Medical gas supply.pipelines and cylinders


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pipe lines and cylinder for medical gas supply

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Medical gas supply.pipelines and cylinders

  2. 2. COMPONENT OF MEDICAL GAS CYLINDRES <ul><li>BODY </li></ul><ul><li>constructed of steel , </li></ul><ul><li>alloys added for strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum cylinders are MRI compatible </li></ul><ul><li>VALVE </li></ul><ul><li>filled and discharged through a valve </li></ul><ul><li>attached to the neck, </li></ul><ul><li>made of bronze or brass </li></ul>
  3. 3. Different cylinder valve
  4. 5. <ul><li>Packed valve : </li></ul><ul><li>stem is sealed by resilient packing such as Teflon , </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm valve : </li></ul><ul><li>a diaphragm separated the stem from the seat. </li></ul><ul><li>. Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li># can be used fully using a one half to three quarters turn </li></ul><ul><li># less likely to leak </li></ul><ul><li># No stem leakage </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>PORT </li></ul><ul><li>the point to exit for the gas. </li></ul><ul><li>STEM </li></ul><ul><li>closes the valve by sealing against the seat. When the valve is opened, the stem moves upward, allowing the gas to flow to the port </li></ul>
  6. 9. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES <ul><li>acts when excessive pressure is build up. </li></ul><ul><li>types : </li></ul><ul><li>Rupture disc, </li></ul><ul><li>Fusible plug </li></ul><ul><li>combination of both </li></ul>
  7. 10. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE <ul><li>recluse or prevent discharge of the cylinder contents after normal pressure have been restored. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>CONICAL DEPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>receives the retaining screw of the yoke. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Valve outlet connection for large cylinders
  12. 15. SIZE OF CYLINDERS <ul><li>Cylinder classified using a letter code </li></ul><ul><li>A type cylinders are smallest </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE E is the cylinder most commonly used </li></ul>
  13. 16. TYPICAL MEDICAL GAS CYLINDRES, VOLUMES, WEIGHT cylinder size dimension weight (ib) Air CO2 oxygen Nitrous oxide B 3 1/2 x 13 5 370 200 D 4 1/2 x 17 11 375 940 400 940 E 41/4 x 26 14 625 1590 660 1590 M 7 x 43 63 2850 7570 3450 7570 G 8 1/2 x 51 97 5050 12300 13800
  16. 19. TESTING <ul><li>Tensile test </li></ul><ul><li>Strips are cut longitudinally from the cylinder and stretched until they elongated The yield point should not be less than15 tons per square inch </li></ul><ul><li>Flattening test </li></ul><ul><li>One cylinder is kept between two compression blocks and then oressure is applied to flatten it til distance of becomes six times the thickness of walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact test </li></ul><ul><li>Three longitudinal and three transverse strips from a finished cylinder are taken and struck by a mechanical hammer .The mean energy needed to produce a crack should not be less than 5 feet lb for tranverse strip and 10 ft lb for longitudinal strip </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Bend test </li></ul><ul><li>A ring of 25 mm width is cut from that cylinder and equally divided into four strips.each strip is than bent inward until the inner edge are apart not greater than the diameter of the strip. The approved cylinder should not develop any crack </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic test or pressure test </li></ul><ul><li>The test is usually done by the water jacket method. here the proof pressure applied inside is 236.2kgf/cm this test also determines wether it is leak proof or not </li></ul>
  18. 21. FILLING <ul><li>DOT,s regulation limiting the amount of a gas cylinder may contain </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure in a filled cylinder at 21.c may not exceed the service pressure marked </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure in the cylinder at 55.c may not exceed 1.25 times the maximum permitted filling pressure at 21.c </li></ul><ul><li>In case of liquefied gas , the maximum amount of gas allowed to be filled is defined by filling density . </li></ul><ul><li>The filling density is the percent ratio of the weight of gas in cylinder to the weight of water the cylinder would hold at 16.c </li></ul>
  19. 22. COLOR OF CYLINDER GAS USA INTERNATIONAL oxygen Green White Carbon dioxide Gray Gray Nitrous oxide Blue Blue helium Brown Brown Nitrogen Black Black air Yellow White & black
