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Onel day free seminar workplace conflict resolution 15092015


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Conflicts are natural events in life especially in workplace. This seminar is about the causes, types and methods of handling conflicts. Agreements, negotiated settlements, compromise, etc are handled in this seminar.
this course received 85% excellent rating from group of non management staff

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Onel day free seminar workplace conflict resolution 15092015

  1. 1. TRAINING ON WORKPLACE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Dr.E.J.Sarma ● October -2015 Date00.00.00 1 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  2. 2. KEY LEARNING POINTS/GOALS FOR TODAY Understand the Terminology , conflict types. The strategy for resolution
  3. 3. SESSION 1 • Session 1-approx-1 ½ hours Date00.00.00 3 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  4. 4. AGENDA • Introduction • Understanding the concept • Types of workplace conflict- Personal/Interpersonal/Team • Levels and Types of Conflict in Organizations • The Sources of Conflict in Organizations Date00.00.00 4 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  5. 5. AGENDA • Conflict of Personal level /groups/communities/nations • Conflict with Boss/Harassment • Conflict Processes • Clash of values/principles • Resolution strategies • Few of the greatest corporate conflicts • Role of mentor/religion • Sum up Date00.00.00 5 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  6. 6. ENTRY BEHAVIOR • Write 3 of your belief about conflicts • Think of one incident in your personal life where you • were involved in conflict. What role you played • And how did you feel about the outcome Date00.00.00 6 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  7. 7. CHECK THE MENTAL MODEL •Conflict is battle of nerves and outcome is dependent on personalities •Someone has to lose and win- win is never possible as outcome •There is no techniques that can be used to work through a conflict successfully so everybody wins Date00.00.00 7 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  8. 8. CHECKING BELIEF • You must hire people from same culture to get common view • Committees can not resolve conflicts Date00.00.00 8 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  9. 9. MENTAL MODEL The famoui aqage, “jlo heaqi are rejjer jhan one” ii preciieln arouj jhe advantages of conflict, for it assumes that two minds will have separate perspectives, experiences, and ideas. Date00.00.00 9 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  10. 10. MENTAL MODEL • Diversity and communication are hallmarks of a great team, and the occasional root cause of clashes in the office. • Conflicj ii a gooq jhing; ij’i our reiponie that makes conflict either a creative or destructive process. Date00.00.00 10 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  11. 11. MENTAL MODEL ? ✕ Is Conflict every day occurrence? ✕ With family or friends, boss, co-workers or customers. ✕ Conflict will occur and Criticality is , how we understand, resolve and learn from it Date00.00.00 11 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  12. 12. EXERCISE ON MENTAL MODELS 12 1-02-2010 What do you see and what is the arrangement
  13. 13. WHAT DO YOU SEE ? WHAT IS THE ARRANGEMENT ? 13 1-02-2010
  14. 14. 14 1-02-2010
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  16. 16. WHAT DO YOU SEE 16 1-02-2010
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  19. 19. Most people perceive line B as being longer, holeker if nou meaiure jhem nou’ll iee jhaj they are the same length. □ The figure is known as the Muller-Lyer illusion 19 1-02-2010
  20. 20. □ The illusion is explained by psychologists as a result of our familiarity with corners of buildings and rooms. The line on the left looks like the corner of a building seen from the outside while the line on the right looks like the corner of a building viewed from the inside. □ If the two lines project the same sized image onto the retina yet line A appears to be closer, than the brain must compensate for this difference and perceive line B as longer. 20 1-02-2010
  21. 21. IS THE INNER SHAPE CIRCLE? 21 1-02-2010
  22. 22. WHICH IS LONGER? 22 1-02-2010
  23. 23. PLEASE READ IN ONE GO 23 1-02-2010 Bird in the The hand Once in A A life time Paris in the The spring
  24. 24. READ 24 1-02-2010
  26. 26. DEVIL’S FKRH □ After looking at it for a few moments, turn away and try drawing it. Are there three prongs or only two? □ given the paradoxical name of 'the two- pronged trident'. □ It is an impossible object since it could not be constructed in three dimensions - it only appears to be in three dimensions at first glance. □ You have to look quite carefully in order to realize this. This figure confuses many 26 1-02-2010
  27. 27. DEVIL’S FKRH □ The confusion arises from trying to interpret it as a three-dimensional figure. Deregowski (1969) found that people who habitually ascribed three-dimensionality to pictures had more difficulty in reproducing this figure than people who did not seek to impose three- dimensionality on images. 27 1-02-2010
  28. 28. DEVIL’S FKRH □ The shorter the prongs the less easily fooled we are, which suggests that in the illusory version we are less able to relate one part to another. 28 1-02-2010
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  38. 38. EXERCISE YOUR BRAIN □ Try this one: Say the color the word is printed in not the word itself. Do it without a mistake in under 15 seconds. 38 1-02-2010
  40. 40. SUM UP □ Similarity □ Proximity □ Contour □ Context □ Bias Perception is vitiated by all these and is complex process. hence most of our judgment can go wrong Be very conscious of this while judging and concluding 40 1-02-2010
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  47. 47. □ The chaser dot is not pink but as in (fig. 4) it takes on the colour of the background. It is possible you see an afterimage of the pink dot in this example, but you find that it actually fights with the movement of the chaser dot. Thus the very hypothesis on which the persistence of vision rests, does not in fact actually account for the movement of this phantom dot - if anything the after image tends to gets in the way of the perception of movement and you have to try to ignore it. 47 1-02-2010
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  50. 50. CONFLICT AND MENTAL MODELS FOR MANAGEMENT • There are only five generally acknowledged styles for dealing with conflict: • compromising, avoiding, integrating, dominating and obliging. • Those whose style is compromising tend to be "middle of the road" in their conflict management. They want both parties to gain some, but both will also need to give a little as well. • Those who avoid, as their style suggests, simply leave the conflict altogether. Integrators tend to be open to others' differences and try to come to an understanding that satisfies both parties. Date00.00.00 50 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  51. 51. CONFLICT AND MENTAL MODEL Not every conflict warrants a confrontation need is attitude to attempt to sort it out. Conflicts arise not so much because of what the other person said or did, but because of our sensitive trigger Date00.00.00 51 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  52. 52. MENTAL MODEL • Some conflict in our life can be dispensed with easily and without a big effort when we know our conflict hooks and how to un- snag yourself. Date00.00.00 52 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  53. 53. CONFLICT AND MENTAL MODEL • Those who dominate are primarily concerned with their own desires and do not readily compromise, while those who oblige are willing to give up what they want to make everyone happy. Date00.00.00 53 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  54. 54. CONFLICT-? Date00.00.00 54 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Write alternate words for Conflict
