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  1. 1. Swami Vivekanada Yoga Anusandana Samsthana BST 503 Yoga Research Foundation Science & Consciousness (Deemed University) Consciousness Block -1
  2. 2. _______________________________________________ Each Soul is potentially Divine. The goal of life is to manifest that Divinity within by controlling nature internal and external. Do it by Work or Worship or Philosophy or Psychic control, by one or more or all of these and be FREE….” -Swami Vivekananda _______________________________________________ _
  3. 3. Swami Vivekanada Yoga Anusandana Samsthana BS T 503 Yoga Research Foundation Science and Consciousness (Deemed University) Block 1 Unit 1 Consciousness & Upanishads Unit 2 Consciousness according to Sankhya & Yoga Unit 3 Consciousness and Githa Unit 4 Consciousness & Western Psychology
  4. 4. UNIT 1 CONSCIOUSNESS & UPANISHADS Sructure 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Consciousness in Kena Upanishad 1.3 Consciousness in Mandukya Upanishad 1.4 Summary 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Upanishads talks out Brahman, Atman only. All other things are mundane. Brahman or Consciousness is ‘Self referent’ and does not need any proof for its existence. All our thoughts are drawn from the ‘Universal mind’ and we are nothing but a spark of the ‘Universal body.’ 1.1OBJECTIVES In this unit, we will be trying to understand what does Kena & Mandukya Upanishad say about Consciousness. 1.2 CONSCIOUSNESS IN KENA UPANISHAD The Kena Upanishad has derived its name from the very first word ‘Kena’ (by whom) with which it begins. In the Kena Upanishad, we get the notion of the Ultimate Reality as the origin, ground and the goal of all manifestation. It opens with a fundamental question ‘who controls our sense organs ‘which also implies ‘who controls this world?’
  5. 5. This Upanishad contains the story of Uma Haimavathi imparting spiritual knowledge to Gods who thought in a moment of Self-conceit and Self-forgetfulness that they are all powerful. The Gods also understood that, they had no power of their own, all the powers, they possess, come from one source and that is ‘Brahman’. The Upanishad opens with a question, perhaps by an inquiring disciple, whether there is any entity behind the sense organs like the ear or the organ of speech or even the mind that makes them to work. The teacher – that there is, that he is the eye of the eye (power behind the eye), speech of the speech, ‘präëasya präëaù’ àa[Sy àa[> (real power behind the breath), mind of the mind. They are able to function because of the presence and power of the CONSCIOUSNESS. It is almost impossible to impart the knowledge concerning him to others since his characteristics are beyond comprehension of the senses and mind (Aprameya). Yadvachaanbhyuditham yena vaagbhyudhyathe Tadeva Brahma tvam viddhi na idam yadidamupasate The above verse defines Consciousness - Speech cannot reveal the Consciousness, but by ‘that’, speech becomes a vehicle of expression. This phenomenal world becomes real to us and by running after objects of this sense world, we, in fact worship it. Behind this phenomenal world is the Consciousness, the reality and we are one with the reality. Consciousness is that which sages say, makes the mind to function and beyond the comprehension of mind or in other words mind has limitations and it fails to grasp ‘that’. Without Consciousness the organs – eyes, ears nose are powerless. The power by which these sense organs function is Consciousness. The world appears to be real, as it is supported by Consciousness, independent of which the world does not exist.
