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Muscular System_SN.ppt

  1. 1. Muscular System
  2. 3. <ul><li>There are more than 630 muscles in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, the body weight is 40% muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the 630 muscles, 30 of them are facial muscles, which help to create all those different faces of happiness, surprise, joy, sorrow, sadness, fright, etc. </li></ul>The biggest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus (buttock)
  3. 4. <ul><li>The muscles surrounding the eye are the busiest muscles in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that probably blink them more than 100,000 times a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Each muscle belongs to one of three categories: skeletal muscles , which move bones - smooth muscles , which control involuntary movements such as breathing and digestion, - and cardiac muscle , which is found in the heart. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>The job of a muscle is to move the body . </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton cannot move without muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>There would be no way to animate the physical body or even speak the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Wouldn't be able to blink, digest food, breathe, pump the heart or have one for that matter since the heart is a muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Couldn't smile, urinate, defecate or sniff with the nose. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Muscles are a type of tissue that is composed of contractile cells or fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells or fibers actually contract! and when they contract, they create movement on the bone that they attached to. </li></ul><ul><li>The really cool thing about muscles tissue is its ability to shorten (contract). </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue has the property of irritability, conductivity and elasticity. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Smooth muscle : (involuntary tissue) because it is NOT under conscious control. </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary muscle tissue is found in the internal organs – the digestive tract, respiratory passages, urinary and genital ducts, urinary bladder, gallbladder, walls of the blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle cells are elongated and thin, not striated, have only one nucleus, and interlace to form sheets rather than bundles of muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). </li></ul>
  7. 8. Smooth Muscle
  8. 9. <ul><li>Skeletal (or voluntary/striated) muscle, the most abundant tissue in the human body, producing movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Each skeletal-muscle fiber is roughly cylindrical, contains many nuclei, and is crossed by alternating light and dark bands called striations. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers bind together, via connective tissue, into bundles; and these bundles, in turn, bind together to form muscles. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Thus, skeletal muscles are composite structures composed of many muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system (SNS). </li></ul>
  10. 11. Skeletal Muscle Fibers
  11. 12. <ul><li>Cardiac muscle : This muscle tissue is only found in the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>The fibers branch and form a continuous network. </li></ul><ul><li>At certain intervals, there are prominent bands or intercalated disks that cross the fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some fibers are called Purkinje fibers , and they form the impulse-conducting system of the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Like smooth muscle, it is innervated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). </li></ul>
  12. 13. Cardiac Muscle
  13. 14. Muscles work by contracting and relaxing <ul><li>Pump the bicep for a second. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a fist and bring it up to the ear. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice how the bicep gets bigger when the muscle tightens and shortens. </li></ul><ul><li>And when relax the arm, the muscle gets longer and smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles do not push, they pull. </li></ul><ul><li>The tiny muscle fibers work like a sliding glass door on a track. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>And these tiny muscle fibers get their energy from the food we eat. </li></ul><ul><li>Without food to feed muscles, the muscles couldn't make the energy to contract. </li></ul><ul><li>The reason can move the arm back and forth is because muscles work in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>One is a synergist, the other a antagonist. </li></ul><ul><li>It's a support thing and so they can pull in opposing directions. </li></ul>
  15. 17. &quot;Move it or Lose it” <ul><li>This term can be directly applied to a sarcomere. </li></ul><ul><li>A sarcomere is portion of a striated muscle fibril. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny pieces of the muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>If don't move and exercise those muscles by contracting and relaxing them, will in fact lose 100 sarcomere's a day. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Sarcomere
  17. 19. In order for a muscle to work, it has to cross a joint <ul><li>Connecting from one end of a bone to the other without crossing the joint would be pretty much useless because it wouldn't be able to shorten or lengthen with the movement of the joint. </li></ul><ul><li>So in order to bend knee, the muscles in the thigh have to cross over to the other side of the knee joint and attach. </li></ul><ul><li>Then when tighten the muscle, the knee bends. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>The muscles that are voluntary get their signals from the peripheral nervous system , and it's because of this that the skeletal muscles are under conscious or voluntary control. </li></ul><ul><li>The involuntary muscles (smooth and cardiac muscles) receive their nerve supply from the central nervous system and functions involuntarily without conscious control. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>It is possible to hurt a muscle because they can become pulled, hence &quot;pulled muscle.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Can actually tear a muscle the same way that a ligament or tendon gets torn or a bone gets broke. </li></ul><ul><li>And they can heal themselves with rest and time. </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>One of the most important postural muscles is the psoas. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the deepest and largest core muscle of the body. It consists of a wide muscle band originating on each side of the body and transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and the 12th dorsal vertebra. </li></ul><ul><li>It passes down each side of the front of the pelvis, from the hip sockets, and inserts on the lesser trochanters. </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>The psoas is a prime hip flexor. </li></ul><ul><li>It lifts the front leg as we walk and climb. </li></ul><ul><li>It assists in thigh rotation and adduction, and in a partnership balance with the large abdominal muscle, rectus abdominus, it maintains the natural lumbar curve, pelvic alignment, and a generally upright stance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a muscular support for the lumbar plexus, a network of nerves, which originate in the spinal cord. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Psoas – the postural muscle <ul><li>Helps in the upright standing pose or Tadasana. </li></ul><ul><li>We lengthen the psoas before deepening into a posture, draws the abdomen, the rectus abdominus muscle inwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthens the lumbar spine and creates width across the collarbone. </li></ul><ul><li>In side bending and twisting postures, this helps to prevent back injury, especially to the tiny facet joints of the spine. </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>The psoas maintains vertical alignment in inversions and creates length along the front body in forward bends. </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga is one of the best ways to lengthen and strengthen the psoas muscle. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Hip Extension
  25. 29. Hip Flexor
  26. 30. Hip Extension
  27. 31. Shoulder Flexion
  28. 32. THANK YOU