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HERNIAS
Presented by:
Sameh Shehata
References
NaJah m. N. RaSIKh
Definition
 A hernia is the
protrusion of an
organ through its
containing wall.
Composition of a hernia
1. The sac
2. The covering of
the sac
3. The content of the
sac
Composition of a hernia
1. The sac :
 It is a diverticulum
of peritoneum and
is made up of
three parts :
 The mouth,
 The neck and
 The body of the
sac.
Composition of a hernia
2. The covering:
 Coverings are derived from the layers of abdominal
wall through which the sac pass
3. Contents:
 can be
 Omentum = omentocle
 Intestine = enterocele
 Portion of circumference of intestine = Richter’s
hernia
 Portion of the bladder
 Ovary(with or without oviduct)
 Meckel’s diverteculum =Littre’s hernia
Etiology
 Hernias occur at sites of weakness in the wall
 This weakness may be :
 Normal (physiological) weakness, related
to the anatomical causes.
 Congenital abnormality.
 Acquired :
• Traumatic
• Diseases
Varieties
A hernia at any site may be:
1. Reducible
This is the one which the contents of the sac reduced
spontaneously or can be pushed back manually. A
reducible hernia imparts an expansile impulse on
coughing.
2. Irreducible
This one whose contents cannot be returned to the
peritoneal cavity either because there are:
 adhesions between the sac and contents, or
 because of the narrow neck of the sac.
Varieties
 Irreducible hernia can be :
1. Incarcerated: there are adhesions between the sac and
the contents, but there is no obstruction or interference
with blood supply. the hernia simply will not reduce
2. Obstructed: a hollow viscus is trapped within the sac and
obstruction occurs. The blood supply remains intact.
This is a common cause of small bowel obstruction.
3. Strangulated: the arterial blood supply to the contents of
the sac is compromised, in such a hernia unless surgical
relief is undertaken the contents of the sac will become
gangrenous.
Classification
A. External hernia
B. Internal hernia
Classification continue…
A. External hernia
Common hernia
 inguinal
 Femoral
 Umbilical
 incisional
Classification continue…
A. External hernia
Rare hernia
 Spigelian
 Gluteal
 Obturator
 lumbar
Some other hernias
 Spigelian hernia:
 This is a hernia through the linea semilunaris at the lateral
border of the rectus sheath.
 Littre's hernia:
 A hernia that contains a Meckel's diverticulum in the sac.
 Obturator hernia:
 This hernia occurs through the obturator foramen. It is
commoner in elderly females.
 Lumbar herniae:
 These occur in the lumbar region (below the 12th rib & above
the iliac crest).
Classification continue…
B. Internal hernia
Diaphragmatic hernia
 Esophogial hernia
 Paraesophogial
hernia
Signs and Symptoms
- A lump disappears, reappears, and enlarges on
straining and discomfort.
 Physical Signs:
 Reduced.
 + ve cough impulse.
 Investigation:
Hernia is diagnosed clinically. Investigations are
rarely indicated or valuable.
Management
 Treatment:
hernias should be operatively repaired both to relieve
symptoms and to eliminate the complications.
 Surgical techniques:
• Herniotomy: removal of sac and closure of its
neck.
• Herniorrhaphy: involves some sort of
reconstruction to:
• Restore the anatomy if this is disturbed.
• Increase the strength of the abdomenal wall.
• Construct a barrier to recurrence.
Inguinal hernia
 Epidemiology:
 Male : Female
• by 9 to 1 ratio
 young adults mostly
have indirect inguinal
hernia.
 As age of patient
increases, the incidence
of direct hernias
increases .
Inguinal hernia
 Risk factors:
( increases intra-abdominal pressure )
 Chronic cough.
 Constipation.
 Pregnancy.
 Straining at micturation.
 Severe muscular effort (lifting heavy
objects).
 Ascites - fluid may increase the size of an
existing sac.