  6. 6. Consciousness is a subject not an object. If a disciple may think, he has clear understanding of Brahman, since he sees its manifestations in himself, but Consciousness is the essence of everything and much more than what he sees in himself. To know the Consciousness means, to know Consciousness as one’s own self or one is innermost being. It cannot be perceived in the same way an object is perceived. Infinite cannot be understood by the finite. If the person declares that he knows about Consciousness, then he is ignorant and he is referring only to his sense experience. If a wise man declares that he does not know ‘that’, he means he does not know it as an object of senses. Mind in all its function is illuminated by chaitanya or Consciousness – our senses also cannot work independently. It is always the same unchanging – the Consciousness - it watches the whirl of sense experience – called LIFE; but it is not affected in the least. It is mere the witness. Hence, when we realize ‘that’, we attain immortality. If a wise man declares that he does not know ‘that’, he means he does not know it as an object of senses. 1.3 CONSCIOUSNESS IN MANDUKYA UPANISHAD < ceeC[tke̳e GHeefve eled Máïãükya Upaniúat 271 Mandukya Upanishad is the smallest of the ten Upanishads, but it has been considered as Basis to the principles of Advaita Vedanta. An analysis of three states of Consciousness
  7. 7. 1.e. Jagrat ( Wakefulness) , Swapna ( Dream) & Sushupti ( Deep Sleep) and relating them to 3 syllables a, u, & m of Pranava or omkara and establishing in the state of turiya ( fourth state) as the highest reality is the specialty of the message. The 4 are not like 4 legs of a cow. 4 Dimensions 1 2 1 23 3 4 4 1. Jagrat 2. Svapna 3. Suúupti 4. Turiyá 279 THE THREE STATES OF OUR LIVES JAGRAT : WAKEFUL CONSCIOUSNESS SVAPNA: DREAM SUSUPTI: DEEP SLEEP THAT WHICH IS BEYOND IS TURIYA 280 The fundamental truth, the Ultimate, Eternal, All pervading concept is OM or Consciousness. Omkara is the bridge, which connects saguna Brahman & Nirguna Brahman. Om stands for everything for the whole universe. Om also encompasses past, present & future. Not only that, if there is something beyond these three times that also is included in Om. ‘Trikalatvam’ is what is beyond the three times and absolute time. Sarvam yetad brahma ayamatma brahma Soyamatma chatushapat…
  8. 8. This entire phenomenal world is Brahman. This Atman is the V – the individual ‘I’ is the Universal ‘I’. It has four states chatushpat. The individual here does not change. It is the same individual who is in the wakeful, dream, sleeping and Samadhi (the state one with the Brahman). We see all kinds of modification, but the reality is always the CONSCIOUSNESS.  F se #jcd obe e l³e o e eF m ¥ l J “AUM” Aksara is all this How can it be? •Just as energy is to all matter and physical world •Water to all waves •Gold to all golden ornaments 274  F se #jcd obe e l³e o e eF m ¥ l J So is OM to all the worlds Living and the non living Known and the unknown Kinetic and Potential energies Vyakta and Avyakta 275
  9. 9. YetleodYeJeled Fefle ‘ YeefJe <³eled meJe&ceeWkeÀej SJe Past present and future is verily that OM’ All that is in the realm of space time -T- causation (S C) Annamaya PráïamayaManomaya, – VijnánamayaKoùas Jágrat andSvapnacome under the 276 realm of (STC) The first state is when we are awake. In this state, we enjoy this gross physical world and we are conscious of the external world. We enjoy the gross world through our body and sense organs all together 19 faces. (pancha jnanendriyas, pancha karmendriyas, pancha pranas, manas, Buddhi, chitta & Ahankara) – sthula bhuk’ The second state is the state of dreaming. It involves nothing outside the mind. It is only a reflection of the desires & past impressions. It is also called as ‘svapna sthana’. In this state the Consciousness is within the mind ( anthah prajna) . The dreams are reflections of our experiencing waking state. We are enjoyers through memories & desires. The next stage is Sushupti or deep sleep – Ekibhoota prajnaanaghana. There is only Consciousness. There are no dreams, no desires, and no thoughts. The Consciousness will be dormant. The agent, which provokes the Consciousness to action, is maya or ignorance. This stage is called ‘ chetomukha’ – the door between the Self & waking/dreaming state. We are ‘ Ananda bhuk’ 1.e. enjoyer of bliss. In sushupti causal body is temporarily suppressed. Omkara envelopes all the three states of Consciousness and is the ‘Chaturtha.’ In the state of ‘Turiya’ ignorance is completely eliminated through Samadhi. Free from duality. Even if a person comes back to this ordinary plane of Consciousness, he is no longer deluded by duality.
