By, Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran, MD. PHARMACOLOGY
PHARMACOLOGY Pharmacology a broad medical speciality and containing many subdivisions. A drug is a chemical compound that effects the structure of a body part or the functioning of a biological process. Medicinal chemistry: Study of new drug synthesis chemical structure and biological effects. Pharmacodynamics: Study of drug effects in the body, incluse absorption, metabolism, and excrition.
Pharmacokinetics: The movement of drugs that is the appearance and disappearance in the body. Molecular pharmacology: Study of the intraction of drugs such as DNA, RNA, enzymes. Chemotherapy: Treatment that destroy microorganism, paracytes, or malignant cells. Toxicology: Study of the harmful effect of drugs and chemicals. A toxicologist is also interested in finding proper antidotes to harmful effect of drugs. Chemical Name: Is the chemical formula of the drug shows the structure of the drug. Generic Name / Official Name: Is a very less complicated name that is recognized as identifying the drug for legal and scientific purposes. There is only one generic name for each drug. Brand Name / Trade Name / Proprietary Name: Is a private property of an individual drug manufacture.
Drugs are prepared and dispensed by pharmacist through a drug store or pharmacy . A pharmacist must complete a BS degree (Bachelor of science in pharmacy, 5 years). Hospital pharmacist complete a Pharma.D. (doctor of pharmacy ).
TERMINOLOGY OF DRUG ACTION Additive action: Combination of 2 similar drugs is equal to the sum of effect of each (Drug A 10% + Drug B 20% = 30%). Idiosyncrgistic: Unexpected effect that may appear in the patient following administration of the drug idiosyncrgistic reaction, which are due to genetic deficience of enzymes are produce in very few patients but may be life threatening (eg: Anaphylaxis - (Rapid pulse, fall in BP, airway dilated, sweating, almost colapse).
Synergysm / Potentiation: A combination of 2 drugs can some types cause an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effect of each drug Tolerance: The effect of a given dose devirise as treatment goes on an increasing amounts are needed to produce the same effects. Tolerance is a feature of addiction. Addition: Is a physical and psychological dependence and craving of a drug.
Iatrogenic: Produce by treatment are the result of mistakes in drug use or individual sensitivity to a given agent. Side effects / Toxic effects: That routinely results from the use of a drug (eg: Nausea, vomiting, alopecia). Contraindication: Are factors in a patient condition that make the use of a drug dangerous and ill advice (eg: Renal failure, pregnancy, hypertension, diabetes).
CLASSES OF DRUGS Analgasic Mild analgasics Norcuticpotent Non-steridol anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) Prostate glands: Hormone like substances that synthesis pain receptors.
ANASTHETIC General Local Spinal Epidural Dural blocks
ANTIBIOTIC / ANTIVIRAL Bacterio static drugs and bacterisideldry (kill the bacteria) it inhibit to grow (stops) - Antifunguls, antitrnurcules, antivirus, cephalosporin - (Bacterie sidle) they kill, srythromycin (bacterio static) asitromycin, penicillin (bacterio cidal), quilones (bacterie sidle) eg: Ciprofloxcin, sulfomaides, sulpha drugs (bacterie sidal), tetracyclin for plage (bacterio static).
ANTICOAGULANTS & ANTIPLATES DRUG prevent coagulation (clotting) of blood heparin is a nature anticoagulant produces by liver cells. Other anticoagulant produces warfarin (aspirin, coumadin, dicumorol) are manufacture. Tissue type plasminogen activator (tpA) is actually dissolve the clot.
ANTIPLATELETS DRUGS Reduce the tendenes of platlets to stick together. eg: aspirin. ANTICONVULSANT Prevents or reduces the frequency of convulsion. The various types of epilepsy.
ANTIDEPRESSION Feels symptoms of depression. They can elevate mood, increase physical activity, and mental awareness, to improve apitide and sleep. Many antidepressants are also mild cedatives. Drugs include: tricylics (TCA) eg: Pamelor, amitriptyline, nortriptyline. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Monoamine oxidec inhibitor (MAOI)
ANTIDIABETICS 2 types Type I, Type II. Type I : Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( IDDM ). Must receive injection of insulin. Insulin was obtained from animals (pork, beef) now much purer insulin is produced called rDNA (Humulin N). in younger age Juvenile diabetes. Type II : Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM ). Are given oral antidiabetic drugs.
Antidiabetic drugs sulfonylureas eg: Glucotrol XL (glipizide). Biguanides eg: metformin (Glucofag) Alphaglucozidase inhibitor eg: acarbose (precose) Thiazolidirediones eg: troglitrozone (Risulina) Meglitinides eg: Prandin An insulin pump is a device strapped to the patient waist that periodically deliveries the desired amount of insulin.
ANTIHISTAMINE Block the action of histamine. It cause allergic symptoms such as hives, bronchial asthma, hay fever, and in severe cases anafilatic stocks. Antihistamine cannot cure that they can relieve its symptoms. Many antihistamine have antiemetic activity side effects of antihistamine are drowsiness, blurred vision, Tremors, indigestion, and lack of motor coordination. (eg: cetrozone (Zyrtec), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), dimenhydranite (Dramamine, Evomine) for motion, vomiting, sickness, diphenhydramine (Benactryl), fexofenadrin (Allegra, Aliday).
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG Act on the heart or blood vessels. Drugs used are: Daily aspirin therapy to prevent clots, sublingual nitroglycoglycerine to dilate coronary blood vessels Digoxin, Lanoxin to control arrhythmia (heart rate) also CHF. Other cardiovascular drugs (CV drugs): 1. Angio-tension converting enzyme inhibitor ( ACE inhibitor ) 2. Beta-blockers 3. Calcium antagonests / Calcium channel blockers 4. Cholesterol lowering drug 5. Diuritics 6. Endocrine drugs
SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORY SERM is a drug that has estrogen effects like bone, lipid, however it lacks estrogen effects on uterus and breast tissue. Are prescribed for abnormnal uterine bleeding and together with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Eg: medroxy progestrone (Provera), SERM - raloxifene (Evista). Thyroid hormone is administered when there is low output of hormone. PROGESTINS
GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) DRUG Use to relieve uncomfortable symptoms anticids neutralize the hydrochloric acid. Eg: alumimium and megnislum antacid (Gaviscon), magnisum antacids (milk of magnesia), Aluminum anticids (Rolaid). Such as ranitidin (Zantac), eimatis (Tagamet), omepresol (Prilosec). ANTIULCER DRUG
ANTIDIARRHEA DRUG Release dialaria or cathaaartics that releive constipation. Mild cathertics, strong cathartics (Lomotil) diphenoxylate and etropin, Lopormide (Imodium). metoclopromide (Reglan), prochlorperizine malcate (Compazin). ANTINOSIN / ANTIEMETIC
RESPIRATORY DRUG Bronchodilators Steriod drugs Seditives and hypnotics Stimulants Minor tranquilizers are benzodiazitine Major tranquilizers are phenothiazine