Myopectineal Orifice of Fruchaud
Inguinal hernia
Inguinal Canal Anatomy
 Anterior wall:
 aponeurosis of external oblique
(along entire length),
 internal oblique on lateral one
third
 Posterior:
 fascia transversalis
 conjoint tendonon in medial
one third
 Roof:
 arching fibers of internal
oblique ,and
 transversus abdominis
 Floor (inferior):
 inguinal ligament, and
 lacunar ligamen at the medial
end
Inguinal hernia
Inguinal Canal Contents:
 Male:
 Spermatic cord structures:
• vas deferens,
• testicular artery
• testicular veins (pampiniform plexus),
• genital branch of genitofemoral nerve,
• artery of the vas deference,
• lymphatics,
• autonomic nerves,
• processus vaginalis.
• Ilio inguinal nerve
 Female:
 Round ligament of the uterus,
 genital branch of genitofemoral nerve,
 lymphatics,
 sympathetic plexus.
Inguinal hernia
Signs & symptoms:
 Bulge that enlarges when stand or strain, but often
asymptomatic.
 In general direct hernias produce fewer symptoms
than indirect hernias and are less likely to
complicate.
 On examination:
 Palpable defect or swelling may be present .
 Indirect Hernia usually bulge at Internal InguinalInternal Inguinal
Ring.Ring.
 Direct Hernia usually bulge at External InguinalExternal Inguinal
Ring.Ring.
Inguinal hernia
There are two types
of inguinal hernia:
 Direct inguinal
hernia
 Indirect inguinal
hernia
Differences between direct
and indirect hernias
1. Origin and coarse:
• Direct: Develops in the area of Hasselbach's triangle. The
origin is medially to the inferior epigastric vessels.
• Indirect: Develops at the internal ring. The origin is lateral
to the inferior epigastric artery.
1. Content:
1. Direct: Retroperitoneal fat. less commonly, peritoneal sac
containing bowel .
2. Indirect: Sac of peritoneum coming through internal ring,
through which omentum or bowel can enter.
2. Etiology:
• Direct: weakness of the posterior floor of the inguinal
canal (acquired).
• Indirect: patent processus vaginalis (Congenital) .
Differences between direct
and indirect hernias
 Boundaries of Hasselbach's
triangle:
 Medially: lateral border of
rectus abdominis.
 Laterally: inferior epigastric
vessels.
 Inferiorly: inguinal ligament.
Hesselbach’s Triangle
Inguinal hernia
 Both types (direct
and indirect inguinal
hernia) may occur at
the same time and
straddle the inferior
epigastric artery.
 This is called:
Pantaloon hernia
Inguinal hernia
Male inguinal hernia Female inguinal hernia
Indirect Inguinal hernia
Abdominal contents protrude through internal inguinal
ring
31
Direct Inguinal Hernia
Inguinal hernia
 Complications:
 Irreducibility, but without signs of
obstruction or strangulation
 Small Bowel Obstruction, Usually
urgent surgical repair
 Strangulation, Surgical emergency
50% indirect, 3-10% direct.
Inguinal hernia
Management:
 Inguinal hernias should always be
repaired ( herniotomy, herniorrhaphy )
unless there are specific
contraindications.
 Types of operations:
1. a permanent sutures, as in Shouldice
repair (layered suture).
2. a permanent mesh -greater frequency to
decrease tension.
Inguinal hernia management
 Treatment of
aggravating factors
(chronic cough,
prostatic obstruction,
etc).
 Use of truss
(appliance to prevent
hernia from protruding)
when a patient refuses
operative repair or
when there are
absolute
contraindications to
operation
36
Father of Modern Inguinal Hernia
Repair
EDUARDO BASSINI
38
Herniotomy
Patent processus vaginalis ligated at
origin at internal ring (high ligation(
Nyhus type I
Children
39
Bassini repair
Transversus abdominis aponeurosis +
transversalis fascia  inguinal ligament
with nonabsorbable interrupted sutures
40
Shouldice repair
4rows of suture
41
McVay repair
Inguinal and femoral hernias,
Transversus abdominis aponeurosis +
transversalis fascia  Cooper’s ligament
+ iliopubic tract
42
Hernioplasty
High ligation, inverted sac + reinforce
defect with synthetic material
Tension-free
Lichtenstein
Recurrent rate 0.1%
Techniques
Suturing the mesh to the inguinal
ligament is not important.
