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Nervous System.ppt


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  • thank u for sharing, somehow i got an idea of how to present this lesson to my class for the first time
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  • Hello Mam,
    I'm Rahul Deb Chakraborty, working as product officer to one of our leading pharma company. Thank u mam for preparing this kind of presentation. this would be very much helpful for me as well as for others who r studing this one of the difficult system of our bogy.
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Nervous System.ppt

  1. 1. THE BRAIN – AN ENCHANTED LOOM By, Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran M.D.(Pead), Ph.D. (Yoga Science)
  2. 2. <ul><li>MÜKAM KARÔTI VACÁLAM </li></ul><ul><li>PANGUM LANGHAYATÄ GIRIM </li></ul><ul><li>YATKRIPÁ TAMAHAM VANDÄ </li></ul><ul><li>PARAMÁNANDA SÁGARAM </li></ul>PRAYER
  3. 3. <ul><li>In some ways, the human brain resembles a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>But in addition to logical processing, it is capable of complex development, learning, self-awareness, emotion, and creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Every second, millions of chemical and electrical signals pass around the brain and the body’s intricate nerve network. </li></ul><ul><li>But nervous tissue is delicate and needs physical protection and a reliable blood supply. </li></ul><ul><li>If damages, repair is often painstakingly slow, and nerve degeneration is one of the least understood medical problems. </li></ul>NERVOUS SYSTEM
  4. 4. <ul><li>Constantly alive with electricity, the nervous system is the body’s prime communication and coordination network. </li></ul><ul><li>It is so vast and complex that, at a cautious estimate, all the individual nerves from one body joined end to end could reach around the world two and a half times. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The brain in conjunction with the spinal cord, regulates non-conscious process and coordinates most voluntary movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, the brain is the site of consciousness allowing humans to think and learn. </li></ul><ul><li>A well known brain scientist, Sir Charles Sherrington gave a rather fanciful description of the brain…..“…within that enchanted loom millions of flashing shuttles weave a dissolving pattern, always a meaningful one, though never the same…” </li></ul><ul><li>Through the ages artists, seers, and philosophers have spent considerable time and effort to try to understand the brain. </li></ul>THE BRAIN
  6. 6. <ul><li>If we examine the brains of different species, it becomes obvious that one part remains the same, this is the ‘ core’ of the brain, which controls our basic needs (hungry, thirst, reproduction). </li></ul><ul><li>The brain comprises about one-fiftieth of the weight of the whole body, averaging 14 kg in adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomically, it has four main structures, the large, domed cerebrum, the deeper, inner diencephalons (consisting of the thalamus and nearby structures), the cerebellum to the lower rear, and the brain stem at the base. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>As we move from a fish to higher species (cat, monkey, Man) we find that an outer shell of brain tissue has ‘ mushroomed ’ around the core. </li></ul><ul><li>The outer shell is the thinking brain. </li></ul><ul><li>This makes all the difference – thus a shark catches its prey and eats it whenever it is hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>Man can wait for an appropriate time to gratify his wishes. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The nervous system can be considered as two division, based on the STRUCTURE & FUNCTION . </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The parts of the nervous system which lie in the mid- or central line together make the central nervous system or CNS . </li></ul><ul><li>Those parts (nerve cells, nerves) which lie away from the centre make up the peripheral nervous system or PNS . </li></ul>STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN CNS  Brain + Spinal cord PNS  Nerves = Nerve cells
  10. 13. <ul><li>The brain’s most obvious feature is the cerebrum, which makes up more than four-fifths of all its tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a grooved appearance due to its heavily folded surface, which is called the cerebral cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>The cerebrum partly envelops the thalamus and nearby structures (diencephalon) and the brain stem below this. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller cerebellum forms about one-tenth of the brain’s whole volume; it is mainly concerned with the organization of motor information being sent to muscles to make movements smooth and coordinated. </li></ul>EXTERNAL BRAIN FEATURES
  11. 14. <ul><li>The division which controls the functions which are not under our will (beating of the heart, digestion of food) is called the anatomic nervous system or ANS . </li></ul><ul><li>The second division controls functions which are under our will (walking, moving our hands) and is called somatic nervous system . </li></ul>FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN
  12. 16. A. Central nervous system B. Peripheral nervous system B1. Somatic nervous system B2. Autonomic nervous system 1. Cerebrum 2. Brainstem 3. Cerebellum 4. Spinal cord Somatic nervous system
  13. 17. <ul><li>Beginning with the structures which make up the core of the brain, the most important is the brain stem – ‘most vital part of the entire brain.’ </li></ul><ul><li>An injury in the lower most parts (the pons and medulla) results in death, as the centres which control respiration, the heart functions and BP are situated here. </li></ul><ul><li>The brainstem also contains a complex network of brain cells and fibers which runs through its entire length. This network acts as an alarm system – all sensations are received here, and messages pass to the rest of the brain. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Above the brainstem lies the cerebellum or little brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The cerebellum receives information about movement both from the higher centers (planners) and from the muscles (executers), so that changes can be made. </li></ul><ul><li>This is important to achieve balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the cerebellum can be expected to be working very efficiently in a circus trapeze artiste, who ‘walks the tight rope’ </li></ul><ul><li>The cerebellum also plays a role in speech and walking. </li></ul>
  16. 20. THE CEREBELLUM The CEREBELLUM is the SECOND LARGEST part of the Brain, and is located at the back of the Skull. It coordinates muscle movements.
  17. 21. <ul><li>In front of the brainstem and cerebellum lie the thalamus and hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>The thalamus is very important centre, through which all sensory information passes. </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoing information to the muscles also passes through the thalamus. Considerable change can occur here. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus lies below the thalamus and though small has many important functions. </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Maintaining the internal environment constant. </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of fluctuations in the EXTERNAL environment, the internal environment has to remain constant, if the enzymes and other chemicals have to function normally. </li></ul>HEMOSTASIS <ul><li>The hypothalamus is essential for us to feel HUNGRY and to STOP. </li></ul><ul><li>This is also true for thirst and drinking. </li></ul>FEEDING / DRINKING
  19. 24. <ul><li>The hypothalamus sends messages to the concerned parts of the brain. </li></ul>TEMPERATURE REGULATION <ul><li>Behavior is regulated by the hypothalamus </li></ul>REPRODUCTION <ul><li>The ductless glands (pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, reproductive glands) and their secretions are regulated by the hypothalamus </li></ul>CONTROL OVER THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  20. 25. <ul><li>The involuntary functions, which go on without us being aware of them (eg. Digestion of food) are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is situated in the brainstem, spinal cord, and in the periphery. </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS is in turn controlled by the hypothalamus. </li></ul>CONTROL OVER THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Parts of the hypothalamus are important for emotional responses, such as pleasure, pain, rage. </li></ul>EMOTIONS
  21. 26. <ul><li>Certain groups of nerve cells in the hypothalamus receive information from the eyes and hence regulate the body’s rhythms according to the light – dark cycle. </li></ul>BIOLOGICAL CLOCK SLEEP – MEMORY – Two other functions of the hypothalamus
  22. 27. <ul><li>During sleep, much of the body rests, but not the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Its billions of neurons continue to send signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep occurs in cycles, made up of lengthening phases of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, when dreaming occurs, and four stages of NREM (nonrapid eye movement), which is dreamless. </li></ul><ul><li>In stage 1, sleep is light. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2, brain waves begin to slow down </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3, fast and slow waves are interspersed, and finally in </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4, the deepest stage, there are slow waves only. </li></ul>SLEEP CYCLES
  23. 30. <ul><li>Is a wrinkled cap, which is the highest centre. </li></ul><ul><li>It is responsible for complex functions such as reasoning, creativity, anticipation. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is distinguished from other primates (monkeys) by a highly evolved cortex. </li></ul>CEREBRAL CORTEX
  24. 32. HIGHER FUNCTIONS SUCH AS REASONING, DISCRIMINATION, MEMORY Each Hemisphere of the Cerebrum is divided into Four regions called LOBES . These LOBES are named for the SKULL BONES that cover them, FRONTAL, PARIETAL, TEMPORAL, and OCCIPITAL LOBES .