  10. 10. Samadhi is voluntarily going to sushupti. Sushupti is involuntarily going to sushupti where we cant stay for longer time – there is is the seed of ignorance. Esha sarveshwara Esha sarvajna … This Consciousness is called sarveshwara, the lord of everything, the controller of everything. It is the source of all knowledge. It is the indwelling spirit, essence of everything, residing in the heart of everyone, cause of everything, responsible for the origination & destruction. All beings come from the same source & they go back to the same source, to the Self. mee¿ee de eD³eelcey´ e e & s ley´ e ce e e Ji b l ï ï eS celce e < e d ms³e e e® gele e leH All this is Brahman This self is Brahman This Self is having 4 padas 278
  11. 11. Big bang theory Vedanta First came time and space Existence of Akasa After three minutes explosion took place- catastrophe hypotheses_ blast of massive Air comes out of space matter into space (Akashadvayuh) Then Neutrons, electrons and protons come together and fiery masses took shape. That is the fireball sun. Fire comes out of air (Vayoragnih) Fire became cold. Water came out of fire (Agnerapah) When water gets evaporated soil remains Earth came out of water that is the earth. (adbyah Prithvi) 1.4 SUMMARY In the unit we have come to know the essence of Kena Upanishad - Consciousness is not an object to be understood. It is consciousness, which understands. Senses are activated in the presence of Consciousness. In other words Consciousness is the base of all senses. Mandukya Upanishad says that Consciousness is a witness; Consciousness is awake all the time Consciousness exists always in waking stage, dream stage and sleeping stage. UNIT 2 CONSCIOUSNESS ACCORDING TO SANKHYA & YOGA 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Consciousness according to Sankhya 2.2 Consciousness according to Yoga 2.3 Summary
  12. 12. 2.0 INTRODUCTION We have six systems of philosophy called shatdarshanas. 1. Nyaya 2. Vaisheshika – 3. Uttara meemamsa 4. Poorva Meemamsa 5. Sankhya 6. Yoga Sankhya Shastra deals with creation. Yoga Shastra deals with pratipasava – going back to consciousness, which is the reverse process. 2.1 CONSCIOUSNESS ACCORDING TO SANKHYA Prakriti is the Sanskrit expression for nature. It does not mean matter as we understand it today, because the matter of the scientist is a late evolute of Prakriti. It is an expression The word säëkhya has been derived from ‘säëkhya’, which means jnäna or knowledge. The säëkhya system accepts only puruça (the individual soul) and the pradäna or prakåti ( nature) as the fundamental realities and does not accept éçvara or God. Hence it is called as ‘niréçvara säëkhya’ .( säëkhya without éçvara). The Yoga philosophy which accepts all the principles of the säëkhya and also éçvara or God in addition has been designated as ‘saéçvara sänkhya’.
  13. 13. Sankhyan metaphysics has reduced all the realities in our experiences to two fundamental and eternal substances; the prakriti (lifeless object) and the purusha ( the conscious self). The basic argument behind this conclusion the principle that the effect pre existed in the cause before manifestation. Every object is seen to possess three characters – pleasure, pain and indifference – the sankhya comes to the conclusion that there be three basic subtle substances from which these three characters are derived. It calls them as gunas – sattvaguna (producing pleasure or happiness), rajoguna (producing pain and suffereing ) and tamoguna ( producing neither). Each of these gunas stands for a distinct aspect of physical reality. Satva signifies whatever is pure and fine and conduces to the production of knowledge as also happiness. Rajas is ever active. It is also responsible for desires and ambitions, to fulfill which, one has to actively work. Tamas is stolid and offers resistance. It tends to sleep and inactivity. These three gunas always exist together and can never get seperated. When these threewhich are ever in turmoil as it were – are in a perfectly balanced state not interfering with one another, though ever active or in perpetual motion within themselves, constitute the prakriti or pradhana. In other words prakriti is none other than these three gunas in a state of perfect balance. This prakriti is the basic material, primal matter from which the universe evoloves. It is the jada it has no consciousness. The purusha on the other hand is a conscious entity. Consciousness is his very essence. He is eternal, ever pure, ever detached and allo pervading. There are innumerable purushas or souls as many as the living beings. In other words according to Sankhya shastra there is Prakruti & Purusha. Prakriti is Jada or inert, Purusha is chetana. The whole Universe has come into existence with combination of jada & chetana. Each one of us is Purusha or Consciousness within i.e. Individualized Consciousness. Purusha – Prakriti ( Satwa, Rajas, Tamas) |
