to 60 yrs with obesity and insulin resistance. • After the 15-d intervention, a significant decrease was observed in the diastolic blood pressure and blood lipid profile. • A strong inter-individual trend was observed, wherein, compared with less responsive subjects, the high responsive subjects displayed the highest decrease in the concentrations of altered TG species, as as well as systolic blood pressure (decrease of 10.3 ± 6.8 mmHg) and body weight (decrease of 0.67 ± 0.71 kg).
  • 22. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result Randomised clinical trial: mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium for chronic constipation A Erdogan , S S C Rao Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2016 July Seventy-two subjects (mixed fibre = 40; psyllium = 32) were enrolled. Those who were eligible were randomized to receive four weeks of treatment with either 5g of a plum-derived mixed fiber supplement, SupraFiber® (Sunsweet Growers Inc., CA, USA) dissolved in 8 oz. of liquid or 5g of psyllium (Organic Whole Husk Psyllium, ORGANIC INDIA) dissolved in 8 oz. of liquid, both twice a day after meals. • Mixed fibre and psyllium were equally efficacious in improving constipation and QoL. • Mixed fibre was more effective in relieving flatulence, bloating and dissolved better. Mixed fibre is effective and well tolerated.
  • 23. 2 . S O O T H I N G D I E T when the body is almost clean and detoxified, the patients are kept on soothing diet for sometime which is slightly filling wherein patient don’t feel as he or she is fasting and action is not as vigorous as eliminative diet. Consists of simple and easy to digest foods which are light on the stomach
  • 24. • Fruits, • Salads, • Boiled/steamed vegetables, • Sprouts, • Vegetable soups, • Butter milk, • Wheat grass juice F O O D S O U R C E F O R S O O T H I N G D I E T
  • 25. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result Beneficial Properties of Probiotics Lye Huey Shi, Tropical Life Science Research. 2016 Aug Review • One of the most known health effects of probiotics is preventing and improving bowel diseases by improving the immune system. • Besides that, probiotics are found to exhibit hypo cholesterolemic effects via cholesterol assimilation, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface, co-precipitation of cholesterol, interfering with the formation of micelle for intestinal absorption, deconjugation of bile acids by BSH, and improving the lipid profiles.
  • 26. 3 . C O N S T R U C T I V E D I E T When the body is fully detoxified and patient is free of disease condition, he is prescribed constructive diet whereby his new blood, lymph and body cells are building up normally. Being alkaline, these diets help in improving health, purifying the body and increasing immunity.
  • 27. F O O D S O U R C E F O R C O N S T R U C T I V E D I E T
  • 28. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): An Overview of the Potentials of the “Golden Grain” and Socio-Economic and Environmental Aspects of Its Cultivation and Marketization Viktória Angeli, Foods. 2020 Feb Review paper quinoa has an exceptional nutritional profile due to its: • high protein • balanced amino acid profile • fiber content • range of vitamins and minerals • antioxidants • absence of gluten The review indicates that quinoa has a protein content of between 9.1–15.7 g per 100 g, depending on where manufacturers cultivate it.
  • 29. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result Antioxidants and Exercise Performance: With a Focus on Vitamin E and C Supplementation Madalyn Riley Higgins, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020 Nov Review A suitable source of dietary vitamin E indicates may protect the body against physical stress during exercise.
  • 31. http://thehinduforum.com/index.php?threads/hindu-quotes-on-food-hindu-quotes-on-vegetarianism.155/ Jushasva sapratastumum vacho devapsrastamum havya juvhaana aasaani (Rigveda 1/75/1) If you wish to achieve bodily and spiritual happiness, then be simple in your diet, in your daily routine and deeds and observe celibacy Sooyavasaad bhagavati hee bhooya adha vayum bhagavantaha syaam Addhi trunamaghnye vishwadaanim peeba shuddhamudakamaacharanti (Atharvaved 9/15/20) 0 men! Just as the cow, by eating hay and drinking clean water, gives to the world the excellent materials like milk and ghee (butter-oil), similarly you too oblige the world by taking ‘saatvik’ (simple) food.