  20. 23. MARKING ON THE CYLINDERS <ul><li>DOT and TC regulation requires following specific marking on cylinders : </li></ul><ul><li>DOT and TC specification number to indicate the type of material used in manufacture of the cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>Service pressure of the cylinder in pound per square inch </li></ul><ul><li>Serial number and identifying symbol of the purchaser , user or manufacturer </li></ul>
  21. 24. MARKING ON THE CYLINDERS <ul><li>The initial qualifying test date with an identifying mark for the testing facility </li></ul><ul><li>Retest date and testing facility </li></ul><ul><li>A five pointed star stamped after the most recent test date </li></ul><ul><li>A plus sign if cylinder can be charged up to 10% in excess of the marked service pressure </li></ul>
  22. 25. RULES FOR SAFE USE OF CYLINDERS <ul><li>Cylinders should be handled only by trained person </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder valves, regulator. Gauges, and fitting should never come into contact of oils , greases , organic lubricants etc </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinders should not be subjected to extreme of temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to piping , regulator, and other equipments should always be kept tight to prevent leakage </li></ul>
  23. 26. RULES FOR SAFE USE OF CYLINDERS <ul><li>No part of the cylinders should be tainted , painted or modified by users </li></ul><ul><li>A cylinder should never come into contact of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Before use ,cylinder should be identified by the label. The color of the cylinder should not be relied upon for identification </li></ul><ul><li>Only DOT or ICC approved cylinder should be used </li></ul><ul><li>A pressure regulator should always be used </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Before any fitting is applied to cylinder valve , the valve should be opened slowly and briefly to remove dust or any other particle ( cracking) </li></ul><ul><li>A sealing washer or gasket in good condition should always be used with small cylinder valve . If more than one seal is used the pin on yoke may not extrude far enough to engage mating whole or safety pin index </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>A cylinder valve should be opened slowly ,because if gases passes quickly into the space between valve and the yoke or the regulator , the rapid recompression in this space will generate large amount of heat .because there is no space for dissipation of heat , this constitutes an adiabatic process. Particle of dust, grease, etc present in that space may be ignited by the heat causing a flash fire or explosion. </li></ul>
  26. 29. STORAGE <ul><li>A definite area should be designed to store the cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>The storage area should be clean , cool and made of fire resistant materials with adequate ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder containing flammable gases should not be stored in an enclosure containing oxidizing gas </li></ul><ul><li>Combustible material should not be kept near cylinder containing oxygen or nitrous </li></ul><ul><li>Small cylinders are best stored upright or horizontally in bins or racks </li></ul><ul><li>There should be a system of inventory for both empty and full cylinders </li></ul>
  27. 30. HAZARDS <ul><li>incorrect cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect content </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect valve </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged Valve </li></ul><ul><li>Suffocation </li></ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination of cylinder content </li></ul><ul><li>Theft of nitrous oxide </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEDICAL GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li>A central supply </li></ul><ul><li>Piping extending to location where gas supply is required </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal point </li></ul>
  30. 34. Manifolded cylinders
  31. 35. Source of gases <ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous supply( G or H type ) </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid supply ( when large amount of oxygen is required , it is less expensive and more convenient to store ) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen concentrator </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Large cylinder manifold </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Medical air </li></ul><ul><li>Definition : It is defined by NFPA as , regardless its sources, has no detectable liquid hydrocarbon, less than 25 ppm gaseous hydrocarbon , less than 5mg/m3 of particulates of 1 micron size or greater at normal atmospheric pressure and a dew point of less than 4° c </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>Manifolded cylinders with a proportioning device which mixes gases from oxygen and nitrogen cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>Motor driven air compressor </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>High pressure cylinder </li></ul>