  14. 14. Mahat | Ahankara | Manas | __________________________________________________________ | | | | 5 Tanmatras 5 Mahabhutas 5 Jnanendriyas5 Karmendriyas Shabda Akasha shrotru Vak Sparsha Vayu Twak Pani Rasa Apah Rasana upastha Roopaa Agni chakshu pada Gandha Prithvi GhraNa payu The process of evolution from prakriti is as follows: as a result of the gunas mixing with one another, the first evolute coming out of the prakriti is the mahat or the buddhi ( the cosmic intellect). From that emerges ahankara (cosmic ego). From the satvik part of ahankara evolve manas (cosmic mind), the five jnanendriyas (cosmic organs of knowledge like the eyes and the ears) and the five karmendriyas (cosmic organs of action like the hands and feets). From the tamasik part of ahankara are produced the five tanmatras (subtle elements of earth water etc.) and from them further evolve the five mahabhutas or gross elements (of earth, water, fire , air, and ether). In all , including the prakriti , there will now be 24 cosmic principles or elements. The rest of creation takes place by their permutaion and combination, each purusha getting involved with prakriti as per his karma. 2.4 CONSCIOUSNESS ACCORDING TO YOGA
  15. 15. The aim of yoga is pratiprasava (back to consciousness) to remove ignorance or avidya and realize the real nature of Purusha. Yogah Chittah Vritti nirodhah : Yoga is to get mastery over the Chitta. Chitta = Mind + Ego + Intelligent + Memory Mind = Gathering the information Intelligent = Gathering the information Ego = Identifying experiences Memory = Storing the information. Purusha is in the cage of Prakriti, Mahat, Ahankara & Manas. It is in the model of Box within a Box. By Vitarka you can get out of the grossest box Jnanendriyas & Karmendriyas. By Dharana you can remove subtlest box of Tanmatras, Mahabutas & the manas. By Asmita Samadhi you can realize that you are the existence. Keeping the body fit by äsana, pränyäma, baëdha & kriyäs are necessary for pratyähära (withdrawing the senses). The object in yoga is harmonizing Rajas & Tamas into Satva. Manas or Ahankara does not contaminate Satva. At that stage of Mahat, Purusha realizes and goes beyond the Satva & becomes Gunathitha – the pratiprasava or going back to the consciousness. When Purusha is attached to Prakriti, he is entangled with Sukha & Dukha. When detached, it will be in its pristine purity, one with the Universal Consciousness.
  16. 16. a) Yoga takes the theory of Prakriti from Sankhya and explains how Purusha can be released from Prakriti. b) The aim of Yoga is Pratiprasava (back to consciousness) to remove the covers and realizes the real nature of Purusa. c) Yogah cittvritinirodha: Yoga is to get mastery over the Chitta. Chitta = mind + ego + intelligent + memory Mind = gathering the information Intelligent = organizing the information Ego = identifying experiences Memory = storing the information d) Lower Prakriti is Jada while higher Prakriti is charged with consciousness. e) Consciousness which is trapped in Prakriti is Jiva. f) According to Sankhya there is one Prakriti and Many Purusas, but Krishna divides Prakriti in to lower and higher. g) Krishna speaks about three Purushas: Lower Purusha associated with lower Prakriti. Higher Purusha associated with higher Prakriti. The supreme Purusha – The master of all is Purusottama. h) Purusottama is the Universal self and He is the reflection of Nirguna Bharaman. i) There is not different type of consciousness; these are only different levels and states of consciousness. Consciousness is always singular. j) As white colour appears in seven colours, consciousness also appear in different states different levels. 2.5 SUMMARY In this unit we have learnt the concept of consciousness (puruça or cetana) according to sänkhya and yoga Philosophy. Yoga takes the theory of Prakriti from sänkhya and explains how puruça can be released from Prakriti.
  17. 17. UNIT 3 CONSCIOUSNESS AND GÉTA 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Consciousness in Geetha 3.2 Summary 3.0 INTRODUCTION The Lord speaks to Arjuna in Srimad Bhagavadgitha about divine knowledge thus - I have two powers of manifestation (prakritis) , the lower and the higher. The lower prakriti is material nature consisting of earth, water , fire, air, sky , mind intellect and egoity The Higher prakriti is My manifestation as Jivas or centres of consciousness. The former is My Unconscious Nature and the later Conscious Nature. It is My Conscious Nature that supports and sustains the world made of the later unconscious Nature, because the evolution into various spheres and numerous species of beings is for Jivas to reap the fruits of their Karma and gradually evolve into perfection. 3.1 CONSCIOUSNESS IN GÉTA Consciousness is that which does not undergo any modifications. Everything else other than consciousness has six modifications as follows : jäyate – comes to existence asti – remains vardhate – grows
  18. 18. viparinamate – changes apakñéyate – decays måyate – dies Shri Krishna in the following verses explains the evolution, but has condesed the 24 tatvas of Sankhya into eight. ÉUimrapaenlae vayu>om! mnae buiÏrev c AhNkar #tIym! me iÉÚ ài³itrÏ A:>qxa . bhümiräponalo väyuùkham mano buddhireva ca ahankära itéyam me bhinna prakritir añùöadhä (7.4) My nature is divided into eight categories – earth, water, fire, air , sky , mind, understanding & ‘ I’ sense. Apreym! #ts! Tv! ANyam! àk«itm! iviÏ me pram! jIv ÉUtam! mhabahae yyedm! xayRte jgt! apareyam itas tv anyäm prakåtim viddhi me paräm jéva bhütäm mahäbäho yayedam dhäryate jagat (7.5) This , Oh mighty armed , is My lower Nature. Know that , as different from it , is My Higher Nature forming the source of all Jivas and the support of the whole universe. yetdÏ yaenIin ÉUtain svRm! Ty! %pxary Ahm! k«TõSy jgt> àÉv> àlyStwa .