  • 33. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 400 BC HIPPOCRATES Let thy food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy food.“ "It is necessary for a physician to know about nature, and be very eager to know, if he is going to perform any of his duties... what man is in relation to what he eats and drinks, and in relation to his habits generally, and what will be the effect of each upon each individual.“ https://www.ediblewildfood.com/bios/hippocrates.aspx
  • 34. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1747 JAMES LIND A Scottish doctor, was a pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal navy. By conducting one of the first ever clinical trials, he developed the theory that citrus fruit cured scurvy. Baron JH. Sailors' scurvy before and after James Lind--a reassessment. Nutr Rev. 2009 Jun;67(6):315-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1753- 4887.2009.00205.x. PMID: 19519673.
  • 35. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1770 ANTOINE LAVOISER The ‘Father of Nutrition and Chemistry’ discovered the concept of metabolism, the transfer of food and oxygen into heat and water in the body creating energy. •https://ruffino3.medium.com/the-father-of-nutrition- and-chemistry-24534bdc32e6
  • 36. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1912 CASIMIR FUNK Polish doctor Coined the term Vitamins as essential factors in diet.
  • 37. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1912 E.V McCOLLUM He began using rat instead of humans in his experiments rather than cows and sheep. He founded the first fat soluble vitamin, vitamin A.
  • 38. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1930s- 1940s FREDERICK KLENNER He used very high dose vit. C intravenously in patient with viral infection. KLENNER FR. Massive doses of vitamin C and the virus diseases. South Med Surg. 1951 Apr;113(4):101-7. PMID: 14855098.
  • 39. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1933 ROGER WILLIAMS American Biochemist He is known for work on vitamins and human nutrition. He had leading roles on the discovery of folic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, lipoic acid and alvidin. He wrote ‘Biochemical Individuality’ which emphasises on the uniqueness of each person in their metabolic makeup and micronutrients need. Davis, Donald R.; Hackert, Marvin L.; Reed, Lester J. (2008). "Roger J. Williams: 1893– 1988" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  • 40. ERA/YEAR NAME OF THE SCIENTIST OR DOCTOR CONTRIBUTION 1934 IRWIN STONE American biochemist, chemical engineer And writer He was the 1st person to use Ascorbic Acid In the food processing industry as a preservative and published the hypothesis that human require much larger amount of vitamin C for optimal health. He also worked on the antioxidant property of ascorbate [Vit.C]. Dr. Irwin Stone- A Tribute Allan Cott, M.D, given at the symposium of the Academy of Orthomolecular Psychiatry just after Dr. Stone's death. From Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 1984, Volume ??, Number ?, p. 150
  • 41. The long journey that started in a humble one-room laboratory at Coonoor (now in Tamil Nadu) in 1918 to a colossus of the nutrition research in the country today is dotted with several interesting vignettes The emergence of nutrition as modern science almost synchronised with the starting of systematic nutrition research in 1918 when Beri Beri Enquiry unit was established at Coonoor Gavaravarapu SM, Hemalatha R. National Institute of Nutrition: 100 years of empowering the nation through nutrition. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Nov;148(5):477-487. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2061_18. PMID: 30666974; PMCID: PMC6366263
  • 42. Sir Robert McCarrison, the founder Director of National Institute of Nutrition, is justifiably credited to be the father of nutrition research in India. The journey of nutrition research in India began from a one-room laboratory in the Pasteur Institute. Two years later, due to McCarrison's concerted efforts, it was restored as the Deficiency Diseases Enquiry. In 1926, the members of the Royal Commission paid a visit to Coonoor to acquaint themselves with the work, and McCarrison took this opportunity to submit a memorandum on ‘Malnutrition as a cause of physical inefficiency and ill health among masses in India’, which highlighted the connection between nutrition and agriculture. It was in 1929 that the unit in Coonoor came to be known as the NRLs and became the only institution in India to be exclusively devoted to research in human nutrition. SIR ROBERT Mc CARRISON
  • 43. Gopalan's research led to a midday meal scheme for school children and a goiter prevention program. He founded the National Nutrition Foundation, which published Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. Gopalan's works on Indian foods also are commendable. He analyzed over 500 Indian foods for their Nutritive Values and published a detailed study report of that. This work was used for calculating dietary in-take of all nutrients. This made India the first developing country to have its own recommended dietary allowances "Obituary: Coluthur Gopalan (1918-2019)". downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 6 August 2020. Dr. COLUTHUR GOPALAN
  • 44. K . T. A C H AYA • K. T. Achaya (6 October 1923 – 5 September 2002) was an oil chemist, food scientist, nutritionist and food historian. • He is the author of Indian Food: A Historical Companion, The Food Industries of British India, and A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food.