  55. 55. UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT - DEFINITION Date00.00.00 55 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Dispute, Quarrel , Squabble , Taking stand Disagreement, Opposition, Discord, Deviation , Clash, Fight, Quarrel Contradiction, Irreconcilable , Deviation
  56. 56. In dealing with conflict always keep these Key elements in mind Interdependency of parties Perception of incompatible goals Context of Conflict Situations Date00.00.00 56 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  57. 57. ● Remember conflict may involve ● Disagreements ● Debates ● Disputes ● Obstruction -Preventing someone from reaching valued goals Date00.00.00 57 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  58. 58. WHAT CONFLICT INVOLVES • Conflict is not always bad for organization(50 most famous corporate conflicts) • Do not need to reduce all conflict • Ebb and flow of during conflict resolution process • An inevitable part of workplace life • Needed for growth and survival • Conflict management strategy may include increasing and decreasing intensity of conflict • Major management responsibility Date00.00.00 58 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  59. 59. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT • Functional conflict: Involved parties work toward the goals of an organization or group • Dysfunctional conflict: Parties block an organization or group from reaching the goals Date00.00.00 59 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  60. 60. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT • Functional conflict ● Increases information and ideas ● Encourages innovative thinking ● Unshackles different points of view ● Reduces stagnation Date00.00.00 60 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  61. 61. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT (CONT.) • Dysfunctional high conflict ● Tension, anxiety, stress ● Drives out low conflict tolerant people ● Reduced trust ● Poor decisions because of withheld or distorted information ● Excessive management focus on the conflict Date00.00.00 61 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  62. 62. BEHIND CONFLICTS • Ideologies • Ego/hubris • Power/status • Greed • Opposing just for the sake of –as in politics • Perceived Threats Date00.00.00 62 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  63. 63. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT (CONT.) • Dysfunctional low conflict ● Few new ideas ● Poor decisions from lack of innovation and information ● Stagnation ● Business as usual Date00.00.00 63 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  64. 64. LEVELS AND TYPES OF CONFLICT Date00.00.00 64 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Individual Group Organization Type of conflict Level of conflict Within and between organizations Intra/inter group Within and between individuals
  65. 65. LEVELS AND TYPES OF CONFLICT (CONT.) Intra organizational conflict Conflict that occurs within an organization At interfaces of organization functions Can occur along the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the organization Vertical conflict: between managers and subordinates Horizontal conflict: between departments and work groups Date00.00.00 65 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  66. 66. LEVELS AND TYPES OF CONFLICT (CONT.) • Intragroup conflict ● Conflict among members of a group-jealousy- rivalry ● Early stages of group development ● Ways of doing tasks or reaching group's goals • Intergroup conflict: between two or more groups-competition VS collaboration Date00.00.00 66 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  67. 67. LEVELS AND TYPES OF CONFLICT (CONT.) Interpersonal conflict Between two or more people Differences in views about what should be done Efforts to get more Differences in orientation to work and time in different parts of an organization Date00.00.00 67 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  68. 68. LEVELS AND TYPES OF CONFLICT (CONT.) Intrapersonal conflict Occurs within an individual Threaj jo a perion’i kaluei Feeling of unfair treatment Multiple and contradictory sources of socialization Related to the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Chapter 5) and negative inequity (Chapter 8) Date00.00.00 68 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  69. 69. LEVELS AND TYPES OF CONFLICT (CONT.) • Interorganizational conflict ● Between two or more organizations ● Not competition ● Examples: suppliers and distributors, especially with the close links now possible Date00.00.00 69 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  70. 70. TEAM CONFLICT REASONS • There are many reasons for conflict within a team or between teams. One way to simplify the source of the conflict is to examine whether the conflict is task-based or if it stems from a relational issue. Date00.00.00 70 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  71. 71. TEAM CONFLICT REASONS • This separation is often helpful because, task-based conflict is productive while relationship-based conflict is destructive to the desired outcome. Date00.00.00 71 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  72. 72. CONFLICT STAGES Date00.00.00 72 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Latent conflict Conflict aftermath Manifest conflict Simple conflict episode
  73. 73. CONFLICT LEVELS Latent conflict: antecedents of conflict and past behavior that can start conflict episode Manifest conflict: observable conflict behavior Conflict aftermath End of a conflict episode Often the starting point of a related episode Becomes the latent conflict for another episode Conflict reduction: lower the conflict level Date00.00.00 73 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  74. 74. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS Date00.00.00 74 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Latent conflict Conflict aftermath Manifest conflict Conflict reduction
  75. 75. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS The antecedents of conflict Example: scarce resources Latent conflict Manifest conflict Conflict aftermath
  76. 76. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 76 Observable conflict behavior Example: disagreement, discussion Latent conflict Manifest conflict Conflict aftermath
  77. 77. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS Some latent conflict ● Parking spaces-Ego /status symbol ● Use of copying machines- fear of resource sharing-jealousy ● Computer – Mobile-power-status Date00.00.00 77 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  78. 78. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 78 Manifest conflict Latent conflict Conflict aftermath Residue of a conflict episode Example: compromise in allocating scarce resources leaves both parties with less than they wanted
  79. 79. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS Date00.00.00 79 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Latent conflict Manifest conflict Conflict aftermath Perceived conflict Felt conflict Conflict reduction
  80. 80. Date00.00.00 80 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement End session 1 Key learning points
