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IEA DSM Task 24
Phase I
Closing the Loop – Behaviour Change in DSM: From
Theory to Practice
Dr Sea Rotmann
Operating Agent...
What is so special about Task 24?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Some numbers of Task 24 – Phase I
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
• July 2012 – April 2015
• 8 participating co...
Subtasks of Task 24
5 – Social network and expert platform
1 –
Helicopter
view of
models,
frameworks,
contexts and
evaluat...
Our audience: Behaviour Changers
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Government
Industr
y
Researcher
s
The Third Se...
Subtasks
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 1 –
Helicopter Overview of different
models of understanding,
...
The Story of Task 24
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
The Story of Task 24
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
http://vimeo.com/54915316
Subtask 1 - Definitions of Task 24
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
http://www.slideshare.net/drsea/definitions-...
Subtask 1 – What is behaviour?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Energy behaviour refers to all human actions tha...
Subtask 1 – What is behaviour?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
persistence
“unfrozen”
half-yearlyyearly
Conscio...
Subtask 1 –
Overview of different models of understanding behaviour
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 1 – The ‘Monster’ and its Wiki
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 1 – More definitions
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Models of behaviour help us to understand specific...
Subtask 1 –
Models of Understanding Behaviour – some caution
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
 Models are conce...
Subtask 1 –
Looking at different models of understanding behaviour
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
INDIVIDUALISTIC (A-B-C Model...
Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
INDIVIDUALISTIC (A-B-C Model...
Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
INDIVIDUALISTIC (A-B-C Model...
Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
SOCIALLY-ORIENTED MODELS
The...
Subtask 1 – Practice Theory – worked example
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
54
Figure 6: 3 Elements Worked Exa...
Subtask 1 – Theories of Change
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
 Central to many concepts of change is the merg...
Subtask 1 – Theories of Change – Changing habits
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
 Unfreezing/Refreezing
 Vigi...
Subtask 1 – Comparison between indvidual and social
approaches
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Darnton, A, Verp...
Subtask 1 – Comparison between individual and social
approaches – Pros and Cons of each
For more information, visit www.ie...
Subtask 1 – Main differences between disciplines
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
The programmes based (explicit...
Subtask 1 – Main differences between disciplines
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Social marketing, or insights ...
Language can be a problem!
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
That was our Eureka!
moment
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
What is story telling?
‘Storytelling’ is the construction of a
desirable future based on a
narrative of past events, with ...
Stories are:
• Universal
• Help us process information
• Providing multiple perspectives
• Subjective, not one truth
• Aid...
The art and scientific methodology of storytelling
Narratives = social science tool aimed at providing way to
explore how ...
Stories are powerful because they transport us
into other people’s worlds but, in doing that,
they change the way our brai...
We’re all expert story tellers
YOUTUBE:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbe83S8FfO0&list=U
U_p3PlWDpLyDBh8TwUBmVHQ
Understanding country contexts in form of stories
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 1 – Sustainable Järva (Building Retrofits)
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Once upon a time… there were...
The story of neoclassical economics in building retrofits
www.ieadsm.org
Money makes the world go round!
You need to chang...
The story of systemic approaches in building retrofits
www.ieadsm.org
Together we’ll make the world go round!
We will co-c...
The pros and cons of each approach
• They do well with what they intend to do
and fit well within the current economic
and...
Different energy efficiency stories
*See Janda &Topouzi (2013). Closing the Loop: Using Hero Stories and Learning Stories ...
Examples of a love and a horror story in Building Retrofits
www.ieadsm.org
The New Zealand love story with insulation
www.ieadsm.org
Once upon a time... there was a beautiful country called New Zea...
The Great Australian horror story of insulation
www.ieadsm.org
Don’t think that ‘boring’ subjects can’t make great stories!
To read more: Mourik et al (2015). Did you behave as we desig...
What’s the morale of the story?
www.ieadsm.org
A mix of interventions that are tailored to different (national,
local, org...
Subtasks
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 2 –
In depth analysis in areas of greatest
need
(buildings, tr...
Subtask 2 – Norwegian Finnfjord Case
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 2 – Austria’s Smart metering Cases
€CO2 Management
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 2 – Austria’s Smart metering Cases
Die Energiejagd (the Energy Hunt)
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 2 – Austria’s Smart metering Cases
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
social approach individualistic appr...
Subtasks
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 3 –
Evaluation tool for Behaviour
Changers
Subtask 3 – Evaluation Tool, definitions
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
What is it?
• Monitoring: measuring pr...
Subtask 3 – Evaluation Tool, outputs
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
- Individual evaluation and monitoring met...
Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3 ‘What do we know about
what we know?’
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
- Methodologica...
Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3A ‘Did you behave as we
designed you to?’
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Positioning ...
Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3A ‘Did you behave as we
designed you to?’