  • 45.
  • 47. • Due to the limited number of early hominin fossil and the nearly complete absence of chimpanzee –lineage fossils, it is difficult to reconstruct the diet of the earliest hominins. • Classically it had been the thought that the earliest hominins moved from forested habitats to a savanna(open with tall grass) which made a shift to the harder and tougher food items which was more common in the new environment. EARLY HOMININS • However, there is some disagreement over the specific food for which dental morphology might have been used. However other researchers focus on starch rich underground storage organs such as bulbs and corns https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
  • 48. The earliest evidence for meat-eating in hominins dates to ~2.5 Mya. Some of the fossil findings are consistent with scavenging activities, but on the whole, there is still considerable uncertainty about the relative importance and timing of scavenging versus hunting in hominin evolution. HUNTER AND GATHERERS Beyond the high caloric gains from the consumption of animal source foods, meat also provides proteins, iron, zinc, vitamins, and other critical dietary components https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
  • 49. Homo habilis still had some ape-like features of the skull and limb bones, but with the appearance of Homo erectus soon after 2 Ma this all changed. There was total reliance on terrestrial living, with greater emphasis on eating animal products, greater brain size and smaller gut. FIRE COOKING Homo erectus was the first hominin not only to spread out of Africa but to extend its range across Europe and Asia to Java within a period so close in time that their times of arrival cannot be discriminated with present methods of dating (1.8 Ma in Kenya, Georgia and Java). It has been proposed that the adaptation that promoted all these changes was the controlled use of fire for food that has been cooked is both easier to digest and produces more energy per food item
  • 50. • It made all kinds of food easier to eat and digest, adding to the nutritional value of the food; vegetables become softer and easier to chew, and animal products become denatured and easier to digest, yielding energy more quickly. • Evidence for controlled use of fire is hard to distinguish from natural fire, but the presence of burned bones and ash deposits in Wonderwerk Cave is perhaps the best substantiated use of fire and dates to at least 1Ma • The oldest incontrovertible evidence for human-controlled fire dates to 800,000 years ago (800 kya) in Israel. There are other, less certain, sites dating to as early as ~1.5 Mya (18, 165). • Wrangham and colleagues suggest that cooking food may have been part of hominin culture as early as ~1.9 Mya, based on the tooth size reduction observed in Homo erectus that suggests a shift to the processing of softer foods. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joim.13011
  • 51. The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide- scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants, learning how they grew and developed. This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants into crops. AGRICULTURE Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel (29 July 2011). "When the World's Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition". Science. 333(6042): 560– 561. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..560B. doi:10.1126/science.12088 80. PMID 21798934. S2CID 29655920.
  • 52. The Green Revolution, was a period of technology transfer initiatives that saw greatly increased crop yields and agricultural production. These changes in agriculture began in developed countries after World War II and spread globally till the late 1980s. In the late 1960s, farmers began incorporating new technologies such as high-yielding varieties of cereals, particularly dwarf wheat and rice, and the widespread use of chemical fertilizers (to produce their high yields, the new seeds require far more fertilizer than traditional varieties), pesticides, and controlled irrigation.
  • 53.
  • 54. The evolution of food products has lead to formation of various diet for the modern world- • Vegan diet • Paleo diet • Keto diet • DASH diet • Mediterranean diet and etc. MODERN DIET
  • 55. Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal product— particularly in diet—and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan.  Reduce your risk of heart disease by lowering cholesterol levels  Lower your chances of getting certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer  Manage diabetes by lowering A1C levels V E G A N I S M D I E T Coronary Artery Disease Signs & Symptoms | Rush System
  • 56. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Conclusion The Impact of Vegan Diet in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review Nutrients. 2021 June Finally, the vegan diet may be considered an acceptable and safe alternative to Western diets and seems to be comparable to other recommended healthful eating models (e.g., vegetarian, Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), etc.), it must be stated that it has been considered to be a therapeutic diet with adverse effects associated with the long-term exclusion of some nutrients.