  81. 81. CONFLICT MANIFESTATIONS • Perceived conflict ● Become aware that one is in conflict with another party ● Attempt to block out some conflict ● Can perceive conflict when no latent conditions exist ● Emample: miiunqerijanqing anojher perion’i position on an issue Date00.00.00 81 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  82. 82. CONFLICT EPISODES (CONT.) • Felt conflict ● Emotional part of conflict ● Personalizing the conflict ● Oral and physical hostility ● Hard to manage episodes with high felt conflict ● What people likely recall about conflict Date00.00.00 82 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  83. 83. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CONFLICT PROCESS • Process links through the connection latent origin of conflict to aftermath . • Effective conflict management: break the connection • Discover the latency of conflicts and remove them Date00.00.00 83 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  84. 84. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS Conflict frames Perceptual sets that people bring to conflict episodes Perceptual filters • Remove some information from an episode • Emphasize other information in an episode Date00.00.00 84 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  85. 85. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) Date00.00.00 85 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Relationship-Task Emotional-Intellectual Cooperate-Win Conflict frame
  86. 86. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) • Conflict frame dimensions Relationship-Task • Relationship: focuses on interpersonal relationships • Task: focuses on material aspects of a result Emotional-Intellectual • Emotional: focuses on feelings in the conflict episode (felt conflict) • Intellectual: focuses on observed behavior (manifest conflict) Date00.00.00 86 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  87. 87. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) • Conflict frame dimensions (cont.) ● Cooperate-Win • Cooperate: emphasizes the role of all parties to the conflict • Win: wants to maximize personal gain Date00.00.00 87 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  88. 88. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) • Conflict frames ● Limited research results • End an episode with a relationship or intellectual frame: feel good about relationship with other party • Cooperation-focused people end with more positive results than those focused on winning Date00.00.00 88 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  89. 89. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) • Conflict orientations ● Dominance: wants to win; conflict is a battle ● Collaborative: wants to find a solution that satisfies everyone ● Compromise: splits the differences ● Avoidance: backs away ● Accommodative: focuses on desires of other party Date00.00.00 89 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  90. 90. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) • Can change during conflict progress How firmly the person holds position ● Importance of the issues to the person ● Perception of opponent's power • Collaborative orientation: more positive long-term benefits than the others Date00.00.00 90 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  91. 91. CONFLICT FRAMES AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) Date00.00.00 91 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Avoidance Accommodative Dominance CompromiseCollaborative Conflict aftermath High residueNo residue Conflict orientation and the conflict aftermath
  92. 92. CONFLICT AND ORIENTATIONS (CONT.) • Combinations of conflict orientations in a group ● Dominance, avoidance ● Dominance, dominance ● Avoidance, avoidance ● Dominance, collaborative, compromise ● Collaborative, compromise, avoidance ● Collaborative, compromise, avoidance, dominance, accommodative Date00.00.00 92 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  93. 93. LATENT CONFLICT: THE SOURCES OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS • Antecedents to conflict • Many natural conditions of organizations act as latent conflicts • Lurk in the background; trigger conflict when right conditions occur • Does not always lead to manifest conflict • Give us clues about how to reduce dysfunctional high conflict Date00.00.00 93 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  94. 94. LATENT CONFLICT: THE SOURCES OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) • Some representative latent conflict ● Scarce resources: money, equipment, facilities ● Organizational differentiation: different orientations in different parts of organization ● Rules, procedures, policies: behavioral guides that can cause clashes ● Cohesive groups: value and orientation differences among groups Date00.00.00 94 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  95. 95. LATENT CONFLICT: THE SOURCES OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) • Some representative latent conflict (cont.) ● Interdependence: forces interaction ● Communication barriers: shift work and jargon ● Ambiguous jurisdictions: areas of authority not clearly defined ● Reward systems: reward different behavior in different parts of the organization Date00.00.00 95 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  96. 96. CONFLICT OF INTEREST A term used to describe the situation in which a pub lic official or fiduciary who, contrary to the obligation and absolute duty to act for the benefit of the public or a designated individual, exploits the relationship for personal benefit, typically pecuniary. Date00.00.00 96 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  97. 97. SESSION-2 Estimated time 1 hour Date00.00.00 97 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  98. 98. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL Maintain conflict at functional levels ● Not complete elimination ● Reducing to functional levels ● Increasing dysfunction ally low conflict ● Choose desired level of conflict based on perceived conflict requirements ● Varies in different parts of an organization ● Ianager’i tolerance for conflict plays a role Date00.00.00 98 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  99. 99. ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL (CONT.) Date00.00.00 99 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Perceived conflict requirements Desired conflict level Organizational culture Fast-changing environment Product or service
  100. 100. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL (CONT.) Date00.00.00 100 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Norma l Increas e conflict Decrea se conflict Dysfunctional low conflict Dysfunction ally high conflict
