Thesis_Method_Svyasa.ppt

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Thesis_Method_Svyasa.ppt

  1. 1. Suggestions for Thesis writing
  2. 2. An ideal thesis should….. <ul><li>Have ‘sound stuff’ </li></ul><ul><li>Be well written </li></ul><ul><li>Be presented well </li></ul><ul><li>Be accurate, complete </li></ul>
  3. 3. …Well written <ul><li>Concise, yet clear (scientific writing should avoid long sentences) </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to grammar, punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to details (for example, terms written in a language other than English should be in italics ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. … .Presented well…simple, yet important <ul><li>Titles, sub-titles, sub-sub-titles (differences in case, font size, bold/underlined/italics, centered or indented or not-indented) </li></ul><ul><li>Indentation, line spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Fonts (thesis-writers should be discouraged from using fonts other than Times NR/ Arial); Font size 12, 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Bold/Italics/Underlined </li></ul><ul><li>Using the customary sections, using the appropriate terms (for e.g., references rather than bibliography) </li></ul>
  5. 5. …..Accurate, complete… <ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE….. </li></ul><ul><li>Figures should have a legend regarding the source from which they are reproduced </li></ul><ul><li>References cited in the text & in the reference list should NOT have any discrepancies (e.g. authors’ names, year..) </li></ul><ul><li>Material used for assessments (e.g., questionnaires, recording sheets should be provided in an Appendix) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The main sections… <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Aims (in most cases ‘objectives’ = aims with specific targets to achieve) ***** </li></ul><ul><li>A review of the relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE ***** indicates topics which the dissertation committee may especially like to re-evaluate </li></ul>
  7. 7. The main sections…..a few details <ul><li>Each Section begins on a fresh page </li></ul><ul><li>Section Titles should be in Times New Roman font, Font size 14, centered, bold, upper case </li></ul><ul><li>After each Section Title the first para of each Section should be left aligned & not be indented; subsequent paras are to be indented </li></ul>
  8. 8. For example: INTRODUCTION This…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. In the next…………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………
  9. 9. Apart from the Sections from Start to End a thesis may have: <ul><li>The Title page </li></ul><ul><li>An inscription/dedication </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgments </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract (******) </li></ul><ul><li>The contents page (including the contents of Appendices) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Aims (and Objectives ****) </li></ul><ul><li>A review of the relevant literature </li></ul>
  10. 10. … .continued <ul><li>Methods (or Materials, and another Section for Methods, or Materials and Methods ******) </li></ul><ul><li>Results, including Tables, Figures </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices – usually 2: ******* </li></ul><ul><li>- Appendix A: Materials used in testing </li></ul><ul><li>- Appendix B: Original Data which could also include computer printouts of waveforms, graphs… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cover Page with University Logo & a Photograph of the University Office Building <ul><li>The title: In upper case, Arial, Font Size 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the candidate: Sentence case, Name followed by qualifying degree, Arial, Font Size 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Names of Guides: Names followed by degrees (standard short forms, e.g., Ph.D. rather than PHD or PhD), Arial, Font Size 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the institution: In upper case, Arial, Font Size 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Can covers be different colors? ***** </li></ul><ul><li>Should covers be hard-binding and the front page pasted? ***** </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Title Page inside the Thesis <ul><li>Do we still need to standardize the format? **** </li></ul><ul><li>The title: In upper case, Times NR, Font Size 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the candidate: Sentence case, Name followed by qualifying degree, Times NR, Font Size 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Names of Guides: Names in Sentence case, followed by degrees (standard short forms, e.g., Ph.D. rather than PHD or PhD), Times NR, Font Size 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Names of Dissertation Committee members in Sentence case, followed by degrees, Times NR, Font Size 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Names of Doctoral students who assisted in Sentence case,Times NR, Font Size 12 ***** </li></ul>
  13. 13. … .what each section should contain….. <ul><li>Inscriptions/ Dedications: </li></ul><ul><li>This is, of course, optional and depends on the candidate. As far as possible a dedication or inscription should not be corrected or modified. However it is necessary to check that there are no obvious grammatical/spelling errors or that a quotation is not misquoted </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate & Declaration – the format are standardized </li></ul>