Fixing the mesh to the rectus sheath
1-1.5cm medial and superior to the
pubic tubercle is very important.
Should have a surplus of mesh over
inguinal ligament, the medial suture
ensures surplus mesh inferiorly
Techniques
Coined by Liechtenstein in 1989
Central feature is polypropylene mesh
over unrepaired floor.
Gilbert repair uses a cone shaped
plug placed thru deep ring.
Slit placed in mesh for cord structures
Tension-Free Repair
Same initial approach as anterior
repair
Instead of sewing fascial layers
together to repair defect, a prosthetic
mesh onlay used
Simple to learn, easy to perform,
suited for local anesthesia, excellent
results with recurrence less than 4%.
Laparoscopic Procedures
Increasingly popular, controversial
Early in the development, hernias
were repaired by placing very large
mesh over entire inguinal region on
top of the peritoneum. Was
abandoned because of contact with
bowel.
Today, most performed TEP or TAPP
Laparoscopic Mesh Repair
Note:
Viewed from inside the
pelvis toward the direct
and indirect sites. A
broad portion of mesh is
stapled to span both
hernia defects. Staples
are not used in
proximity to
neurovascular
structures.
Laparoscopic Procedures
The argued advantage of these
procedures was less pain and
disability, faster return to work.
Great for bilateral hernia, with no
increase in morbidity.
For recurrent hernia
Disadvantages are cost, time.
Recurrence
Type of repair Recurrence
McVay 9%
Shouldice 7-11%
Liechtenstein 0-4%
Laparoscopic 0-1%
Femoral hernia
 The defect is in the
transversalis fascia
overlying the femoral ring at
the entry to the femoral
canal.
 The hernia passes through
the femoral canal and
presents in the groin, below
and lateral to the pubic
tubercle.
 It is more common in
females and carries a higher
risk of strangulation.
 Femoral canal-ant.by
inguinal ligament,post by
fascia over pectineus
muscle,lat. by femoral vein n
medial by lacunar ligament
Femoral hernia
Signs & symptoms:
 A lump occurs below and lateral to the
pubic tubercle. It may be reducible.
 It may not be noticed until it becomes
tender and painful.
 This type of hernia should be carefully
sought in the obese patient who
presents with signs of intestinal
obstruction without an obvious cause.
 DD’s-saphena varix,enlarged inguinal
LN,femoral artery aneurysm,rare
femoral abscess.
Femoral hernia
Femoral hernia
Surgical repair:
 An incision is made directly over the
swelling.
 The sac is opened and the contents
reduced and the sac removed.
 Femoral canal obliterated with 3
interrupted non absorbable suture.
 Treatment of strangulation or
obstruction, if present.
 There is no place for a truss in the
treatment of femoral hernia.
Anatomy
Inguinal ligament
(Poupart’s) – inferior edge
of external oblique
Lacunar ligament –
triangular extension of the
inguinal ligament before
its insertion upon the pubic
tubercle
conjoined tendon (5-10%)-
Internal oblique fuses with
transversus abdominis
aponeurosis
Cooper’s Ligament -
formed by the periosteum
and fascia along the
superior ramus of the
pubis.
Umbilical hernia
 This occurs in children
because of incomplete
closure of the umbilical
orifice.
 The majority close
spontaneously during
the first year of life.
 Surgical repair should
only be carried out if
the hernia has not
disappeared by the
age of 3 and the
fascial defect is greater
than 1.5cm in
diameter.
Para-Umbilical hernia
 It occurs just above or
just below the
umbilicus, and is more
common in obese
females.
 Predisposing factors
 multiple pregnancies
and
 obesity.
Para-Umbilical hernia
 The neck of the sac is usually narrow and
therefore there is a high risk of strangulation.
 The most common content is
 omentum ,then
 transverse colon and small intestine.
 Treatment: is by
 Contents of sac freed from it’s wall,excision of
the sac, and fascial defect repaired by
 Upper flap overlapping the lower,a two layer
overlapping repair thereby doubling the
strength of repair (Mayo repair)
 >4 cm,recurrent-polypropylene mesh
Epigastric hernia
 This is usually a
small protrusion
through the linea
Alba in the upper
part of the
abdomen.