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Single-loop ...
Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3B From “I think I know” to
“I understand what you did and why you did it?
For more information, v...
Subtasks
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 4 –
Country-specific recommendations,
to do’s and not to do’s
Subtask 4 – Do’s and
don’t’s
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Intervention Phase DO DON'T
DESIGN PHASE  use mod...
Subtask 4 – Summary of recommendations
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
- Design Phase (Subtask 1) Q: What are t...
Subtasks
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Subtask 5 –
Expert Platform
Subtask 5 – Join our Expert Platform
www.ieadsmtask24.ning.com
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
230 members
137 ...
So… what’s the story?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
• There is no silver bullet anywhere but the potential re...
IEA DSM Task 24
Phase II
Helping the Behaviour Changers
Task 24 – Phase II
Objective in a tweet (or two)
To develop, in collaboration with the Behaviour Changers, a
toolbox of in...
The Subtasks of Phase II
5 – Expert Platform (upgraded)
6 –
Understanding
Behaviour
Changer
Practices inTop
DSM Areas
‘The...
Task 24 – Phase II
How it all fits together
What?
Subtask 6
‘The Issues’
Who?
Subtask 7
‘The People’
How?
Subtask 8
‘The T...
Task 24 Phase II
The Energy System
How does it look like
now?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
The way we currently look at the Energy System
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
whole-system view which puts hum...
Another way we could look at the Energy System
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
The end user need for a service
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Personal
comfort
The end user’s behavioural response
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Technology
The end user’s wider context
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
7
Cultural norms
Infrastructure
Geography/Cli
mate...
The national context
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Transmission & Distribution
Peak load issues
The national response
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Energy supply
Why is this system view circular?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Feedback
Task 24 view of the Energy System
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
We pose that the Energy System begins
and end...
Task 24 Phase II
The Collective Impact
Approach
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Methodoloy of the
Behaviour Cha...
A model for collaboration
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Collective impact = the commitment of a group of impo...
Task 24 Phase II
Subtask 6 – Understanding the
Behaviour Changers’ Practices
and Priorities “The Issues”
For more informat...
What are the Top DSM Issues here?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Top DSM Issues:
• Is there a national list of...
Multiple
Benefits?
What are the potentials, risks and (multiple) benefits for the
Top DSM Issues?
Political (actual) poten...
What are the potentials, risks and (multiple) benefits for the
Top DSM Issues?
Who is the End User whose behaviour we are trying to
change?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Tenants? In single...
Task 24 Phase II
Subtask 7 - The Behaviour
Changer Framework “The
People”
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
A new...
Who are the RIGHT Behaviour Changers to collaborate on our
issue/behaviour?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Gov...
Understanding the Behaviour Changers’ unique stories
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
The Story of Task 24 – continued…
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
Thank you very much for your
attention!
Any comments or questions?
For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
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Behaviour Change lecture to the International Energy Center in Brisbane

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This IEA DSM behaviour change lecture was given by Dr Sea Rotmann to the International Energy Centre in Brisbane, Australia.

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Behaviour Change lecture to the International Energy Center in Brisbane

  1. 1. IEA DSM Task 24 Phase I Closing the Loop – Behaviour Change in DSM: From Theory to Practice Dr Sea Rotmann Operating Agent Task 24 Lecture to International Energy Centre, Brisbane September 28, 2015
  2. 2. What is so special about Task 24? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  3. 3. Some numbers of Task 24 – Phase I For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org • July 2012 – April 2015 • 8 participating countries • 9 in-kind countries • >230 behaviour change and DSM experts from 21 countries • 20 successful expert workshops • >145 videos and presentations • Over 40 publications – reports, papers, articles… • Almost 60 case studies from 16 countries in a Wiki
  4. 4. Subtasks of Task 24 5 – Social network and expert platform 1 – Helicopter view of models, frameworks, contexts and evaluation metrics 2 – In-depth case study analysis 3 – Evaluation Tool for different stakeholders 4 – Country- specific to do’s and not to do’s, guidelines and recommenda tions For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  5. 5. Our audience: Behaviour Changers For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Government Industr y Researcher s The Third Sector Intermediaries
  6. 6. Subtasks For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Subtask 1 – Helicopter Overview of different models of understanding, frameworks, contexts, case studies and evaluation metrics
  7. 7. The Story of Task 24 For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  8. 8. The Story of Task 24 For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org http://vimeo.com/54915316
  9. 9. Subtask 1 - Definitions of Task 24 For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org http://www.slideshare.net/drsea/definitions-for-task-24
  10. 10. Subtask 1 – What is behaviour? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Energy behaviour refers to all human actions that affect the way that fuels (electricity, gas, petroleum, coal, etc) are used to achieve desired services, including the acquisition or disposal of energy-related technologies and materials, the ways in which these are used, and the mental processes that relate to these actions. Behaviour Change in the context of this Task thus refers to any changes in said human actions which were directly or indirectly influenced by a variety of interventions (e.g. legislation, regulation, incentives, subsidies, information campaigns, peer pressure etc.) aimed at fulfilling specific behaviour change outcomes. These outcomes can include any changes in energy efficiency, total energy consumption, energy technology uptake or demand management but should be identified and specified by the Behaviour Changer designing the intervention for the purpose of outcome evaluation.