  101. 101. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL (CONT.) • Symptoms of dysfunction ally high conflict ● Low trust or high mistrust ● Information distortion/withholding ● Tension/antagonism/confrontation ● Stress/anger ● Sarojage of ojher parjn’i injereij Date00.00.00 101 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  102. 102. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL (CONT.) • Symptoms of dysfunction ally low conflict ● Deny differences ● Repress controversial information ● Prohibit disagreements ● Avoid interactions ● Walk away from conflict episode Date00.00.00 102 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  103. 103. REDUCING /RESOLVING CONFLICT ● Lose-lose methods: parties to the conflict episode do not get what they want ● Win-lose methods: one party a clear winner; other party a clear loser ● Win-win methods: each party to the conflict episode gets what he or she wants Date00.00.00 103 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  104. 104. REDUCING CONFLICT (CONT.) • Lose-lose methods ● Avoidance • Withdraw, stay away • Does not permanently reduce conflict ● Compromise • Bargain, negotiate • Each loses something valued ● Smoothing: find similarities Date00.00.00 104 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  105. 105. REDUCING CONFLICT (CONT.) • Win-lose methods ● Dominance • Overwhelm other party • Overwhelms an avoidance orientation ● Authoritative command: decision by person in authority ● Majority rule: voting Date00.00.00 105 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  106. 106. REDUCING CONFLICT (CONT.) • Win-win methods ● Problem solving: find root causes ● Integration: meet interests and desires of all parties ● Superordinate goal: desired by all but not reachable alone Date00.00.00 106 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  107. 107. REDUCING CONFLICT (CONT.) • Summary ● Lose-lose methods: compromise ● Win-lose methods: dominance ● Win-win methods: problem solving Date00.00.00 107 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  108. 108. WIN/WIN LOSE/LOSE WIN/LOSE LOSE/WIN WIN NO DEAL Date00.00.00 108 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement Negotiation outcome possibilities
  109. 109. NEWT TIIE I SUGGEST XKU TRX “VIN- VIN” NEGKTIJTING” Date00.00.00 109 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  110. 110. INCREASING CONFLICT • Increase conflict when it is dysfunctionally low ● Heterogeneous groups: members have different backgrounds ● Deuil’s aduocate: offers alternative views ● Organizational culture: values and norms that embrace conflict and debate Date00.00.00 110 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  111. 111. Some Negotiating lessons are tough to take... Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 111
  112. 112. CONFLICT INSIGHTS • Possible positive effects of conflict • Latent conflict • Conflict aftermath • Conflict episodes • Links between episodes • Latent conflict and methods of reduction Date00.00.00 112 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  113. 113. HANDLING EMOTIONS Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 113 Emotional Challenges Anger/exasperation Insulted Guilt False flattery Recommended Response Allow venting. Probe for why Vhaj loulqn’j re insulting? Focus on issues Re-focus
  114. 114. CONFLICT REASONS • Excessive personal use of the Internet or official email • Poor attendance / time-keeping • Any form of bullying behavior or harassment • Any form of discriminatory behavior • Unacceptable language • Theft • Alcohol/ drug problems. Date00.00.00 114 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  115. 115. CONFLICT GENERATING CAUSES • Tahing creqij for ojher people’i lorh or stealing ideas • Talking over people in meetings • Not inviting team members to team /social events • Not rendering help by covering for people when they are off sick Date00.00.00 115 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  116. 116. CONFLICT REASONS • Not taking messages for people • uiing iomeone elie’i conjacji or information without permission • not including people in important emails • ignoring or being discourteous • Poor personal hygiene Date00.00.00 116 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  117. 117. ASPECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS • Cultures that emphasize individualism and competition ● Positively value conflict ● English-speaking countries, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium • Cultures that emphasize collaboration, cooperation, conformity ● Negatively value conflict ● Many Asian –Japanese and Latin American countries; Portugal, Greece, Turkey Date00.00.00 117 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  118. 118. ASPECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) ✕Cultural differences imply different functional conflict levels Date00.00.00 118 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  119. 119. ASPECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) • Cross-cultural research has dealt with intergroup processes • Collaborative and cooperative cultures expect little conflict during intergroup interactions • Favor suppression of conflict with little discussion about people's feelings • Felt conflict likely part of some conflict episodes but hidden from public view Date00.00.00 119 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  120. 120. INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) • Managers from an individualistic country operating in a less individualistic country ● Acceptable to express feelings during a conflict episode ● Suppression of feelings could baffle them ● Increasing conflict can confuse local people ● Almost immediate dysfunctional results Date00.00.00 120 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  121. 121. ETHICAL ISSUES IN CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS' Tolerance for conflict ● Manager with a high tolerance for conflict; keeps conflict levels too high for subordinates ● Should such managers reveal their intentions about desired conflict levels? ● Full disclosure: subordinates could leave the group if conflict levels became dysfunction ally stressful ● Ethical question applies equally to newly hired employees Date00.00.00 121 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  122. 122. ETHICAL ISSUES IN CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) Deliberately increasing conflict is an effort to guide behavior in a desired direction ● Subtle methods of increasing conflict (forming heterogeneous groups) connote manipulation ● Full disclosure: manager states his intention to use conflict to generate ideas and innovation ● If people are free to join a group or not, the ethical issue likely subsides Date00.00.00 122 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  123. 123. ETHICAL ISSUES IN CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) • Experiencing intrapersonal conflict ● Requests to act against one's moral values ● Observing behavior that one considers unethical • Reduce intrapersonal conflict ● Report unethical acts ● Transfer to another part of the organization ● Quit Date00.00.00 123 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  124. 124. ETHICAL ISSUES IN CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS (CONT.) Different cultures place different values on conflict ● Optimal conflict levels vary among countries ● Lower levels conflict in collectivistic countries than individualistic countries ● Corruption and bribe is way of life in our country while other nations deal with it at very high level Date00.00.00 124 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  125. 125. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING • Uchi-Soto ("Us and Them")-one will notice about the Japanese. They have been raised to think of themselves as part of a group, and their group is always dealing with other groups. Date00.00.00 125 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  126. 126. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING • Dealing with Japanese on a one-to-one basis usually is very easy to non-Japanese, but dealing with Japanese as a group can be a different matter altogether. And no matter how nice you are, or how good your Japanese becomes, you will always be treated as an outsider. In fact the literal meaning of "gaijin" is outsider. Date00.00.00 126 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  127. 127. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING • Japanese are extremely sensitive to what others might think of them . • Being ostracized is one of the worst things that can happen to a Japanese • Therefore, when making requests, it often takes more time since the person asked usually consults others in the group to reach a consensus Date00.00.00 127 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  128. 128. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING • In short, however, while the westerner starts so many sentences with "I", the Japanese "I" usually means "with the approval of the group". Date00.00.00 128 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  129. 129. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING • Uchi-soto has one other important trait -- there are next to no strikes in Japan ever Date00.00.00 129 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  130. 130. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING Because Japanese labor-management relations are better? Partly, yes. Date00.00.00 130 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  131. 131. CULTURE INFLUENCE AND CONFLICT HANDLING But in Japan there are almost no industrial unions like the CITU AIBEA Each large corporation has its own union, and they feel no bond with other company unions even if they are doing the same work. In one sense, the company union is almost a puppet, led by a management executive. Date00.00.00 131 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  132. 132. POWER OF CONFLICT LESS TEAMWORK HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS Date00.00.00 132 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  133. 133. • Session3 Date00.00.00 133 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  134. 134. HOW TO APPROACH CONFLICT Self role in handling conflict Date00.00.00 134 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  135. 135. IIRRKR IIRRKR…KN THE VJLL… • How do we approach the issue ? • Do le reipecj ojher people’i opinions? • What makes people angry? Date00.00.00 135 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  136. 136. IIRRKR IIRRKR…KN THE VJLL… • What are the warning signs of anger? • What to do : walk away ? • Take a moment to think? • Agree with the other person anq “gike in”? Date00.00.00 136 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  137. 137. CLUES – AGITATION AND AGGRESSION Do you recognise when someone is becoming irritated or is your first clue someone shouting at you or storming off? Some other clues for you: Voice Date00.00.00 137 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  138. 138. CLUES – AGITATION AND AGGRESSION • flushes or goes pale • Breathing rate changes • Tense body posture • Eye contact changes – either more direct and challenging or avoiding eye contact completely Date00.00.00 138 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  139. 139. WHAT DO PEOPLE DO? Five basic ways of addressing conflict were identified by Thomas and Kilmann in 1976: • Avoidance • Collaboration • Compromise • Competition • Accommodation Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 139
  140. 140. AVOIDANCE What does it look like? Avoid or postpone conflict by; Ignoring it. ✕ Respecting that everyone has different opinions ✕ Asking to talk about it later, lhen ij’i leii ruin (for emample) When to use it? ✕ For minor – non-recurring conflicts Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 140
  141. 141. COLLABORATION What does it look like? • Working together to find a mutually beneficial solution When to use it? • As part of problem solving • In meetings or 1:1 Potential outcomes • Win-win solutions to conflict or disagreement Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 141
  142. 142. • How much time you have available and how well you know those you are speaking with • How to use your questioning skills to capture ekernone’i resuiremenji • How to gain agreement before continuing Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 142
  143. 143. COMPROMISE What does it look like? • Finding a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied When to use it? • As part of problem solving • When the time to collaborate effectively is not available • When the situation is less complex Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 143
  144. 144. Potential outcomes • The key requirements or expectations of those involved may be resolved Consider • Will those involved be satisfied with a partial solution • How to use your questioning skills to capture requirements • How to gain agreement before continuing Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 144
  145. 145. ACCOMMODATION What does it look like? • Surrender your own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party When to use it? • If this will achieve the best outcome Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 145
  146. 146. ACCOMMODATION Potential outcomes • A short term solution that you can live with • If you are the one accommodating, then over time, you might resent working in this way Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 146
  147. 147. Consider • Why would your viewpoint be any less correcj or relekanj jhan annone elie’i? • What the circumstance is • Do you need to build a working relationship? • Are you choosing to do this because of hierarchy? • What you could ask those involved in order to understand the situation better? Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 147
  148. 148. • Session 4 Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 148
  149. 149. TOOL BOX TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Empathy • Valh a mile in jhe ojher perion’i ihoei (figurajikeln speaking) Active listening • Use good eye contact, body posture, nodding and acknowledgement when someone is talking to you • Summarise and paraphrase what you hear and repeat it back without changing language styles to make sure you are on the same page and understand what has been said Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 149
  150. 150. TECHNIQUES Take your time ● Give the other person time to respond and pace to do so ● No matter how thin you slice it – there are always 2 sides ● Remember respect cuts both ways Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 150
  151. 151. Open Questions ● ● What, Where, How, ● Who (be careful of Why questions can start to feel like an interrogation Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 151
  152. 152. DK…. EIPJTHISE VITH THEI • The focus of your listening is to understand the other party – for nou jo “gej ij” • Vorh jo lej jhem hnol lhaj ij ii nou “goj” • Use communication skills such as – paraphrasing and summarising Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 152
  153. 153. Use the same sorts of words they ✕are using (not the expletives) ✕Check your understanding ✕Acknowledge what has been said Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 153
  154. 154. LISTEN • This is not the easiest thing to do, especially on those occasions when you are bursting to give someone a piece of your mind! • Work to show that you are focused on understanding jhe ojher perion’i poinj of view. • Focus on the words you choose, your tone of voice, your hand movements and body language Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 154
  155. 155. FORMULA FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING • L-Look Interested • I- Inquire • S-Stay on target • T-Test your understanding • E-Evaluate body language • N-Neutralize feelings Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 155