  25. 33. <ul><li>This is the part of brain which lies behind the forehead. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been described as the ‘character cortex’. </li></ul><ul><li>This description was partly based on a very unfortunate accident. </li></ul><ul><li>A road digger, called Phineas Gage was working with a drill, when a horrible accident took place. </li></ul><ul><li>The drill went backwards with a great deal of force and went through his forehead and into his brain. </li></ul>FRONTAL CORTEX
  26. 34. <ul><li>He recovered physically, but his behavior was radically altered – for the worse . </li></ul><ul><li>He would use foul language, be unconcerned about his appearance or conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>This stray accident was further substantiated by the work of two scientists in the mid – 1930s. </li></ul><ul><li>They reported a dramatic experiment which was in the hospital laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>This animal had suddenly developed spells of violence and was considered dangerous. </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>It had to be ‘put to sleep’ – at this stage of medical history the function of the frontal lobes was not known. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence these scientists decided to try removing the frontal lobe in the monkey before sacrificing it. </li></ul><ul><li>The experiment had startling consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>The aggressive chimpanzee suddenly became very quiet and tractable. </li></ul><ul><li>The dramatic change reported by these scientists impressed a Portuguese psychiatric, Egas Moniz. </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>He decided to try the same treatment on psychiatric patients who were violent and uncontrollable. </li></ul><ul><li>His results appeared to be equally favorable and dramatic. </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanageable patients could now be handled very easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Moniz was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work. </li></ul><ul><li>However, soon it became apparent that all was not well with these patients. </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>They had lost their individuality, spontaneity, and creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>They were like ‘shells of their former selves’ </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, after this, frontal lobectomy was no longer considered to be a good solution for unmanageable patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, it is performed very rarely and in a much restricted form. </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>The part of the cortex lies to the side, in the area corresponding to the temple. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of this prat of the brain was discovered in a very interesting way. </li></ul><ul><li>A noted neurosurgeon (Penfield) took advantage of the fact that brain tissue feels no pain and carried out brain surgery under local anesthesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the patients were conscious throughout and not feeling pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Penfield stimulated parts of the temporal cortex with electric currents. </li></ul>TEMPORAL CORTEX
  31. 39. <ul><li>The effects were startling – the patients were able to recall memories which were forgotten long ago – one of them could clearly recall a conversation between two of his cousins when they were children. </li></ul>
  32. 40. <ul><li>Is concerned with putting together information. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be understood with an example. Imagine that you are sitting with your eyes closed and someone puts something in your hand. If the object is round, made of metal and fairly flat, then you combine this information with the memory of coins you have seen earlier and you are able to say that the object is a coin. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus you put together information from your hand (sensation) and from your memory. This putting together is done by the parietal cortex . </li></ul>PARIETAL CORTEX
  34. 42. <ul><li>The spinal cord is the downward continuation of the brainstem. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about 45 cm long and is protected by the back bone. There are four main parts of the backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>The uppermost part, which corresponds to the neck is called the cervical part. </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding roughly to the chest is the thoracic portion. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower down, approximately in the abdominal region is the lumbar part. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth part corresponds to the pelvic region and is called the sacral portion. </li></ul>THE SPINAL CORD
  35. 44. <ul><li>There is a small, final part which is the ‘tailbone’ or coccyx . (in man this portion has no function) </li></ul><ul><li>This column of backbones or vertebrae offers protection to the spinal cord which lies within it. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord can also be considered to have four parts (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral). </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord is shorter than the vertebral column. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the four parts of the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebral column do not correspond exactly. </li></ul>
  36. 45. <ul><li>The spinal cord is concerned with transmitting sensations (pain, temperature) from the body to the brain pass to the body. This is called the motor pathway. </li></ul><ul><li>The different parts of the spinal cord can also communicate with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, where our responses are very quick and automatic, the spinal cord ‘decides’ on its own, what has to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if we touch a hot surface we move our hand away instantly, without thinking. </li></ul>
  38. 48. <ul><li>As already described earlier, this part of the nervous system controls those functions which go on even when we are not aware of them, such as the digestion of food. </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS has two divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sympathetic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Parasympathetic nervous system </li></ul></ul>These two divisions arise from different parts of the central nervous system and have different functions.