  14. 14. Acknowledgments…. <ul><li>It is very important to be clear who may be acknowledged when writing a thesis – as compared to compiling a manuscript… </li></ul><ul><li>OBVIOUS INCLUSIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Guides, Dissertation committee members </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance received for laboratory tests, statistical analysis, compilation, library searches </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of funding both Institutional (to be mentioned in all cases), other funds </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIONAL (for a thesis not a manuscript) </li></ul><ul><li>Family and friends </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Contents <ul><li>Should be accurate – absolutely no discrepancies are permissible here! </li></ul><ul><li>Should be easy to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Should be comprehensive – cover as much of the thesis as possible, including where to find original data, tables, graphs </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Contents <ul><li>The numbering system has been worked out ***** </li></ul><ul><li>Font, Font Size, Bold/Not, for Main headings, sub-headings, sub-sub-headings </li></ul>
  17. 17. Introduction <ul><li>An average introduction should build up the logic why it was necessary to conduct the study </li></ul><ul><li>An average Introduction should be approx. 5 A4 pages, double spaced, Times NR, Font size 12 </li></ul><ul><li>An Introduction may contain Figures needed to build up the logic. These should have a legend mentioning the Source, Year of publication </li></ul>
  18. 18. Scope and Objectives <ul><li>An aim or aims should be 1-3 sentences and as concise as possible: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The present study aims at evaluating the physiological changes associated with the practice of bhastrika pranayama. </li></ul><ul><li>Or: </li></ul><ul><li>* The present study was conducted to study the therapeutic efficacy of yoga for rheumatoid arthritis. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Objectives (consider the same example of physiological changes related to bhastrika pranayama, called BhPR for brevity, below ) <ul><li>To identify the principal physiological changes associated with the practice of BhPR </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the basis for the changes in physiological variables associated with the practice of BhPR </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate and compare the present findings with those of previously reported, similar studies </li></ul><ul><li>To identify possible conditions in which BhPR may be recommended based on the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>What is covered/ what is not </li></ul><ul><li>Implications, applications </li></ul>
  20. 20. Review of the Relevant Literature <ul><li>This Section should contain relevant references from </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional texts (ending with a clear link to experimental research) </li></ul><ul><li>Early publications (e.g., books, Yoga Mimamsa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent publications – preferably publications, also books </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulate the most relevant references at the end of the Section </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods <ul><li>This Section has been called: Methods/ Materials and Methods/ Methods as one Section and Materials as another – we can use METHODS ***** </li></ul><ul><li>The Methods Section varies according to the type of study. This presentation includes a standard description for an experimental study conducted with Human Subjects. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sub-sections, general rules <ul><li>Sub-section titles should be in Times NR, font size 12, bold, left aligned, Sentence Case </li></ul><ul><li>After each Sub-section heading, </li></ul><ul><li>the paragraph should begin on the next line, not indented, left-aligned </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods – the Sub-sections <ul><li>SUB-SECTION 1: Participants – as far as possible avoid using the terms Subjects/ Patients/ Volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section should include (and can be presented as a Table): </li></ul><ul><li>The sample size (how many?) & how it was derived </li></ul><ul><li>Source of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Method of involving them – as a compulsory part of their course/ as volunteers - ? </li></ul><ul><li>Age range, Group mean , SD, Sex </li></ul>
  24. 24. Methods, Participants – contd. <ul><li>5. Inclusion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>6. Exclusion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Note 5 &6 should not OVERLAP!!! </li></ul><ul><li>7. Informed consent – if it is mentioned candidates should show a signed sample and include a sample in Apeendix A along with Ethical Committee clearance (if any). </li></ul><ul><li>8. Other relevant details – were the participants on medication or not/ were they right-handed/ were they smokers/not </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Point 8 differs for each study </li></ul>