  156. 156. TAKE YOUR TIME • The only person you can control is you • If you start to get angry take a break to reduce your emotional level and give you a chance to think about how to handle the situation • Ask questions Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 156
  157. 157. Always show respect No matter how much you disagree with someone – your challenge is with the subject, context, circumstance or argument NOT with the person Consider How does it affect you, when you do not feel nou are reing liijeneq jo…iomeone ijanqi oker nou…raiiei jheir koice….ipeahi oker nou….lagi jheir finger aj nou….jelli you off? Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 157
  158. 158. EXPLAIN WITH CARE • How can you do this when your point of view is very different from theirs? • Uie “I” ijajemenji rajher jhan “nou” statements • Inijeaq of “nou qon’j hnol lhaj nou’re jalhing arouj” jrn “I’q lihe jo emplain mn peripecjike jo nou” • Blaming and judging people is not helpful and will not effectively find a solution • Avoid discussing attitudes and personalities Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 158
  159. 159. THINK CREATIVELY • Use the different methods explored here • Work to identify different solutions from those so far rejected by one of the parties Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 159
  160. 160. …. • Accept the situation • Conflict cannot always be avoided • Not every conflict is negative Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 160
  161. 161. CONFLICT RESOLUTION Learning to negotiate
  162. 162. WHY CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINING? • Understand the effect conflict has on you • Recognise when it is appropriate to communicate with an angry person • Understand how to diffuse negative encounters • Learn how to speak with others on uncomforjarle or pojenjialln “hoj jopici” anq maintain a professional approach • Understand the motivators for anger • Recognise when it is no longer safe to communicate and the only safe response is to Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 162
  163. 163. • Session 5 Date00.00.00 163 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  164. 164. WORKPLACE CONFLICT WITH BOSS –HOW TO HANDLE • Learn to deal more effectively with difficult bosses and supervisors. • How To Deal With A Difficult Boss ? • Bosses and supervisors aren't from another planet, but sometimes they seem to be Date00.00.00 164 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  165. 165. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- Conflict with a difficult boss can be daunting and intimidating. Here are some tips to help you deal with difficult bosses and supervisors. Date00.00.00 165 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  166. 166. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • Most people at some point in their lives have to deal with a difficult boss. • Difficult supervisors vary in personality from being pushy or rude, all the way to being downright abusive. • Task vs relationship styles Date00.00.00 166 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  167. 167. * 167 dr.sarma
  168. 168. CONFLICT AND BOSS ✕ Many people feel abusive boss has control of personal life outside of work and lower the self-esteem and live in constant fear. ✕ The role of a supervisor is controlling ; attracts personalities who like the power ✕ A supervisor has complete control over most basic human needs— ability to put food on the table and a roof over your head. Date00.00.00 168 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  169. 169. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • These are powerful motivating factors that allow a difficult boss /supervisor to control people out of fear of losing these basic needs. • We may not be able to always correct their behavior, but we should never have to live in fear and let our difficult boss control our lives. Date00.00.00 169 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  170. 170. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • Here are some strategies on handling a difficult boss situation. Date00.00.00 170 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  171. 171. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • Always have a plan B. Most people are scared about having a discussion with their boss concerning their abusive behavior because they fear reprimand or losing their job as a result of it. Date00.00.00 171 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  172. 172. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • Their fear is usually justified if the supervisor is a control-freak and feels that their subordinate is threatening their control. Date00.00.00 172 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  173. 173. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • Before you deal with any type of conflict, you always need to have a plan B in case things don’t vork out. • A plan B is the best alternative that you can come up without having to negotiate anything with your boss. Date00.00.00 173 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  174. 174. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- ✕ In this type of scenario, your best plan B would probably take the form of having an actual job offer in hand with another employer before you have your talk. ✕ By not having a backup plan, you have given your abusive boss even more leverage over you because they know you have nowhere else to go. Date00.00.00 174 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  175. 175. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- • Having a plan B, however, empowers you with the ability to walk-away at any time should the negotiation not go right. Increase your power and have a plan B before you deal with the conflict. Date00.00.00 175 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  176. 176. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- • Never react to verbal abuse or harsh criticism with emotion. • This will always get you into more trouble than you started with because it will become a war between egos and chances are good that your boss has a bigger ego than you have—hence why he is difficult in the first place. Date00.00.00 176 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  177. 177. BOSS AND CONFLICT • When a personal attack is made , it is bait to reacting emotionally and become easy target for additional attacks. • The key then is not to react, but to acknowledge and move on. Date00.00.00 177 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  178. 178. CONFLICT WITH BOSS ✕ By doing this, you effectively strip all of the power behind their verbal attacks away from your abusive boss, without creating conflict. ✕ If your boss happens to be an intimidator or a control freak, then the best way of dealing with their behavior is to remain calm and acknowledge their power by saying, Date00.00.00 178 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  179. 179. • "You're right, I'm sorry." By saying this, you take away any chance of them lashing back at you because you have sidestepped their verbal attack rather than meeting it head on. Date00.00.00 179 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  180. 180. CONFLICT WITH BOSS • Feel neglected when not recognized for performance. • Not giving credit when due • Or steals credit Date00.00.00 180 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  181. 181. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- • Discuss rather than confront. When your boss criticizes you rather than appreciating, qon’j reacj ouj of emojion anq recome confrontational because that just breeds more conflict. • Instead, indulge in discussion on with data. Date00.00.00 181 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  182. 182. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- • If they criticize your work, then that means that they have their own idea on how that work should be done, so ask them for their advice on how your work can be improved. Date00.00.00 182 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  183. 183. CONFLICT AND THE BOSS • Manage the manager. A source of conflict is a new manager who demands that things run differently. Date00.00.00 183 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  184. 184. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT AND BOSS • A discussion about what is the goal them at the very beginning will help • Gej jo hnol jhe roii’i preference . Date00.00.00 184 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  185. 185. 5. KNOW THAT YOU CAN DO LITTLE TO CHANGE THEM. • Being a difficult person is part of the personality and therefore do not try to change a supervisor, . Instead, change the way that you approach the behavior. • Avoiding derogatory labeling, it is easy on yourself to be even angry with your boss. Date00.00.00 185 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  186. 186. 6. KEEP YOUR PROFESSIONAL FACE ON ✕ Know the difference between not liking your boss and not being professional. ✕ Xou qon’j hake jo mahe nour roii nour frienq or even like your boss as a person, but you do have to remain professional and get the job done and carry out their instructions dutifully as a subordinate, just as you would expect them to be professional as do their duties as a supervisor. Date00.00.00 186 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  187. 187. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- • Evaluate your own performance. Before you go attacking your boss, examine your own performance and ask yourself if you are doing everything right. Date00.00.00 187 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  188. 188. 7. EVALUATE YOUR OWN PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVELY JGJINST BKSS’S EWPECTJTIKN ✕ Get opinions from other coworkers about your performance and see if there is any warrant to the criticisms of your supervisor before you criticize their opinions. Date00.00.00 188 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  189. 189. HANDLING CONFLICT WITH SUBORDINATES • Conflict arise for the same reasons that you may feel with your boss • Performance appraisal is generally the conflict area • Insubordination is second major reason Date00.00.00 189 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  190. 190. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- CONFLICT WITH SUBORDINATES • To handle performance issues be proactive • Define goals /and consequences of not delivering • On insubordination- gather all facts/ document • Discuss and agree on corrective action Date00.00.00 190 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  191. 191. 8. GATHER ADDITIONAL SUPPORT. ✕ If others share in your concern, then you have the power of numbers behind you to give you additional persuasion power over your boss. ✕ It is often easy for a supervisor to ignore or attack one employee, but it becomes more difficult to attack all of his employees. ✕ He might be able to fire one of you, but he will look like an idiot (and probably get fired himself) if he tries to fire all of you. An interdepartmental union is a good way of mustering power against an abusive employer. Date00.00.00 191 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  192. 192. 9. DKN’T GK TK UP THE CHJIN KF CKIIJND UNLESS IT’S J LJST RESORT. ✕Going up the chain of command is not an effective way of dealing with a difficult supervisor ✕Try to discuss issues first and only go up the chain of command as a last resort. Date00.00.00 192 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  193. 193. 10-WORKPLACE CONFLICT-PAT ON THE BACK • Encourage good behavior with praise • boss and that of your subordinates- • If shy of verbal use thank you cards • It is easy to criticize but criticisms often lead towards resentment and hostile feelings. Date00.00.00 193 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  194. 194. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- ✕ Be very careful when you criticize in others presence. ✕ Everyone likes a pat on the back for good behavior, so you should strive to watch for good behaviors from your boss and subordinates and compliment them . ✕ Have you ever thanked your boss for sound advice? ✕ Proactive praising is much more effective than reactive criticisms. Date00.00.00 194 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  195. 195. 11. LEAVE WORK AT WORK. • Leave work at work. • If you choose to stay with a toxic BOSS , then document everything. • This will be the main ammunition should a complaint ever be filed . • Maintain performance review record. Date00.00.00 195 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  196. 196. 12. WORKPLACE CONFLICT- LEAVE WORK AT WORK. ✕ Get into the habit of leaving work at home and not bringing it into personal life; It will only add to your level of stress. ✕ Keep your professional life separate from personal life as best as you can. ✕ Thii alio incluqei haking frienqi lho nou qon’j work with so that you can detach yourself from your work life rather than bringing it home with you. Date00.00.00 196 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  197. 197. WORKPLACE CONFLICT IN VALUES - Downsizing or winding up of a business Layoff / Termination of employees due to cost cutting Date00.00.00 197 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  198. 198. ETHICAL ISSUES- • Harassment • Bribe • Tax evasions Date00.00.00 198 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  199. 199. CONFLICT RESOLUTION- BIBLICAL REF • Geiui iaiq, “Bleiieq are jhe peacemaheri for they shall be called the children of Goq”(Iajjhel 5.9). • Peacemakers enter into conflict with a commijmenj jo rring Goq’i gooqneii ouj of that situation, however terrible it might be. Date00.00.00 199 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  200. 200. CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION • Toqan jhe phraie “conflicj jraniformajion” has been used to describe the various processes whereby people and nations seek to establish constructive and positive dynamics and institutions in their communities in place of the destruction and sorrow of war and civil strife. Date00.00.00 200 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  201. 201. BIBLICAL ✕ confronting evil nonviolently, establishing justice, ✕ negotiating agreements, ✕ peace-building ✕ forging reconciliation. Date00.00.00 201 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  202. 202. BIBLICAL REF • Christians believe Jesus charged his folloleri “jo re engageq in poiijikeln transforming conflicts, for such people show jhemielkei jo re Goq’i chilqren demonstrating the same care and compassion for people suffering in conflict ai Goq hai qemonijrajeq jhrough Chriij.” Date00.00.00 202 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  203. 203. CONFLICT RESOLUTION- BIBLICAL REF ✕ POINTS OF IMPORTANCE: ✕ Conciliation - 7 steps of the Social Transformation of Conflict: ✕ 1. Problem-solving, where the parties disagree but share a problem. ✕ 2. Shift from disagreement to personal antagonism; the person is seen as the problem. ✕ 3. Issue proliferation–moving from the specific to the general, from one issue to many. Date00.00.00 203 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  204. 