  34. 38. PIPED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM <ul><li>Main lines pipe connecting the source to riser or branches lines or both </li></ul><ul><li>Risers vertical pipe line connecting the main lines with branch lines at various levels </li></ul><ul><li>Branch line that service a room or rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Pipes are made of copper </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen pipe lines have ½ inch outer diameter and that of other gases is 3/8 inch diameter </li></ul>
  35. 39. TERMINAL UNITS <ul><li>COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Base block </li></ul><ul><li>This the part of the terminal unit that attached to the pipeline distribution system </li></ul><ul><li>Primary valve( automatic shut off valve, self sealing device, primary check valve) </li></ul><ul><li>opens and allows gas to flow when male probe is inserted and closes automatically when the connection is broken </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>Secondary valve </li></ul><ul><li>( shut off valve, maintenance valve) </li></ul><ul><li>is designed to shut off when primary valve is removed for cleaning or servicing </li></ul>
  37. 41. GAS SPECIFIC CONNECTION POINT( SOCKET ASSEMBLY) <ul><li>two types --- </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded DIAMETER INDEX SAFTEY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>PROPRIETARY QUICK CONNECTOR </li></ul>
  39. 43. <ul><li>QUICK CONNECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>Allows apparatuses to be connected or disconnected by a single action </li></ul><ul><li>Each quick connector consist of a pair of gas specific male and female part </li></ul><ul><li>A releasable spring mechanism locks the components together </li></ul>
  40. 44. <ul><li>Hoses </li></ul><ul><li>connection between terminal units and the ventilator or anaesthesia machine </li></ul><ul><li>color coded and have the name and chemical symbol of the gas </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>Types of terminal unit </li></ul><ul><li>Wall mounted </li></ul><ul><li>Ceiling mounted </li></ul>
  42. 46. Wall mounted terminal unit
  43. 47. Testing of medical gas distributing system <ul><li>Initial test </li></ul><ul><li>Blow down test </li></ul><ul><li>After the pipelines have been installed , but before the installation of terminal units, the line must be blown clear using oil free dry nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Initial pressure test </li></ul><ul><li>Each section of piping system must be subjected to 1.5 times of working pressure ( minimum1034 kpa) with oil free nitrogen with source valve closed. It is maintained and each join has been checked for leakage </li></ul>
  44. 48. <ul><li>standing pressure test </li></ul><ul><li>after all the component of the system have been installed , the entire system is subjected to 24 hours standing pressure at 20% above the normal operating line pressure </li></ul><ul><li>piping purge test </li></ul><ul><li>to remove particulate matter , intermittent purging is done in every outlet ,until no discoloration on a white cloth held over the outlet </li></ul><ul><li>test for cross connection </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure that gas delivered at each terminal is that shown on the outlet label. One gas system is tested at a time </li></ul>
  45. 49. <ul><li>out flow test </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure that oxygen , nitrogen, and air outlet deliver 100L/min without a pressure drop of no more than 35 kpa at a static pressure of 345kpa </li></ul><ul><li>alarm test </li></ul><ul><li>piping purity test </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Operational pressure test </li></ul><ul><li>Piping system for gases other than nitrogen must maintain the pressure at 345kpa ±35 .piping system of nitrogen must maintain a pressure at 1100 kpa </li></ul><ul><li>Medical air purity test </li></ul><ul><li>Air source must be analyzed for dew point, carbon monoxide, gaseous hydrocarbon etc </li></ul>
  47. 51. PROBLEMS WITH THE PIPING SYSTEM <ul><li>Inadequate pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: damage of any part, compressor failure, leaks, closure off shut off valve , obstruction, kinking of hose etc </li></ul><ul><li>Leaks </li></ul><ul><li>May hazardous if oxidizing gases are allowed accumulate in a closed room </li></ul>
  48. 52. <ul><li>High pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Causes, most commonly failure of regulator, ice formation </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm problems </li></ul><ul><li>Failure, absence or disconnection </li></ul><ul><li>False alarm. </li></ul>
  49. 53. <ul><li>Contamination of gases </li></ul><ul><li>can be serious problem when a new pipeline is opened </li></ul>