  25. 25. Methods, Sub-sections <ul><li>SUB-SECTION 2: DESIGN OF THE STUDY </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section should mention the Design of the Study, briefly yet clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Important terms which should be detailed: </li></ul><ul><li>Blinding, Masking – how was it done </li></ul><ul><li>Randomization how was it done? </li></ul><ul><li>Matched pairing – what was the basis? </li></ul><ul><li>Typical examples of Study Designs: </li></ul><ul><li>Randomized Controlled Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Paired, matched Controlled Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Self-as-control design </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional study </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section often requires a diagram for clarity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Methods, Sub-sections <ul><li>SUB-SECTION 3:ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section should cover: </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment/ psychological questionnaires used for assessment citing the Name of the manufacturer, Place or Reference (for questionnaires) </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure with a reference from the standard literature (a textbook or relevant publication) or cite a previous pilot study (as unpublished data). </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment: mention calibration, accuracy, error range </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires: reliability, validity </li></ul>
  27. 27. Methods, Sub-sections <ul><li>SUB-SECTION 4: INTERVENTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section should include a description of the yoga intervention, as well as any other alternate intervention if one was given </li></ul><ul><li>While mentioning the yoga intervention as many details as are relevant should be provided. The yoga practices should be mentioned in ‘running sentences’, numbering practices within a sentence, if needed. Sanskrit terms are to be mentioned in parenthesis and italics: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: yoga postures ( asanas )….. With transliteration </li></ul>
  28. 28. Methods, Sub-sections <ul><li>SUB-SECTION 5: DATA EXTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section should describe how data were extracted from…a questionnaire, an electrophysiological record … or whatever method was used for assessment. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Methods, Sub-sections <ul><li>SUB-SECTION 6: DATA ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>This sub-section should mention the statistical test used with the rationale (in NOT MORE than one sentence) and a relevant reference (if needed) </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need to mention tests carried out to assess whether data were normally distributed/ had equal variance, .. As these are routinely done </li></ul>
  30. 30. Results <ul><li>This main Section should be very concise </li></ul><ul><li>It should include – what was found – mentioning the level of significance and other information considered relevant depending on the test used </li></ul><ul><li>Mention the effect size </li></ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Information in Tables & Graphs should NOT duplicate each other </li></ul>
  31. 31. Results, Tables <ul><li>Tables should be numbered in Arabic Numerals (Table 1, Table 2…) </li></ul><ul><li>Each Table should have a comprehensive heading – this should begin on the next line after the Table No. Headings should be in Times NR (like the rest of the text), Font size 12, Bold, Sentence case </li></ul><ul><li>Each Table should indicate significant changes with asterisks </li></ul><ul><li>The level of significance (e.g., * = p<.05…) should be mentioned below the Table, Times NR, Font size 12, Bold </li></ul>
  32. 32. Results, Figures <ul><li>Figures should not duplicate data given in Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Figures should be numbered in Arabic numerals (Fig. 1, Fig. 2…..) </li></ul><ul><li>Every Figure should have a legend written below it in Times NR, font size 12, bold, sentence case </li></ul><ul><li>The units for all numbers should be provided in SI units (e.g., length – meter (m), time – second (s), frequency – cycles per second (Hz) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Discussion <ul><li>This is a very important Section! </li></ul><ul><li>It should attempt to describe what the study found & possible reasons for the findings </li></ul><ul><li>How the findings differ/are similar to those described earlier – and reasons for differences if any </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious drawbacks of the study design (etc.) and how these could have influenced the outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of the finding </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-sections depending on variables studied, integrating the discussion on each at the end </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>This Section should ideally ‘Stand Alone’ – if anyone reads it they would know why the study was done, what was done, what was found.. </li></ul><ul><li>It should include: </li></ul><ul><li>The Background (1-2 sentences) </li></ul><ul><li>The Aim </li></ul><ul><li>The Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Directions for future research </li></ul>
  35. 35. References <ul><li>We will follow the style of the Indian Journal of Medical Research </li></ul>
  36. 36. Appendices <ul><li>Appendix A: Test materials </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix B: Original data </li></ul>

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