  19. 19. yetad yonéni bhütäni sarvam ty upadhäraya aham kåtsnasya jagataù prabhavaù pralayastathä (7.6) Know that all beings have these two natures of Mine as their source. I am the origin and the dissolution of this entire Universe. mÄ> prtrm! n ANy ikiNcdÏ AiSt xn{jy miy svRm! #dm! àaewm! sUÇe mi[ g[a #v . mattaù parataram na anya kincid asti dhanaëjaya mayi sarvam idam protham sütre maëi gaëä iva (7.7) Oh Arjuna! There is no being Higher than Me. As a row of pearls threaded on a string , all the worlds are held on Me. The above verses set forth that in the creative process of the Lord’s power of Manifestations functions as His two natures – The material i.e Unconsciousness Nature or Prakriti and His spiritual Nature or the Jivas. Strangely enough, the Jiva , which should be calle dpurusha is classified with prakriti here, there by obliterating the dicotamy between the two terms familiar in the Sankhya. The material Nature is here treated in its Cosmic aspect and is spoken of as eight fold. But that is doen by counting only the effect category and leaving the casual categories as implied . Fully stated , according to the analysis of the Sankya philosophy , the categories of the Prakriti and its evolutes are 24. These are – Prakriti ( with its three Gunas of Satva, Rajas, Tamas ) ; Mahatatva ; Ahankara ; Manas ; the five organs of knowledge; the five organs of action; the five tanmatras; and the five gross elements of Sky , Air, Fire, Water and Earth. From these categories the material Universe is evolved. Also the psycho - physical organism of the Jiva , consisting of his subtle and gross bodies , evolves out of these . The subtle body persist through all embodiments until ther Jiva gains liberation, attaining to his natural state as purusha. This material Nature or Prakriti is infinite with
  20. 20. countless dimensions in which different world systems ( Lokas ) of different subtley co – exist without mutual intrusion and the Jiva finds embodiment in these different Lokas accordiong to his Karma. ]eǶm! caip mam! iviÏ sv ]eÇezu Éart ]eÇ ]eǶyaerÏ Jnanm! yt! tt! Jnanm! mtm! mm . kñetrajnam cäpi mäm viddhi sava kñetreçu bhärata kñetra kñetrajnayor jnänam yat tat jnänam matam mama (13.2) Know Me Oh Scion of Bharata race, to be the Kshetrajna ( the spirit) In all Kshetraas ( bodies). The knowledge of the distinction between Kshetra and Kshetrajna alsone is real knowledge according to Me. In (13.2) Krishna says that there are 2 categories in the consciousness of man _ the object and the subject, the ‘seen’ and the ‘seer’. The ‘seen’ is in the field, the body; the ‘seer’ is the spirit, the Jiva. The body mind is its addition, the instrument through which the spirit contacts objects. Still, it is only the ‘seen’, the ‘object’, because the seer the Jiva is not part of it but distinct from it and master of it. In a broader sense the field is not merely the individual body but Universal nature of which the individual body is a part. This Universal nature of which individual body is a part. This Universal Nature, the Field is constituted of the following : The egoity, Intellect, the Un-manifested state, the eleven organs, the five objects of perception, will , aversion, joy, sorrow, combination, life, vitality. All the individual fields are made of the combination of these and in all of them Seer is Myself (My part or reflection in them). n Astae ivXyte Éavae nÉavae ivXyte st> %Éyaerip ÔZqaeNtSTv Anyaes! tTv dizRiÉ> . na asato vidhyate bhävo nabhävo vidhyate sataù ubhayorapi draçöontastva anayos tatva darçibhiù (2.16) The unreal can never come into existence, and the real can never cease to be.