 It consists of :
 extraperitoneal fat
only, but
 May contain
omentum or small
bowel.
Epigastric hernia
 It may be extremely painful,
probably because of trapping and
ischaemia of extraperitoneal fat.
 Treatment
 is by enlaging the defect,excising the
fat, simple suture of the defect with
non-absorbable sutures .
>4 cm propylene mesh placed
retromuscular plane
Incisional hernia
 This occurs
through a defect
in the scar of a
previous
abdominal
incision.
Incisional hernia
 Etiology :
 Age: Wound healing is poor in the older patient.
 Obesity.
 Postoperative wound infection.
 Postoperative wound haematoma.
 Raised intra-abdominal pressure postoperatively,
e.g. coughing, straining, constipation, ileus.
 Steroid therapy.
 Type of incision: Midline vertical wounds have a
higher incidence than transverse incisions.
 Poor suturing technique: Rarely does a suture break
Incisional hernia
 Sign & symptoms :
 A swelling protrudes through the wound.
 It May occur up to 5 years postoperatively.
 Many are large and involve the whole incision and
consequently the neck of the sac is wide and the risk of
strangulation rare.
 If the defect is small there is a greater risk of
strangulation .
 Treatment-palliative-abd.belt
 - preoperative measures-reduce weight,treat
cough,improve nutritional status.stop smoking.
 -surgery:excision of sac,identification n apposition,
 -large hernia-poly propylene mesh,
Richter’s hernia
 Part of the wall of
the intestine
becomes trapped
in the defect.
 This is usually the
antimesenteric
border of the small
bowel.
 The lumen is
intact
( no obstruction )
Diaphragmatic hernia
 Traumatic:
rare and followed by injuries to chest and
abdomen.
The Lt diaphragm is affected more than Rt
and is accompanied by herniation of
stomach and spleen.
 Hiatus:
1. Sliding.
2. Para-esophegial.
Diaphragmatic hernia
 Sliding:
 in which the
gastroesophogeal
junction itself
slides through the
defect into the
chest.
Diaphragmatic hernia
 Para-esophageal
 in which the junction
remains fixed while
another portion of the
stomach moves up
through the defect.
 This can be
dangerous as they
may allow the
stomach to rotate and
obstruct.
Hiatus hernia
Everything You Need to Know About Hernias

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Everything You Need to Know About Hernias

  • 3. Definition  A hernia is the protrusion of an organ through its containing wall.
  • 4. Composition of a hernia 1. The sac 2. The covering of the sac 3. The content of the sac
  • 5. Composition of a hernia 1. The sac :  It is a diverticulum of peritoneum and is made up of three parts :  The mouth,  The neck and  The body of the sac.
  • 6. Composition of a hernia 2. The covering:  Coverings are derived from the layers of abdominal wall through which the sac pass 3. Contents:  can be  Omentum = omentocle  Intestine = enterocele  Portion of circumference of intestine = Richter’s hernia  Portion of the bladder  Ovary(with or without oviduct)  Meckel’s diverteculum =Littre’s hernia
  • 7. Etiology  Hernias occur at sites of weakness in the wall  This weakness may be :  Normal (physiological) weakness, related to the anatomical causes.  Congenital abnormality.  Acquired : • Traumatic • Diseases
  • 8. Varieties A hernia at any site may be: 1. Reducible This is the one which the contents of the sac reduced spontaneously or can be pushed back manually. A reducible hernia imparts an expansile impulse on coughing. 2. Irreducible This one whose contents cannot be returned to the peritoneal cavity either because there are:  adhesions between the sac and contents, or  because of the narrow neck of the sac.
  • 9. Varieties  Irreducible hernia can be : 1. Incarcerated: there are adhesions between the sac and the contents, but there is no obstruction or interference with blood supply. the hernia simply will not reduce 2. Obstructed: a hollow viscus is trapped within the sac and obstruction occurs. The blood supply remains intact. This is a common cause of small bowel obstruction. 3. Strangulated: the arterial blood supply to the contents of the sac is compromised, in such a hernia unless surgical relief is undertaken the contents of the sac will become gangrenous.