  11. 11. Subtask 1 – What is behaviour? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org persistence “unfrozen” half-yearlyyearly Conscious, or well-considered action Once in a lifetime Active information-seeking monthlyrarely Little information-seeking Hardly thinking – taking action Habitualised routinesOnce-off “frozen” consciousness frequency weekly daily cookinggroceriesholidayingChoosing energy supplier Buying a car Buying a house
  12. 12. Subtask 1 – Overview of different models of understanding behaviour For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  13. 13. Subtask 1 – The ‘Monster’ and its Wiki For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  14. 14. Subtask 1 – More definitions For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Models of behaviour help us to understand specific behaviours, by identifying the underlying factors which influence them. There are individualistic models and social models. By contrast, theories of change show how behaviours change over time, and how they can be changed. Behavioural theory is diagnostic, and change theory is more pragmatic. Both are important to understand when designing interventions!
  15. 15. Subtask 1 – Models of Understanding Behaviour – some caution For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org  Models are concepts, not representations of behaviour  Behaviour is complex, models are deliberately simple  There is a limit to how far models will stretch  Models don’t tend to differentiate between people  Attitudes/awareness don’t always precede behaviour  Factors are not barriers
  16. 16. Subtask 1 – Looking at different models of understanding behaviour For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  17. 17. Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org INDIVIDUALISTIC (A-B-C Models) Rational choice models based on cost-benefit calculations (neoclassical economics) Information deficit models are based on linear assumptions: information generates knowledge, which shapes attitudes, which lead to behaviour (neoclassical economics) Bounded rationality models include psychological principles such as cognitive biases and environmental constraints (behavioural economics) Value Action Gap shows the difference of what people say and what they do (social psychology)
  18. 18. Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org INDIVIDUALISTIC (A-B-C Models) Figure 3: The ABC model based on Shove 2010 However, in practice people usually make more complex trade-offs between costs and gains (both financial and non- financial) and, consequently, the models are most likely not accurate. In Paul attitudes and values influence: behaviour and people chose to behave a certain way based on these values and attitudes
  19. 19. Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org INDIVIDUALISTIC (A-B-C Models) DUAL PROCESS Models of Cognition Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB)
  20. 20. Subtask 1 – Main models of understanding behaviour For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org SOCIALLY-ORIENTED MODELS Theories of Consumption as Social Practices (Practice Theory) DECC running header 24
  21. 21. Subtask 1 – Practice Theory – worked example For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org 54 Figure 6: 3 Elements Worked Example: Linedrying
  22. 22. Subtask 1 – Theories of Change For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org  Central to many concepts of change is the merging of theory and practice  Applied approaches: Social Marketing, Intervention Mapping, Defra’s 4E Model…
  23. 23. Subtask 1 – Theories of Change – Changing habits For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org  Unfreezing/Refreezing  Vigilant Monitoring  Implementation Intentions But: Individuals only, they need to be pre-motivated, it needs to be done quickly and intensely and they may not be easily scalable  MOMENTS OF CHANGE!
  24. 24. Subtask 1 – Comparison between indvidual and social approaches For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Darnton, A, Verplanken, B, White, P and Whitmarsh, L (2011). Habits, Routines and Sustainable Lifestyles: A summary report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. AD Research & Analysis for Defra, London.
  25. 25. Subtask 1 – Comparison between individual and social approaches – Pros and Cons of each For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Individual Models Social Models Pros Cons Pros Cons Some have understanding of dual process of cognition Easy to follow A+B+C= behaviour change Can look at various (mostly influencing) contexts affecting individuals Known and tested Very powerful with segmentation and bottom-up tailoring Scale-ability Inclusivity Breadth of Scope Causal relationship hard to determine Not shown to be that effective, especially if based on intentions More complex models hard to use Takes systemic approach thus easily scaled up If you change a practice, it can be a global change Looped, re-enforcing Influencing and contextual factors Fosters collaboration among all sectors More realistic? Too complex to understand Dependent on many elements to work together Frustrating if right collaboration can’t be fostered Hard to put into practice May only speed up change
  26. 26. Subtask 1 – Main differences between disciplines For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org The programmes based (explicitly and implicitly) on economic theories usually translate into approaches that: - focus mainly or even solely on individuals - are mostly technocratic thus seem to be generating biggest benefits for the supply side, not the end user - regard individuals as instrumentally/economically rational creatures (‘Homo economicus’) - regard information deficits as an important cause of ‘non-rational’ behaviours - focus often on short and one-off financial incentives - focus on extrinsic motivations mainly (ie are dependent on the response they evoke from others) - do not normally tailor their approach to the individual characteristics - lack flexibility and room for engagement, co-creation and participation - monitor mainly quantitative aspects and work with calculated or modeled savings Behavioural economics-based approaches also include insights from social psychology, and for instance focus on the power of nudging people into different behaviours through their infrastructural, institutional or design environment.