  21. 21. The wise philosphers have known the truth about these categories. ( of the real and the unreal). Aivnaiz tu tdÏ iviÏ yen svRimdm! ttm! ivnazmVyySyaSy n kiSct! ktuRm! AhRit . avinäçi tu tad viddhi yeana sarvamidam tatam vinäçamavyayasyäsya na kascit kartum arhati (2. 17) Know that Reality, by which everything is pervaded, to be indestructible, No one can cause the destruction of this immutable Being. nEn< iDNdiNt zôai[ nEn< dhit pavk> ncEn< ¬edy<Tyap> n zae;yit maét>. nainaà chindanti çasträëi nainaà dahati pävakaù nacainaà kledayantyäpaù na çoñayati märutaù (2.23) Weapons do not cleave the Atman, fire burns it not, water wets it not, wind dries it not. ACD*ae=ymdaýae=ym! A¬e*ae=zae:y yev c inTy> svRgtSwa[u> Aclae=ym! snatn>. acchaedyo'yamadähyo'yam akledyo'çoñya yeva ca nityaù sarvagatasthäëuù acalo'yam sanätanaù (2.24) This Self is uncleavable, incombustible and neither wetted nor dried. It is eternal, all- pervading, stable, immovable and everlasting. AVy´ae=ym! AicNtyae=ym! AivkayaeR=ym! %Cyte tSmadÏ @vm! ividTvEnm! n Anuzaeictum! AhRis . avyakto'yam acintayo'yam avikäryo'yam ucyate tasmäd evam viditvainam na anuçocitum arhasi (2.25)
  22. 22. Knowing Him ( the Self ) to be unmanifest , inconceivable and unmodifyiable it is improper to mourn for Him. The truth is that man’s spirit or Atman is indestructible. Until man lives by this truth , there can be no abiding virtue in him. In order to convince this Arjuna, Krishna at the very start of this discourse, expounds the high philosophy of Atman in the following words: Your sorrow is for persons who are not in need of it. A wise man takes death as a triffle. For he, knows that the essence in man is the Atman or the consciousness, the birthless, the death less, the eternal spirit, whom weapons cannot cleave, fire cannot burn or air cannot dry . Birth and Death are only of the body and not of the Atman, and the body in relation to the Atman is like clothes one puts on and throws away; or like the passing stages of life like childhood, boyhood, youth and old age. Pleasant and painful experiences of life are passing episodes. A man who knows this and is never moved by pleasure and pain, by life and death, is alone wise and fit for spiritual freedom. 3.3 SUMMARY a. Lower Prakrti is jada ( inert) while the higher prakriti is charged with consciousness. b. Consciousness is trapped in Prakriti is Jiva. c. According Sankhya there is one prakriti and many purushas. But Krishna divides Prakriti into lower and higher. d. Krishna speaks about three purushas - Lower Purusha associated with lower Prakriti. - Higher Purusha associated with higher Prakriti. - The suprme Purusha - the master of all is Purushottama e. Purushottama is the Universal Self and He is the reflection of Nirguna Brahman. f. Consciousness is always singular. As white color appears in seven colors. Consciousness also appears in different states in different levels. g. Krishna condenses 24 tatvas into 8.
  23. 23. UNIT 4 CONSCIOUSNESS & WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY Introduction 4.1 Objectives 4.2 Western Psychology 4.3 Summary 4.0 INTRODUCTION The main break through comes in western psychology came through the effort of Freudian. He was a medical doctor not a psychologist. But his major contribution was towards the subconscious mind and its analysis. His concept gave rise to the modern concept of dream therapy, hypnotic state of subconscious mind and regression therapy. His analysis says that anything we do because there is urge of sub conscious mind. His views were near to Super consciousness as defined in our Vedas. 4.1 OBJECTIVES In this unit we will be learning about aspects of Freudian psychology which lead to the concept of subconscious mind. 4.2 WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY Western Psychology recognizes the three states of consciousness and it also recognizes what are called altered states of consciousness. The three state of consciousness are exactly the same as same as in Mandukya Upanishad or Vedanta. The waking state, the sleep state, the dreamless sleep state. The words used in psychology are conscious state, sub conscious state, unconscious state. What Vedanta says as the fourth form (sushupti) of the state is the Super conscious state? Western psychology doesn’t accept the super consciousness state. Western psychology depends upon the analysis - the body mind interaction. Just as Yoga talks about mind
  24. 24. body interaction. Western psychology says that whatever action we perform in the waking state, leaves behind an impression in our brain, not in chitta nor in mind. The brain is memory bank which receives all impressions. The way psychology started little more than 100 years ago. William James himself changed Freudian psychology. Freud was a medical doctor not a psychologist. He felt that most of the sickness is generated in the mind . That is why he gave lot of importance to mental health. The mind is the product of the brain. As the brain becomes more and more mature it gives rise to mind. That is the reason why a 6 months baby is not able to make judgments. A 6 month old baby is like an animal instinctual. When it is hungry, it cries and is satisfied after feeding. . When it is satisfied it smiles. Most of the times we think baby smiles, because it is happy. But the doctor’s say it is instinctual reaction of seeing things around it. And also we are over the impression babies recognize the mother and father. In fact they don’t recognize