  • 10.
  • 12. Classification continue… A. External hernia Common hernia  inguinal  Femoral  Umbilical  incisional
  • 13. Classification continue… A. External hernia Rare hernia  Spigelian  Gluteal  Obturator  lumbar
  • 14. Some other hernias  Spigelian hernia:  This is a hernia through the linea semilunaris at the lateral border of the rectus sheath.  Littre's hernia:  A hernia that contains a Meckel's diverticulum in the sac.  Obturator hernia:  This hernia occurs through the obturator foramen. It is commoner in elderly females.  Lumbar herniae:  These occur in the lumbar region (below the 12th rib & above the iliac crest).
  • 15. Classification continue… B. Internal hernia Diaphragmatic hernia  Esophogial hernia  Paraesophogial hernia
  • 16. Signs and Symptoms - A lump disappears, reappears, and enlarges on straining and discomfort.  Physical Signs:  Reduced.  + ve cough impulse.  Investigation: Hernia is diagnosed clinically. Investigations are rarely indicated or valuable.
  • 17. Management  Treatment: hernias should be operatively repaired both to relieve symptoms and to eliminate the complications.  Surgical techniques: • Herniotomy: removal of sac and closure of its neck. • Herniorrhaphy: involves some sort of reconstruction to: • Restore the anatomy if this is disturbed. • Increase the strength of the abdomenal wall. • Construct a barrier to recurrence.
  • 18. Inguinal hernia  Epidemiology:  Male : Female • by 9 to 1 ratio  young adults mostly have indirect inguinal hernia.  As age of patient increases, the incidence of direct hernias increases .
  • 19. Inguinal hernia  Risk factors: ( increases intra-abdominal pressure )  Chronic cough.  Constipation.  Pregnancy.  Straining at micturation.  Severe muscular effort (lifting heavy objects).  Ascites - fluid may increase the size of an existing sac.
  • 21. Inguinal hernia Inguinal Canal Anatomy  Anterior wall:  aponeurosis of external oblique (along entire length),  internal oblique on lateral one third  Posterior:  fascia transversalis  conjoint tendonon in medial one third  Roof:  arching fibers of internal oblique ,and  transversus abdominis  Floor (inferior):  inguinal ligament, and  lacunar ligamen at the medial end
  • 22. Inguinal hernia Inguinal Canal Contents:  Male:  Spermatic cord structures: • vas deferens, • testicular artery • testicular veins (pampiniform plexus), • genital branch of genitofemoral nerve, • artery of the vas deference, • lymphatics, • autonomic nerves, • processus vaginalis. • Ilio inguinal nerve  Female:  Round ligament of the uterus,  genital branch of genitofemoral nerve,  lymphatics,  sympathetic plexus.
  • 23. Inguinal hernia Signs & symptoms:  Bulge that enlarges when stand or strain, but often asymptomatic.  In general direct hernias produce fewer symptoms than indirect hernias and are less likely to complicate.  On examination:  Palpable defect or swelling may be present .  Indirect Hernia usually bulge at Internal InguinalInternal Inguinal Ring.Ring.  Direct Hernia usually bulge at External InguinalExternal Inguinal Ring.Ring.
  • 24. Inguinal hernia There are two types of inguinal hernia:  Direct inguinal hernia  Indirect inguinal hernia
  • 25. Differences between direct and indirect hernias 1. Origin and coarse: • Direct: Develops in the area of Hasselbach's triangle. The origin is medially to the inferior epigastric vessels. • Indirect: Develops at the internal ring. The origin is lateral to the inferior epigastric artery. 1. Content: 1. Direct: Retroperitoneal fat. less commonly, peritoneal sac containing bowel . 2. Indirect: Sac of peritoneum coming through internal ring, through which omentum or bowel can enter. 2. Etiology: • Direct: weakness of the posterior floor of the inguinal canal (acquired). • Indirect: patent processus vaginalis (Congenital) .
  • 26. Differences between direct and indirect hernias  Boundaries of Hasselbach's triangle:  Medially: lateral border of rectus abdominis.  Laterally: inferior epigastric vessels.  Inferiorly: inguinal ligament.