  27. 27. Subtask 1 – Main differences between disciplines For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Social marketing, or insights from psychology, sociology and collaborative learning and practice theory approaches are increasingly being used. These programmes are often cross-sectoral and use elements of theories and models in an eclectic manner. Very often, user engagement is central to the design. They do take account of the impact of the wider context and environment and social norms and are thus clearly based on a more systemic perspective/theory or model. They: - focus on collaboration and institutional capacity building - focus on building trust in market parties and information sources - target end user needs and multiple benefits - use multiple definitions of success - perform pre-scoping - allow for engagement and participation - allow for flexibility and iteration of programmes - focus on institutional change - focus on lifestyles - use the power of social norms
  28. 28. Language can be a problem! For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  29. 29. That was our Eureka! moment For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  30. 30. What is story telling? ‘Storytelling’ is the construction of a desirable future based on a narrative of past events, with a plot that expresses some causal relationship To read more: Rotmann et al (2015). Once Upon a Time… How to tell an energy efficiency story that ‘sticks’. ECEEE Summer study proceedings For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  31. 31. Stories are: • Universal • Help us process information • Providing multiple perspectives • Subjective, not one truth • Aid recall • Shape identity • Make connections For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  32. 32. The art and scientific methodology of storytelling Narratives = social science tool aimed at providing way to explore how big events (policies) impact on small scale (individuals) Allow for quick, practical and useful understanding of complexity of interconnected factors in behaviour research We all turn everything into a narrative in order to remember it For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  33. 33. Stories are powerful because they transport us into other people’s worlds but, in doing that, they change the way our brains work and potentially change our brain chemistry — and that’s what it means to be a social creature. Paul Zak, Neuroeconomist “ “ "The Interpreter" - is a left hemisphere function that organises our memories into plausible stories. Michael Gazzaniga, Cognitive Neuroscientist Evolution has wired our brains for storytelling. A story, if broken down into the simplest form is a connection of cause and effect. We make up (short) stories in our heads for every action and conversation. Whenever we hear a story, we want to relate it to one of our existing experiences. Uri Hasson, psychologist The ‘narrative turn’: Storytelling sociology views lived experience as constructed, at least in part, by the stories people tell about it. Berger & Quinney, sociologists
  34. 34. We’re all expert story tellers YOUTUBE: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbe83S8FfO0&list=U U_p3PlWDpLyDBh8TwUBmVHQ
  35. 35. Understanding country contexts in form of stories For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  36. 36. Subtask 1 – Sustainable Järva (Building Retrofits) For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Once upon a time… there were 6 neighbourhoods around the field of Järva that were in urgent need of improvement. They were constructed in the 60s as part of the 1million Home programme to tackle a growing housing deficit in urban areas in Sweden. They contained housing units for more than 60000 people, but times had changed a lot since then… Every day… People in the area were experiencing economic and social challenges. Many of the foreign residents were unemployed and struggling with the Swedish language, and youth was lacking good opportunities for education. The houses were terribly inefficient and the area in general did not work for the needs of its residents. Several investments had been undertaken but nothing worked and people felt no one was listening to them. But, one day… the City of Stockholm decided to improve the living conditions once and for all. But this time would be different, this time they realised that circumstances were radically different to the 60s and that, in order for upgrading the area successfully, they needed to involve the residents. From the beginning. Because of that… the Järva dialogue was initiated during the Fall 2009 and for one week 10000 residents left over 30000 opinions and suggestions how the area should be developed and improved. Based on their contribution a vision was formulated and measures were planned in 4 areas: 1) improved housing and urban environment, 2) everyday security, 3) better education and language teaching, 4) more jobs and entrepreneurship. But then… it was also realised that the area and the buildings had been constructed before the energy crisis without considering the environment, and thus the project Sustainable Järva was born to include an energy, environment and climate-focus to the vision. Until, finally… the dialogue with the residents continued and together with all stakeholders many great measures were planned to promote sustainable lifestyles, satisfaction and well- being. The ultimate goal with the project was to serve as a model for sustainable development. And, ever since then… the neighbourhoods around the field of Järva have become a place where people want to live, work and play. The end.