mother and father but they recognize the hands that feed, just like animals. . So, the attitude of early psychologists was as the brain starts developing it gives rise to this vague concept called mind and mind starts exercising the choices. The mind is able to think. So brain is important and the mind is subsidiary. According to the Vedanta the brain is the hardware and the mind is the software. All the impression goes into the subconscious mind. In the day time it is fully active so everything is recorded in it. The brain goes on thinking and responding. Depending on the capacity of the brain to accept or to reproduce a person may be called as intelligent being. What happens in sleep state? In the sleep state, the subconscious state of mind takes over. Here Freudian psychology is in coincidence with Vedanta. That means it takes over and start spinning all kinds of things like any problem you encounter in the waking state gets reflected in the dream state. In other words dreams are nothing but a manifestation of all the hidden problems, we have. In the dream state suppressed desires manifest themselves. What Freud
  25. 25. discovered to the great advantage of modern psychology was that the dreams can indicate to us the experience of waking state.. Today a lady called Ann Shepherd in USA, has developed what is known as dream therapy. This Methodology is based on the Freudian psychology. Everyday as soon you get up in the morning you have to make a note of all the dreams you remember, the people who come in your dreams, and the events that take place. Try to discuss with a friend who is interested in listening to you. Your psychiatrists doesn’t do anything what your friend will be able to do by interpreting your dreams. Freud believed that behavior has a cause which usually is hidden from the conscious mind. He wrote, "Amnesia lies at the base of all neurotic symptoms. Our goal is to reveal the forgotten memories through yet to be learned methods." We are grateful to Freud for attempting to set us on the path of exploring the unconscious mind. Regression therapy is a therapeutic process that uses one’s earlier life experiences as source material to resolve current problems. This concept is similar to psychodynamic therapy. However, regression therapy is more solution-focused, whereas psychodynamic therapy is more interested in the process and the experience. Past life therapy encompasses all the same techniques and theories as regression therapy, however, the boundaries are lifted from the conscious mind, enabling the client to explore a past-life. Regressing someone back to his childhood or a past-life is by no means a phenomenon. If you listen carefully, people regress all the time, whether it’s at a *bleep*tail party or standing in line at a grocery store. In a therapeutic setting, a therapist will help a client regress and to make the unconscious conscious. By using different therapeutic techniques such as hypnotherapy, guided imagery, relaxation exercises or just talk-therapy, a client can be regressed into a past memory that may be influencing his present life in a negative way. Dream Therapy has also given rise to other aspect of human brain. A person can control the mind of another person through hypnosis giving suggestions. Mesmerism is a bit of medical quackery developed in the 18th-century by Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer. It involves some social role-playing with the mesmerizer making suggestions and his clients becoming absolutely mesmerized by him. Mesmer used his extraordinary powers of
  26. 26. suggestion to send people into frenzied convulsions or sleeplike trances. He was so successful that to this day we use his name to describe the exercise of such powers over others. Psychologist caught hold of this idea and put people in the same condition as in the dream state or the hypnotic state. But in that case you should not interfere with the mind of the patient. This is the origin of regression therapy. What do psychiatrists do, when a person is put to regression? Then psychiatrist is able to go from conscious to subconscious mind of the patient and then he starts talking to the patient. The beauty of hypnosis is that the patient is able to talk even though the experience is that of dreams. If the mind is taken back the person remembers the experiences like a dream. They are dream like experiences of reality. It is hidden in the sub consciousness mind, it can be harmful and it can also be useful. You can easily give a suggestion to person who has been mesmerized and ask him to do wrong things. Hypnotism is not good unless it is practiced by a psychiatrist who is very highly qualified. But it helps a lot. The sub conscious is undying. There was a movie ‘Three faces of Eve’. It is the story of regression therapy- bringing out the information from the sub consciousness to the consciousness level. Here in this movie, subconscious splits into two. This was real story which was reported in Bethasta Hospital. Anything we do because there is urge in the subconscious mind. This is the indicator how much get stored in our subconscious. We may think it is .lost, but it is not . Why it is not recovered in the dreamless sleep state? Because the human being is in the state of what is known as unconscious state. This was Freudian analysis. Freud had two students Alder and Jung. Alder became a great devote continued the Freudian system. Jung, some how felt that there is something missing in the whole order of Freud analysis. For Freud which one is more real? The waking state or the dream state? More real is the waking state. He analyzed the dream from the frame of reference of waking state. That is why dream is unreal. Whatever Vedanta says, cannot be compared in this manner. You cannot look at the dream state from the waking state or the waking state from the dream state. You have to consider each one independently i.e.. In the