  • 28. Inguinal hernia  Both types (direct and indirect inguinal hernia) may occur at the same time and straddle the inferior epigastric artery.  This is called: Pantaloon hernia
  • 29. Inguinal hernia Male inguinal hernia Female inguinal hernia
  • 30. Indirect Inguinal hernia Abdominal contents protrude through internal inguinal ring
  • 31. 31
  • 33. Inguinal hernia  Complications:  Irreducibility, but without signs of obstruction or strangulation  Small Bowel Obstruction, Usually urgent surgical repair  Strangulation, Surgical emergency 50% indirect, 3-10% direct.
  • 34. Inguinal hernia Management:  Inguinal hernias should always be repaired ( herniotomy, herniorrhaphy ) unless there are specific contraindications.  Types of operations: 1. a permanent sutures, as in Shouldice repair (layered suture). 2. a permanent mesh -greater frequency to decrease tension.
  • 35. Inguinal hernia management  Treatment of aggravating factors (chronic cough, prostatic obstruction, etc).  Use of truss (appliance to prevent hernia from protruding) when a patient refuses operative repair or when there are absolute contraindications to operation
  • 36. 36
  • 37. Father of Modern Inguinal Hernia Repair EDUARDO BASSINI
  • 38. 38 Herniotomy Patent processus vaginalis ligated at origin at internal ring (high ligation( Nyhus type I Children
  • 39. 39 Bassini repair Transversus abdominis aponeurosis + transversalis fascia  inguinal ligament with nonabsorbable interrupted sutures
  • 41. 41 McVay repair Inguinal and femoral hernias, Transversus abdominis aponeurosis + transversalis fascia  Cooper’s ligament + iliopubic tract
  • 42. 42 Hernioplasty High ligation, inverted sac + reinforce defect with synthetic material Tension-free Lichtenstein Recurrent rate 0.1%
  • 43. Techniques Suturing the mesh to the inguinal ligament is not important. Fixing the mesh to the rectus sheath 1-1.5cm medial and superior to the pubic tubercle is very important. Should have a surplus of mesh over inguinal ligament, the medial suture ensures surplus mesh inferiorly
  • 44. Techniques Coined by Liechtenstein in 1989 Central feature is polypropylene mesh over unrepaired floor. Gilbert repair uses a cone shaped plug placed thru deep ring. Slit placed in mesh for cord structures
  • 45. Tension-Free Repair Same initial approach as anterior repair Instead of sewing fascial layers together to repair defect, a prosthetic mesh onlay used Simple to learn, easy to perform, suited for local anesthesia, excellent results with recurrence less than 4%.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. Laparoscopic Procedures Increasingly popular, controversial Early in the development, hernias were repaired by placing very large mesh over entire inguinal region on top of the peritoneum. Was abandoned because of contact with bowel. Today, most performed TEP or TAPP
  • 49.
  • 50. Laparoscopic Mesh Repair Note: Viewed from inside the pelvis toward the direct and indirect sites. A broad portion of mesh is stapled to span both hernia defects. Staples are not used in proximity to neurovascular structures.
  • 51. Laparoscopic Procedures The argued advantage of these procedures was less pain and disability, faster return to work. Great for bilateral hernia, with no increase in morbidity. For recurrent hernia Disadvantages are cost, time.
  • 52. Recurrence Type of repair Recurrence McVay 9% Shouldice 7-11% Liechtenstein 0-4% Laparoscopic 0-1%
  • 53. Femoral hernia  The defect is in the transversalis fascia overlying the femoral ring at the entry to the femoral canal.  The hernia passes through the femoral canal and presents in the groin, below and lateral to the pubic tubercle.  It is more common in females and carries a higher risk of strangulation.  Femoral canal-ant.by inguinal ligament,post by fascia over pectineus muscle,lat. by femoral vein n medial by lacunar ligament
  • 54. Femoral hernia Signs & symptoms:  A lump occurs below and lateral to the pubic tubercle. It may be reducible.  It may not be noticed until it becomes tender and painful.  This type of hernia should be carefully sought in the obese patient who presents with signs of intestinal obstruction without an obvious cause.  DD’s-saphena varix,enlarged inguinal LN,femoral artery aneurysm,rare femoral abscess.