  37. 37. The story of neoclassical economics in building retrofits www.ieadsm.org Money makes the world go round! You need to change your home’s energy use and we will help you pay (part of) its retrofitting By the way, you need to pay up first and it might take a while before we pay you back, if ever The info we need from you will teach you all you need to know You only need to make a one-off decision to invest We have the technology you need, contractors or installers (you will need to find/choose) will put it in If you don’t understand the technology just don’t touch the buttons! You will save money for a nice weekend in Marbella You only need to give us a bill from your installer, we probably won’t check how much energy you saved Neither will we tell you, you need to figure that out yourself What counts for us is how many m2 we get insulated, how many homes we retrofitted or how much money has been spent against the budget. We will do the number crunching, don’t worry, we don’t need to know what you actually saved, that’s what national models are for But if you do want to know how much energy you saved, buy a metering device!
  38. 38. The story of systemic approaches in building retrofits www.ieadsm.org Together we’ll make the world go round! We will co-create and co-design our interventions with you You embody what we need to know and change: what you do, feel, learn… We will help you understand and use the technology and train those that install and sell it to you to tailor it to your needs We will create a supportive material, institutional and social environment Your needs are important so we need to do this together, as if this were your kitchen Your life will change It’s all about us now, our grandchildren and their future we have in our hands Quality matters, and we will keep learning and sharing those learnings with you If we need to be flexible, we will This is only the start and your home is only the first step We will monitor, calculate and report on energy, money, health, welfare, comfort, wellbeing And learnings based on qualitative and quantitative inputs will be shared (with you) We will help you figure out what your impact is to be able to make sure you get where we all collectively want to!
  39. 39. The pros and cons of each approach • They do well with what they intend to do and fit well within the current economic and political system and way of thinking • The programmes are relatively easy to evaluate in quantitative terms and often show good results • The (retrofitting) market can grow • Subsidies are often used up to the max • Many homes do get insulated • Behavioural economics does manage to nudge a certain percentage • Free riders upgrade their plans and retrofit more comprehensively • Sometimes even a new norm seems to be emerging… • These types of interventions are very complex with many partners who have different mandates, needs and restrictions • They cannot be driven by policy alone, need all levels collaborating • Not everyone wants to change everything or their lifestyle • Not everyone wants to engage but it is important to ensure that the naysayers are not becoming the over-riding voice • The flexibility of changing goals, aims and interrelatedness of issues etc makes it difficult to evaluate  But people tend to like them much more! For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Economic approaches Systemic approaches
  40. 40. Different energy efficiency stories *See Janda &Topouzi (2013). Closing the Loop: Using Hero Stories and Learning Stories to Remake Energy Policy ECEEE Summer Study Proceedings.
  41. 41. Examples of a love and a horror story in Building Retrofits www.ieadsm.org
  42. 42. The New Zealand love story with insulation www.ieadsm.org Once upon a time... there was a beautiful country called New Zealand,which had very cold, damp houses. Every day...Kiwis shivered and froze, but they just told each other to stop being a sissy and put on another jumper. But, one day...the new right-wing Government decided it needed to show it wasn’t uncaring and evil and created a programme called Warm Up New Zealand. It was meant to insulate a quarter of the housing stock, create many jobs and a new market, and reduce energy use, energy bills and CO2. Because of that...the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority set about tendering for the best contractors in the country to fulfil this lofty goal. But then...they realised that people weren’t that interested in insulation, they rather spent their money on a new kitchen and kept putting on those jumpers! Because of that... they concentrated on using Third Party Providers and other community groups to ensure that at least the most needy and vulnerable people got free insulation and clean heating installed. So, finally... they did an evaluation and found that the real benefits - $5 for every $1 spent, lay in the health improvements, not a new market or energy savings or lower bills. And, ever since then... The other Kiwis also slowly realised that being warm and cozy in your home was maybe just as important as having a new kitchen. The End.
  43. 43. The Great Australian horror story of insulation www.ieadsm.org
  44. 44. Don’t think that ‘boring’ subjects can’t make great stories! To read more: Mourik et al (2015). Did you behave as we designed you to? ECEEE Summer Study Proceedings.
  45. 45. What’s the morale of the story? www.ieadsm.org A mix of interventions that are tailored to different (national, local, organisational, domestic) levels; tailored at both the individual and social level; aiming at changing both the investment and habitual behaviour; targeting multiple motivations (not only economic and informational ones); adding strong quantitative and qualitative evaluation (of actual and perceived/modelled behaviour changes) into project design; making sure that intermediaries are well- trained and customer-focused; and focusing on the lifestyle in which energy is key to performing functions will probably get you long-term success. But not if you forget the most important thing: IT’S ALL ABOUT THE PEOPLE!