204. CONFLICT RESOLUTION- BIBLICAL REF ✕ 4. Triangulation–talking to other people about the person in conflict not directly to that person. (“Triangulajion” meani mahing a jriangle, in jhii caie with two people who bring in a third person to the conflict, not as a mediator to assist in resolving the conflict, but in an effort to get the third person on one side or the other.) ✕ 5. Reaction and escalation–an eye for an eye. ✕ 6. Antagonism increasing to hostility. ✕ 7. Polarization–a change in the social organization (breaking of friendship, divorce, church split, civil war, etc.) Date00.00.00 204 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  205. 205. ✕ The further along the conflict goes through these steps there is more violence, less trust, ✕ less accurate communication and less direct contact. ✕ In the Genesis stories we see Adam-and Eve at step 2 where Adam is blaming both Eve and God for the problem. Cain is ✕ also at step 2 seeing Abel as the problem, but he jumps quickly to step 7 in committing murder. Date00.00.00 205 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  206. 206. DOMINATION ✕ Domination is where one person or group gains power that is used in a threatening or abusive way over others. Throughout the Bible violent political domination is a problem, whether looking at the oppressions of Pharaoh in Egnpj or Samuel’i concerni about establishing a king in Israel (see 1 Samuel 8). The climax of this violent domination is Date00.00.00 206 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  207. 207. DEMON OR DIVINE? • seen in Revelation 13 , 13.1.7 depicts • Both demonic and divine governments - mixture • of both the divinely-established and the demonic. • Some governments may exhibit more of the demonic nature in their destructive behavior, while other governments may not Date00.00.00 207 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  208. 208. DEMON OR DIVINE • Violent or dominating ways of dealing with conflict can be institutionalized, • Need is for understanding structural dynamics of power if they are to constructively transform organizational, social or political conflicts. Date00.00.00 208 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  209. 209. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME ✕ Thomas Edison electrocuted an elephant to demonstrate the danger of a competitor's technology. ✕ Nike , desperate for an advantage over a surging Reebok, signed a college hoops player named Michael Jordan. ✕ Central Pacific Railroad laid an astounding 10 miles of track in 24 hours to grab government payments that the hated Union Pacific would otherwise claim Date00.00.00 209 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  210. 210. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • What comes through most strongly in these stories is sheer human intensity. • Only a brave novelist would have imagined the brother vs. brother saga of Adidas vs. Puma (No. 20). Venice vs. Genoa (No. 7) may look like a dusty tale of feuding city-states, but it set the tone for hundreds of years of European competition. Date00.00.00 210 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  211. 211. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • Rivalries make great stories, and the greatest rivalries make the greatest tales -- reason enough to read the following portraits of brilliance, skullduggery, nobility, mendacity, victory, and failure. Date00.00.00 211 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  212. 212. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • But if you're the driven type who demands more practical benefits, you'll find those here too. After all, monumental business battles have changed the world. Date00.00.00 212 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  213. 213. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • If tiny MCI hadn't challenged the titanic AT&T ( T 0.60% ) the communications revolution would have played out much differently. • Steve Jobs and Bill Gates ended up selling few competing products yet contended for 35 years to impose radically different visions of computing. Date00.00.00 213 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  214. 214. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • And a global economy that couldn't function without air travel is far faster and better because Airbus and Boeing ( BA 0.82% ) (No. 9) have had to fight each other every day for 40 years. • Functional Date00.00.00 214 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  215. 215. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • Coke ( KO -0.08% ) and Pepsi ( PEP 0.65% ) were so busy pounding the daylights out of each other that they missed an entirely new notion, and today, inconceivably, the best selling energy drink in U.S. convenience stores isn't made by either company. (It's Red Bull.) • Dysfunctional Date00.00.00 215 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  216. 216. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • General Motors and Ford clashed with each other until one day Toyota ( TM 1.89% ) had stolen the bulk of their profits. Date00.00.00 216 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  217. 217. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • The rivalry between the American railroads was economic, ethnic, and spectacular, involving sabotage, deception, and death. Who needs such lessons? Date00.00.00 217 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  218. 218. THE 50 GREATEST BUSINESS CONFLICTS OF ALL TIME • Oh, right, we do. So think of these dramas as guilt-free pleasures. Then, well prepared for the task, go forth and pulverize your rivals. --Geoff Colvin Date00.00.00 218 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  219. 219. ACCEPT THE SITUATION • Conflict is not mathematics • There is not always a solution waiting to be found • If there is a solution – it is very unlikely to be the only one Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 219
  220. 220. JND FINJLLX…. CKNFLICT CJNNKT ALWAYS BE SOLVED OR AVOIDED The Swiss psychologist Carl Jung once wrote that “jhe greajeij anq moij imporjanj prorlemi of life are all fundamentally insoluble. They can never be iolkeq ruj onln oujgroln” Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 220
  221. 221. JND FINJLLX…. NOT ALL CONFLICT IS NEGATIVE • Not every conflict is negative (sometimes it “cleari jhe air”) • The important thing is to keep wasteful and damaging conflict to a minimum and when conflict occurs, use the techniques to resolve or at least ease it Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 221
  222. 222. Date00.00.00Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement 222
  223. 223. WHAT DID WE LEARN? In workplace or personal conflicts it is all about difference in perspective • Approaches to Conflict Resolution include; • Avoidance • Collaboration • Compromise • Competition • Accommodation Date00.00.00 223 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  224. 224. WHAT DID WE LEARN? • Win Win solutions build relationships and aid solutions • Conflict is not mathematics but deals with personalities and emotions • There is not always a solution waiting to be found • If there is a solution – it is very unlikely to be the only one Date00.00.00 224 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement
  225. 225. Date00.00.00 225 Dr.Sarma-Conflictmanagement