  27. 27. dream state, dreams are real, in the waking state the waking state experiences are real. Don’t look at the dream from waking state. A psychiatrist uses dream therapy, to cure a problem either of dream state or of waking state. But for a psychologist the waking state is the most important. Yung said dream state has some application in the waking state. Then why is it that un- conscious state is considered most enjoyable in all of us which we enjoy in sleeping? Shakespeare said “there is a divinity shaping our lives rough hew than how will, however much we try to shape our personality the end result is always in the hands of divine” “Sleep, sleep, sleep the balm of troubled minds.” Example Lady Macbeth. When you see the moving in front of you that means the end for you is near. As she started seeing those trees moving, she couldn’t get sleep. She had blood in her hands. Alcohol or drugs are taken to get to the waking state but they stay in the dream state, so that they can forget their troubles. It is escapism from reality,. because every night we experience that un conscious state which is the best state. All of us experience the same dreamless state - it is the bliss and happiness which is the common heritage of all the beings. So Yung came up with the concept of the unconscious which shaped our life our destiny. Then he came up with the question who is the one to experience? He had studied Vedanta. Who experiences through all these things? There must be some one who experiences. He never said that the super consciousness but he said that every man has a soul. He said that psychology talked about it. He came to Calcutta in 1935. It was centenary celebration of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He was highly influenced by his philosophy. But later in 1935 he had talked with Swami Yatishwarananda. He said you have come close to Vedanta why don’t you accept Super consciousness? Yung said that I came unto this but I cannot accept this concept of Super conscious.ness.Yung also said that it is not only the subconscious state which governs our capabilities but also that the unconscious has an influence. What happens in the unconscious state? we don’t know, but something happens in that state - the individual vanishes. Individual ego
  28. 28. vanishes but something remains over. what is that which remains over, that which is common to entire humanity? - . Bliss is the only thing. He did not agree. Any human quality which you see anywhere in this world which is common to entire humanity is the part of unconsciousness. It cannot be explained by waking state or by dream state. But it manifests itself in the waking state and dream state and this is called as archetypes. It is the conscious state which governs the archetype, so he used the word collective consciousness. That is the closest he went to super consciousness. What Vedanta says about this? Vedanta says about all of us sitting in this room. That the bodies are different, our manas is different, buddhi is different, ahamkara is different and our chitta is different but amongst all of us, consciousness is common. Individual consciousness is superconsciousness. Ayamatma brahma (Mandukya Upanishad) He said that I can go far up to collective consciousness. What is collective consciousness? Collective consciousness is common to entire humanity. That dreamless sleep, sushupti state is experienced which we all have and there is no different between my experience and your experience. But even that has a very important role play because it is the seat of soul, which is located in the collective consciousness. Waking state, dream state and dreamless sleep state similarly conscious state, subconscious state and unconscious state. This unconscious state is common to everybody. There is where archetypes reside. What are archetypes? Archetypes are qualities; human qualities reside within their unconsciousness. Each one of us is a combination of archetypes which decides what type of persons we are. What epics or mythology do? They try to personify a quality of human beings by identifying one archetype. Mahabharata and Ramayana. What are these Archetypes?
  29. 29. Ramayana Rama- Obedience to law. Laxman- Brotherly love. Sita- Suffering. Mahabharata Yudhistara- Rightness, code of conduct. Bhima- Rashness. Arjuna- Confusion Nakula- Male beauty Sahadeva- Trikalajnani Kunti- Typical motherly women, she accepts stepsons as her own. Karana- Danashula. Dryudhana- Jealousy. Dushyasna- Evil. Bhishma- Pratijyana. Vidura- Wisdom. This is the way to understand conscious and subconscious state of existence. It is the archetypes comparison, which decides what type of personality we are. All the experience that we under go lodged in the subconscious are consequence of the kind of personality, which is the collective unconsciousness. Western psychology still doesn’t accept the existence of Super consciousness. QUESTIONS 1. Explain Consciousness according to Mandukya Upanishad? 2. What is Consciousness according to Geetha " Quote verses from Geetha.