  46. 46. Subtasks For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Subtask 2 – In depth analysis in areas of greatest need (buildings, transport, SMEs, smart metering)
  47. 47. Subtask 2 – Norwegian Finnfjord Case For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  48. 48. Subtask 2 – Austria’s Smart metering Cases €CO2 Management For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  49. 49. Subtask 2 – Austria’s Smart metering Cases Die Energiejagd (the Energy Hunt) For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  50. 50. Subtask 2 – Austria’s Smart metering Cases For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org social approach individualistic approach social norm (MoU)social learning (ToC)Freezing/unfreezing (ToC) classical economics (MoU) Gamification, competition, feedback, tailored advice, champions Feedback, Advice & Incentive (iPod!) Goal: CO2 savings Huge success Unexpected failure
  51. 51. Subtasks For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Subtask 3 – Evaluation tool for Behaviour Changers
  52. 52. Subtask 3 – Evaluation Tool, definitions For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org What is it? • Monitoring: measuring progress and achievements and production of planned outputs • Evaluation: structured process of assessing success in meeting goals and reflect on learnings. Explicitly places a value judgement on the data and information gathered in an intervention Why do it the way we do now? Establish effect of policies Assess need for improvements Assessing value for money Contribution to evidence base for effectiveness of behavioural interventions at population level How to do it…….???
  53. 53. Subtask 3 – Evaluation Tool, outputs For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org - Individual evaluation and monitoring metrics for each domain can be found in the Subtask 1 Monster/Wiki - Subtask 3 Deliverable 3 - Methodological review of the scientific literature (smart meter/feedback and building retrofits only) called ‘What do we know about what we know?’ which will feed into Subtask 9 - An overview of how different disciplines evaluate behaviour, main challenges and recommendations on monitoring and evaluation can be found in Subtask 3 Deliverable 3A report ‘Did you behave as we designed you to?’ - Specific guidelines and fact sheets for 3 main intervention tools in the building retrofit area (Energy Performance Certificates, Mass Marketing and Subsidies and Loans) can be found in Subtask 3 Deliverable 3B From “I think I know” to “I understand what you did and why you did it”
  54. 54. Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3 ‘What do we know about what we know?’ For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org - Methodological review of behaviour-based energy intervention studies in the customer feedback and residential building retrofit areas, which were conducted over the past 10 years to determine what data has been collected and how it has been collected (out of 315 papers, 85 were coded in detail for analysis). - No standard way of measuring behaviour change, which means no ability to compare across studies and incorporate questions about context, attitudes, knowledge and user experience. - In future we should make better use of mixed methods for data collection, eg surveys, focus groups, interviews, scales to allow for triangulation. - Also need better transparency into the methods used to evaluate (only 4 out of 85 published their actual evaluation instrument). - Need to create and share validated data collection instruments which facilitate a consistency of measurement  This will be done in Subtask 9
  55. 55. Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3A ‘Did you behave as we designed you to?’ For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Positioning Paper providing an overview of: - Definitions used in Task 24, particularly around monitoring and evaluation (M&E) - Evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of behaviour interventions - Disciplinary basis for interventions and consequences on M&E - Multiple challenges of M&E (benchmarking, mismatch of needs, M&E team not included in design, no longitudinal M&E, based on proxies and models not actual measures, multiple benefit analyses, how do other stakeholders assess success, monitoring individuals not practices, no feedback loops, no shared learning) - How to open up interventions to include end users - A collective learning process: single vs double-loop learning
  56. 56. Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3A ‘Did you behave as we designed you to?’ For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Single-loop learning is about the effectiveness and/or efficiency of a technology, measure, instrument, arrangement, or intervention to achieve pre-defined goals. Double-loop learning is process-oriented, focused on the how, when, where, how, how long, for whom and is about questioning goals and the prevailing norms and rules underlying these goals. In addition, double-loop learning is focused on interactions, the quality of participation, learning by doing and doing by learning, aligning expectations, in short, double-loop learning is about reflexive governance of interventions.
