Puberty.ppt

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Puberty.ppt

  1. 1. PUBERTY <ul><li>Onset of reproduction life </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine/gametogenic function of gonads mature  adolescence – (9-15 years in male & 9-13 years in female) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in testis, scrotum, penis in growth </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic hair growth / axillary / facial hair growth / spermatogenesis / acne. </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx – crackling  becomes masculine bass voice. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Female – Breast buds, menarche, uterine/vaginal/genitalia growth - later – psychological changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors – HRH / LH / FSH. </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen / progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Primary / second oocyte (ovulation) </li></ul><ul><li>From follicle into abdominal cavity is ovulation – 14 th day. </li></ul>
  3. 4. MENSTRUAL CYCLE <ul><li>Endometrial change  Hypothalamus  pituitary and FSH / LH </li></ul><ul><li>Female hormones and ovaries  ovarian cycle  28 days </li></ul><ul><li>Single ovum is released from the ovary </li></ul>
  4. 5. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY <ul><li>CVS, respiratory system, kidney, endocrine, blood (30% > in blood volume) because of salt & water retention because of > aldosterone / estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Weight = 11-12 kg increase </li></ul><ul><li>BMR becomes more because of thyroxine, cortisol, aldosterone, androgen </li></ul><ul><li>Fetus drains Iron from the mother </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus gains in size </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries stop ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Breasts enlarge. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Check-up <ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul>
  6. 7. Fetoplacental unit Placenta Hormones (Functions) HCG Estrogen Progesterone <ul><li>Oxygen diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acid </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul>
  7. 8. PREGNANCY TESTS Immunological Radiological Biological
  8. 9. ANATOMY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  9. 11. FUNDAMENTALS OF REPRODUCTION Spermatozoa (X & Y) Ovum (X) Zygote XX XY 46 chromosomes + FEMALE MALE
  10. 12. IMPLANTATION <ul><li>21-22 nd day  fetal heart, fetoplacental circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal placenta, 2 umbilical arteries carry impure blood from fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal blood flow through P = 400 mL/min – pumping action of fetal heart </li></ul>
  11. 13. PLACENTAL FUNCTION <ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones / enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Immunological function </li></ul>FETAL MEMBRANES <ul><li>Chorion </li></ul><ul><li>Amnion – protects fetal </li></ul>
  12. 14. FETAL MEMBRANES <ul><li>Chorion </li></ul><ul><li>Amnion – protects fetal </li></ul>

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