  • 56. Femoral hernia Surgical repair:  An incision is made directly over the swelling.  The sac is opened and the contents reduced and the sac removed.  Femoral canal obliterated with 3 interrupted non absorbable suture.  Treatment of strangulation or obstruction, if present.  There is no place for a truss in the treatment of femoral hernia.
  • 57. Anatomy Inguinal ligament (Poupart’s) – inferior edge of external oblique Lacunar ligament – triangular extension of the inguinal ligament before its insertion upon the pubic tubercle conjoined tendon (5-10%)- Internal oblique fuses with transversus abdominis aponeurosis Cooper’s Ligament - formed by the periosteum and fascia along the superior ramus of the pubis.
  • 58. Umbilical hernia  This occurs in children because of incomplete closure of the umbilical orifice.  The majority close spontaneously during the first year of life.  Surgical repair should only be carried out if the hernia has not disappeared by the age of 3 and the fascial defect is greater than 1.5cm in diameter.
  • 59. Para-Umbilical hernia  It occurs just above or just below the umbilicus, and is more common in obese females.  Predisposing factors  multiple pregnancies and  obesity.
  • 60. Para-Umbilical hernia  The neck of the sac is usually narrow and therefore there is a high risk of strangulation.  The most common content is  omentum ,then  transverse colon and small intestine.  Treatment: is by  Contents of sac freed from it’s wall,excision of the sac, and fascial defect repaired by  Upper flap overlapping the lower,a two layer overlapping repair thereby doubling the strength of repair (Mayo repair)  >4 cm,recurrent-polypropylene mesh
  • 61.
  • 62. Epigastric hernia  This is usually a small protrusion through the linea Alba in the upper part of the abdomen.  It consists of :  extraperitoneal fat only, but  May contain omentum or small bowel.
  • 63. Epigastric hernia  It may be extremely painful, probably because of trapping and ischaemia of extraperitoneal fat.  Treatment  is by enlaging the defect,excising the fat, simple suture of the defect with non-absorbable sutures . >4 cm propylene mesh placed retromuscular plane
  • 64. Incisional hernia  This occurs through a defect in the scar of a previous abdominal incision.
  • 65. Incisional hernia  Etiology :  Age: Wound healing is poor in the older patient.  Obesity.  Postoperative wound infection.  Postoperative wound haematoma.  Raised intra-abdominal pressure postoperatively, e.g. coughing, straining, constipation, ileus.  Steroid therapy.  Type of incision: Midline vertical wounds have a higher incidence than transverse incisions.  Poor suturing technique: Rarely does a suture break
  • 66. Incisional hernia  Sign & symptoms :  A swelling protrudes through the wound.  It May occur up to 5 years postoperatively.  Many are large and involve the whole incision and consequently the neck of the sac is wide and the risk of strangulation rare.  If the defect is small there is a greater risk of strangulation .  Treatment-palliative-abd.belt  - preoperative measures-reduce weight,treat cough,improve nutritional status.stop smoking.  -surgery:excision of sac,identification n apposition,  -large hernia-poly propylene mesh,
  • 67. Richter’s hernia  Part of the wall of the intestine becomes trapped in the defect.  This is usually the antimesenteric border of the small bowel.  The lumen is intact ( no obstruction )
  • 68. Diaphragmatic hernia  Traumatic: rare and followed by injuries to chest and abdomen. The Lt diaphragm is affected more than Rt and is accompanied by herniation of stomach and spleen.  Hiatus: 1. Sliding. 2. Para-esophegial.
  • 69. Diaphragmatic hernia  Sliding:  in which the gastroesophogeal junction itself slides through the defect into the chest.
  • 70. Diaphragmatic hernia  Para-esophageal  in which the junction remains fixed while another portion of the stomach moves up through the defect.  This can be dangerous as they may allow the stomach to rotate and obstruct.

Editor's Notes

  1. Bassini revolutionized the surgical repair of the groin hernia with his novel anatomical dissection and low recurrence rates – first operation in 1884
  2. This structure is posterior to the iliopubic tract and forms the posterior border of the femoral canal