  57. 57. Subtask 3 – Deliverable 3B From “I think I know” to “I understand what you did and why you did it? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Guidelines and Factsheets in Building Retrofits: - Identification and development of context-sensitive indicators, metrics and ways to monitor and evaluate both short- and long-term, identifiable and/or measurable (one-off investment- and more frequent habitual) behaviour change outcomes of DSM tools (being elements of larger interventions) - Focus on investment vs habitual behaviours - Examining different tools of building retrofit interventions - Detailed factsheets of M&E in single- and double-loop learning processes of three tools (Energy Performance Certificates, Mass Marketing and Subsidies and Loans)  This work will be continued in Subtask 8
  58. 58. Subtasks For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Subtask 4 – Country-specific recommendations, to do’s and not to do’s
  59. 59. Subtask 4 – Do’s and don’t’s For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Intervention Phase DO DON'T DESIGN PHASE  use models of understanding behaviour and theories of change to design interventions  spend some time pre-intervention researching your audience, its motivations, needs and heterogeneity  collaborate with other Behaviour Changers, especially researchers and intermediaries to design your interventions  segment your audience where you can as it will help tailor the intervention  design evaluation into the intervention up front, including the evaluation team (if different)  learn from mistakes and (re)iterate your intervention  put a lot of thought into dissemination and don't be afraid to use unusual means like social media, group learning and storytelling  believe that there is one silver bullet model for behaviour change  always use the same model, neoclassical economics is a valid model that fits our socio- economic and political reality but it does not explain peoples' mostly habitual energy-using behaviour well enough  be afraid to mix models and create a toolbox of interventions  think you can design, implement, evaluate and disseminate a (national) behaviour change programme all by yourself  think all people are rational, utility-maximising automatons, even in each household you will find very different attitudes, behaviours and motivations  think you can leave evaluation til after the programme is finished  just think in kWh and cost savings, most people don't think of energy in this way but of the services they derive from it IMPLEMENTATION PHASE  collaborate with other behaviour changers in rolling out the intervention  use trusted intermediaries and messengers  target your audience with tailored information and feedback that makes sense to them  keep learning during the implementation by evaluating ex durante  listen to peoples' stories and especially the nay-sayers and laggards  not underestimate the power of moments of change, use them wisely  operate in a silo, you need help  stop looking in unusal places for allies  let your (conflicting) mandates stop you from working with other Behaviour Changers  let technology overwhelm the intervention, it is a means to an end  ever forget that you are dealing with people and their homes are their castles and their cars their steeds  think you know better than your audience how they should use energy  keep a successful intervention to yourself, share it widely EVALUATION PHASE  evaluate ex ante, ex durante and ex post  put 10-15% of your resources into evaluation, it's worth it  benchmark!  think of the most relevant metrics and indicators, not just for you but for your target audience and the other Behaviour Changers  use double-loop learning methods  provide strong, ongoing, targeted feedback to your audience  think it's just about kWh, evaluate beyond it (eg health, comfort, safety...)  think you need to do all evaluation yourself, use your collaborators to evaluate the bits they know best  leave evaluation til the end or ignore its importance in showing that your intervention worked  just model, measure as well  ignore the pathway of behaviour change that led to a kWh change – ask people (RE)-ITERATION PHASE  (re)iterate your intervention often  learn from your mistakes  listen to your collaborators and end users  ignore your evaluation  hide your mistakes and horror storries, they are often the ones we can learn the most from DISSEMINATION PHASE  understand your audience, collaborators and stakeholders, tailor your dissemination accordingly  tell stories, use social media and word of mouth  use trusted intermediaries to tell your story  spend all your money on (social) marketing campaigns  keep doing the same thing, peoples' willingness or brand awareness doesn't usually translate to behaviour change  tell a boring story about kWh  think you know better, ever
  60. 60. Subtask 4 – Summary of recommendations For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org - Design Phase (Subtask 1) Q: What are the best models and theories to underpin intervention design? A: It depends on the intervention, there is no silver bullet. - Intervention Phase (Subtask 2) Q: What can we learn from best practice in Task 24 countries? A: Context is everything, but there is opportunity for shared learning. - Evaluation Phase (Subtask 3) Q: How shall we monitor and evaluate behaviour change outcomes? A: By using double-loop learning processes and standardised data collection. - (Re)iteration Phase (Subtask 4) Q: What can we do better? A: A lot. Especially using more collaborative, bottom-up, sociological models. - Dissemination Phase (Subtask 5) Q: How can we best share our learnings? A: Close network of experts, building on relationships and storytelling.
  61. 61. Subtasks For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Subtask 5 – Expert Platform
  62. 62. Subtask 5 – Join our Expert Platform www.ieadsmtask24.ning.com For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org 230 members 137 videos and presentations 115 photos 6 blogs 21 Events 21 Discussion Fora
  63. 63. So… what’s the story? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org • There is no silver bullet anywhere but the potential remains huge • Homo economicus doesn’t exist (in energy) • Habits are the most difficult thing to break • This means we have to get even smarter & embrace complexity • We are at a crossroads, and shouldn’t turn back • We need to look at whole-system, societal change • This can’t be done in isolation by one sector - collaboration is key • Social media and networks are really good (theoretically) for it • But: professionals are weary to use them, face-to-face still key • It’s also hard to find the right Behaviour Changers and break down the silos • Everyone has a piece of the puzzle but we haven’t fit it together • We need a shared learning and collaboration platform that works • We also need a shared language based on narratives  It’s all about the people!