  39. 49. <ul><li>The parasympathetic division arise form the brainstem and the sacral portion of the spinal cord . </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic division arises from the thoracic and lumbar parts . </li></ul><ul><li>For both divisions, from these parts of the brainstem or spinal cord, nerve cells send messages through their axons to another group of nerve cells called a ganglion . </li></ul><ul><li>The nerve fiber (axon) from a ganglion neuron passes to the different structures (heart, stomach, etc.) </li></ul>
  40. 50. <ul><li>As described earlier, the transmitting nerve fiber, or axon releases chemicals at its ending. </li></ul><ul><li>These chemicals influence other cells. </li></ul><ul><li>These may be other nerve cells, muscle cells, or other organs (heart, stomach, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic nerve fibers release ACETYL CHOLINE . </li></ul><ul><li>This chemical responsible for the many effects detailed below – of the parasympathetic division (such as slowing the heart, or digestion of food). </li></ul>Another important difference –
  41. 51. <ul><li>Sympathetic nerve fires release NOR ADRENALIN . </li></ul><ul><li>This is a derivative of adrenalin. </li></ul><ul><li>In everyday language we often say that “we can feel the adrenalin coursing through our bloodstream”…. Meaning that we are aroused/stimulated. </li></ul>
  42. 52. The Autonomic Nervous System Structure Sympathetic Stimulation Parasympathetic Stimulation   Iris (eye muscle) Pupil dilation Pupil constriction   Salivary Glands Saliva production reduced Saliva production increased   Oral/Nasal Mucosa Mucus production reduced Mucus production increased   Heart Heart rate and force increased Heart rate and force decreased   Lung Bronchial muscle relaxed Bronchial muscle contracted   Stomach Peristalsis reduced Gastric juice secreted; motility increased   Small Intestine Motility reduced Digestion increased   Large Intestine Motility reduced Secretions and motility increased   Liver Increased conversion of glycogen to glucose ---   Kidney Decreased urine secretion Increased urine secretion   Adrenal medulla Norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted ---   Bladder Wall relaxed Sphincter closed Wall contracted Sphincter relaxed  
  43. 54. <ul><li>The sympathetic nervous system brings about all the changes for the fight or flight response which occurs during stress. </li></ul><ul><li>The parasympathetic nervous system carries out functions needed for normal, everyday functioning – digestion of food, formation of urine. </li></ul>Coming to the differences in effects, in a general sense
  44. 55. Within 5 to 10 seconds of total stoppage of blood supply to the brain, a person loses consciousness, within 2 minutes all the energy stores are used up and brain death occurs. BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE BRAIN AND THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID <ul><li>It is very interesting to note that through the brain makes up about 2% of the body weight – the blood flow/min is about 15% of the output from the heart. (the average adult brain weights about 1400 g). </li></ul>
  45. 56. <ul><li>Thus the brain has a blood supply of about 750-1000 mL/min . </li></ul><ul><li>This blood supply remains constant during various conditions, such as exercise, and sleep . </li></ul><ul><li>Probably the most important factor which can make the blood vessels to the brain dilate (become wider) is carbon-dioxide . </li></ul><ul><li>This gas is produced whenever cells are active. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence cells are active the carbon-dioxide which is produced increases the blood supply automatically. </li></ul>
  46. 57. <ul><li>The brain also has another fluid, </li></ul><ul><li>which is clear and transparent. </li></ul><ul><li>The CSF is formed from the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>It is present in spaces (ventricles) within the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>It also is present around the brain, between layers of tissue wrapped around the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the CSF acts as a ‘ water cushion ’. </li></ul>THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID [CSF]
  47. 58. <ul><li>Recommended asanas : </li></ul><ul><li>Suryanamaskara </li></ul><ul><li>Shirshasana </li></ul><ul><li>Sarvangasana </li></ul><ul><li>Bhujangasana </li></ul><ul><li>Dhanurasana </li></ul><ul><li>Shavasana </li></ul><ul><li>Pranayama </li></ul>SPECIFIC YOGA PRACTICE