  • 57. M E D I T E R R A N E A N D I E T • The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits and traditional food typical of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early 1960s. • The principal aspects of this diet include proportionally high consumption of unprocessed cereals, legumes, olive oil, fruits, and vegetables, and moderate consumption of fish, dairy products (mostly cheese and yogurt), and meat products. • Olive oil has been studied as a potential health factor for reducing all-cause mortality and the risk of chronic diseases. Willett, WC (June 1995). "Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 61 (6): 1402S–1406S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/61.6.1402S. PMID 7754995. Retrieved 24 February 2023. Duarte, A., Fernandes, J., Bernardes, J. & Miguel, G. (2016). "Citrus as a Component of the Mediterranean Diet". Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics - JSOD. 4: 289–304. Larsson, S (2022). "Can Small Amounts of Olive Oil Keep the Death Away?". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 79 (2): 113– 115. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2021.11.006. PMID 35027107. S2CID 245933 012.
  • 58. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Conclusion Mediterranean vegetable soup consumption increases plasma vitamin C and decreases F2- isoprostanes, prostaglandin E2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in healthy humans Concepción Sánchez- Moreno 1, M Pilar Cano, Begoña de Ancos, Lucía Plaza, Begoña Olmedilla, Fernando Granado, Antonio Martín The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Volume 17, Issue 3, 2005.07.001 Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were enrolled in this study. The subjects' age was 22±0.5 years, and their body mass index (kg/m2) was 22.5±0.9 and did not change during the study. All the subjects continued their habitual diets during the study. vitamin C may play a critical role in oxidative and inflammatory processes, and Mediterranean diet helps to increase the vitamin C level.
  • 59. A ketogenic diet primarily consists of high fats, moderate proteins, and very low carbohydrates. The dietary macronutrients are divided into approximately 55% to 60% fat, 30% to 35% protein, and 5% to 10% carbohydrates. Specifically, in a 2000 kcal per day diet, carbohydrates amount up to 20 to 50 g per day. K E T O D I E T https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499830/
  • 60. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Conclusion Effects of a ketogenic diet in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome Antonio Paoli Journal of Translational Medicine 2020 Fourteen overweight women with diagnosis of PCOS underwent to a ketogenic diet with (KEMEPHY) for 12 week. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat body mass (FBM), lean body mass (LBM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), insulin, glucose etc were evaluated. results suggest that a Keto Diet may be considered as a valuable non pharmacological treatment for PCOS. Longer treatment periods should be tested to verify the effect of a KD on the dermatological aspects of PCOS
  • 61. • The Paleolithic diet, Paleo diet, caveman diet, or stone-age diet is a modern fad diet consisting of foods thought by its proponents to mirror those eaten by humans during the Paleolithic era. • The diet avoids processed food and typically includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and excludes dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes, processed oils, salt, alcohol, and coffee. • Historians can trace the ideas behind the diet to "primitive" diets advocated in 19th century. In the 1970s Walter L. Voegtlin popularized a meat-centric "Stone Age" diet; in the 21st century the best-selling books of Loren Cordain popularized the Paleo diet. PALEO DIET 1. de Menezes et al. 2019: "The Paleolithic diet has been gaining ground in the field of fad diets. It is based on food patterns of human Paleolithic ancestors, about 2.6 million to 10,000 years ago, a period that precedes the advent of industrial agriculture and is different from today's modern society". 2.^ British Dietetic Association 2014 - "The Paleo diet (also known as the Paleolithic Diet, the Caveman diet and the Stone Age Diet) is a diet where only foods presumed to be available to Neanderthals in the prehistoric era are consumed and all other foods, such as dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes, 'processed' oils, salt, and others like alcohol or coffee are excluded." 3.^ Ask EN 2010; Johnson 2015; Fitzgerald 2014. 4.^ Decker 2019.
  • 62. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes Diabetes Metabolism Research and Review 2017 Jan Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). • A Paleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. • Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness.
  • 63. The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a dietary pattern promoted by the U.S.- based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute(part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services) to prevent and control hypertension. The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods. It includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts, and beans, and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is designed to be a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public DASH DIET
  • 64. Title and Author Journal and year Intervention Result Effects of Sodium Reduction and the DASH Diet in Relation to Baseline Blood Pressure Stephen P Juraschek Journal of American College of Cardiology 2017 Dec The DASH-Sodium trial, adults with pre- or stage 1 hypertension and not using antihypertensive medications, were randomized to either DASH or a control diet. On either diet, participants were fed each of 3 sodium levels (50, 100, and 150 mmol/day at 2,100 kcal) in random order over 4 weeks separated by 5-day breaks. The combination of reduced sodium intake and the DASH diet lowered SBP throughout the range of pre- and stage 1 hypertension, with progressively greater reductions at higher levels of baseline SBP.