  64. 64. IEA DSM Task 24 Phase II Helping the Behaviour Changers
  65. 65. Task 24 – Phase II Objective in a tweet (or two) To develop, in collaboration with the Behaviour Changers, a toolbox of interventions that works for their specific DSM issues, contexts (sectoral and national), mandates and needs. We also aim to extract cohesive, overarching themes to tell a coherent international story.
  66. 66. The Subtasks of Phase II 5 – Expert Platform (upgraded) 6 – Understanding Behaviour Changer Practices inTop DSM Areas ‘The Issues’ 7 – Identifying Behaviour Changers in these areas ‘The People’ 8 – Developing a toolbox of interventions to help Behaviour Changers ‘TheTools’ 9 – Standardising Evaluation beyond kWh ‘The Measures’ For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org 10 –Telling an Overarching Story ‘The Story”
  67. 67. Task 24 – Phase II How it all fits together What? Subtask 6 ‘The Issues’ Who? Subtask 7 ‘The People’ How? Subtask 8 ‘The Tools’ Why? Subtask 9 ‘The Measure’ So what? Subtask 10 ‘The Story’ Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Subtask 1 Subtask 4 Subtask 3
  68. 68. Task 24 Phase II The Energy System How does it look like now? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  69. 69. The way we currently look at the Energy System For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org whole-system view which puts human needs, behaviours and (ir)rationalities at the center of interventions geared at system change. Instead, if we look at the Energy System through the human lens (Figure 2), we can see that it isn’t necessarily this top-down/left-right linear realtionship starting with supply and ending with the end user, but rather a circular relationship which actually starts with the end user need for an energy service (click here for a short video presentation explaining this in more detail). Figure 1. Current, linear way of looking at the energy system (starting with supply) eetd.lbl.gov T O P D O W N SUPPLY ! TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION ! TECHNOLOGY ! USER
  70. 70. Another way we could look at the Energy System For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  71. 71. The end user need for a service For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Personal comfort
  72. 72. The end user’s behavioural response For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Technology
  73. 73. The end user’s wider context For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org 7 Cultural norms Infrastructure Geography/Cli mateBuilding stock Politics
  74. 74. The national context For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Transmission & Distribution Peak load issues
  75. 75. The national response For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Energy supply
  76. 76. Why is this system view circular? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Feedback
  77. 77. Task 24 view of the Energy System For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org We pose that the Energy System begins and ends with the human need for the services derived from energy (warmth, comfort, entertainment, mobility, hygiene, safety etc) and that behavioural interventions using technology, market and business models and changes to supply and delivery of energy are the all- important means to that end.
  78. 78. Task 24 Phase II The Collective Impact Approach For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Methodoloy of the Behaviour Changer Framework
  79. 79. A model for collaboration For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Collective impact = the commitment of a group of important actors from different sectors to a common agenda for solving a specific social problem.
  80. 80. Task 24 Phase II Subtask 6 – Understanding the Behaviour Changers’ Practices and Priorities “The Issues” For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Deciding on the issues to focus on for Canada
  81. 81. What are the Top DSM Issues here? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Top DSM Issues: • Is there a national list of DSM issues? • What are the biggest behavioural potentials? • What DSM policies and programmes are already tackling these issues and how? • What are their approximate contribution to the country’s load management (economic, technical, political and societal potentials)?
  82. 82. Multiple Benefits? What are the potentials, risks and (multiple) benefits for the Top DSM Issues? Political (actual) potential Social Potential Economic Potential Technical potential RISKS? Multiple Benefits? Multiple Benefits?
  83. 83. What are the potentials, risks and (multiple) benefits for the Top DSM Issues?
  84. 84. Who is the End User whose behaviour we are trying to change? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Tenants? In single homes or apartment buildings? Home owners? (single or apartment) Office workers in a large commercial building? Retail workers in smaller retail buildings? Landlords? Private or large-scale? Social housing? Commercial? Building Management Operators? Office or eg hospitals? Smart meter/feedback/EE technology installers or developers? Drivers? Truck or private vehicle? Behaviour or Mode Switching? Freight companies? Behaviour or technology switching? SMEs? Which sector? CEOs or energy managers/CFOs? Who else could it be? g at the energy system (starting with supply) DISTRIBUTION ! TECHNOLOGY ! USER
  85. 85. Task 24 Phase II Subtask 7 - The Behaviour Changer Framework “The People” For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org A new way of visualising the energy system
  86. 86. Who are the RIGHT Behaviour Changers to collaborate on our issue/behaviour? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org Government – which level, agency, person/s? Industry – which sector, organisation, person/s? Researchers – which discipline, University, person/s? The Third Sector – which sector, association, person/s? Intermediaries – which sector, company, person/s?
  87. 87. Understanding the Behaviour Changers’ unique stories For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  88. 88. For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  89. 89. The Story of Task 24 – continued… For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org
  90. 90. Thank you very much for your attention! Any comments or questions? For more information, visit www.ieadsm.org

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