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  1. 1. PHYSIOTHERAPY Dr.Sadaf Shaikh 8/5/2014 1Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  2. 2. INDEX  Physiotherapy History  Physiotherapy Definition  Physiotherapy specialties  Role of physiotherapist  Methods used in Physiotherapy  Electrotherapy  Exercise Therapy 8/5/2014 2Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  3. 3. History  Physicians like Hippocrates & later Galenus are believed to have been the first practitioner of physiotherapy to treat people in 460 BC.  Modern Physiotherapy was established in Great Britain toward the end of 19th century.  Physiotherapy is a result of the Second World War. During the Second World War, when a large number of soldiers and civilians suffered injuries, the need for putting them back on health track became imperative. The number of injured persons was so large that acute shortage of medicines was felt. The situation gave rise to a new science of healing, now known as ‘Physiotherapy’. Physiotherapy is the cheapest treatment without drugs.8/5/2014 3Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  4. 4. Definition  It is the science of treatment of disease by exercise, massage, heat, light, electricity or other physical agencies. Use of drugs in this form of therapy is avoided. When required, it can be administered from the neonatal to the geriatric stage.  Physiotherapy, also referred to as physical therapy, involves evaluating, diagnosing, and treating a range of diseases, disorders, and disabilities using physical means. 8/5/2014 4Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  5. 5. Physiotherapy Specialties Orthopedic Neurology Cardiopulmonary Pediatric Geriatric Sports Rehabilitation 8/5/2014 5Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  6. 6. Role Of Physiotherapist  Assess ,manage & treat a broad range of medical conditions from sprained ankle to strokes.  Relieve physical pain & heal injuries.  Increase mobility, build strength, improve balance & enhance Cardiopulmonary performance.  Use a variety of techniques to maintain the property of muscles & joints.  Make individual independent for his/ her activity of daily living.  Provides gait training & Posture correction. 8/5/2014 6Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  7. 7. Methods used in Physiotherapy Electrotherapy:- • Shortwave Diathermy • Microwave Diathermy • Ultra sound • Interferential Current Therapy ( IFT) • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation ( TENS). • Faradic & galvanic muscle stimulator • Cervical/ Lumbar Traction • Wax bath • Infrared rays • LASER • Russian Current Therapy 8/5/2014 7Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  8. 8. Exercise Therapy:-  Active & Passive Exercises  Resisted exercises  Joint Mobilization techniques.  Suspension therapy  Hydrotherapy  Relaxation techniques  Stretching  Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. ( PNF)  Myo Fascial Release Technique  Muscle Energy Technique  Gait & Balance Training  Posture Correction.  Breathing Exercise  Postural Draining 8/5/2014 8Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  9. 9. Shortwave Diathermy  Short wave diathermy operate at a frequency of 27.12 MHz, a wavelength of approximately 11 meters.  SWD is usually prescribed for treatment of deep muscles and joints that are covered with a heavy soft-tissue mass.  SWD utilizes two condenser plates that are placed on either side of the body part to be treated. Another mode of application is by induction coils that are pliable and can be molded to fit the part of the body under treatment. 8/5/2014 9Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  10. 10. Microwave Diathermy • The clinical microthermy frequency is limited to 2.450 Mc range (10-12 cm wavelength), which is shorter than short wave diathermy. • The clinical indications for microthermy are, more or less, similar to those for short wave diathermy. • It has two kind of heads: (i) Circular (ii) Rectangular. • director selection depends on the shape and the anatomical configuration of the treated area. 8/5/2014 10Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  11. 11. Ultrasound  Ultrasound is high frequency sound waves, greater than 20,000 Hz. Therapeutic ultrasound is in the frequency range of 1- 3 MHz.  It has both thermal & mechanical effect.  Used to heal soft tissue and ligaments injury , scar mobilization & edema reduction. 8/5/2014 11Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  12. 12. Interferential Current Therapy  The four electrodes are placed in such a way that the two currents produced cross each other in the affected area. Where the two currents meet, they actually 'interfere' with each other; hence the name "interferential".  This modality addresses the issues of pain, spasm, and inflammation 8/5/2014 12Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  13. 13. TENS  Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) currently is one of the most commonly used forms of electro analgesia.  Use of TENS for various types of conditions, such as low back pain (LBP), myofascial and arthritic pain, sympathetically mediated pain, bladder incontinence, neurogenic pain, visceral pain, and postsurgical pain . 8/5/2014 13Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  14. 14. Electrical Muscle Stimulator  Electrical muscle stimulation is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulse.  The impulses are generated by a device and delivered through electrodes on the skin in direct proximity to the muscles to be stimulated.  Galvanic current is a direct current. Galvanic current will primarily be used for the stimulation of blood flow and pain reduction, as well as ionization (diffusion of medicaments into the tissue with the help of the current). 8/5/2014 14Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  15. 15. Cervical & Lumbar Traction  Cervical spinal traction is accepted as effective for short term relief of neck pain. It can relieve muscle spasm and nerve root compression by stretching soft tissues and increasing the spaces between cervical vertebrae.  Lumber traction can relieve pressure on compressed nerves, help muscles relax and reduce muscle spasms. Traction increases the space between vertebrae - reducing pressure on intervertebral discs and nerve root. 8/5/2014 15Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  16. 16. Paraffin Wax therapy  Paraffin wax heat therapy is a very effective way of applying heat to soothe stiffness or pain in some parts of the body such as muscles and joints.  Paraffin wax has this ability to absorb and retain deep heat; thus, it has high heat capacity. That is the reason why it is an effective method for heat therapy. 8/5/2014 16Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  17. 17. Infrared Rays  Infrared is a band of light that we perceive as heat.  Infrared Heat Therapy effectively helps to increase blood circulation without putting strain on your heart and increases the levels of oxygen and white blood cells in your blood. It also stimulates the production of collagen in your body and helps to rid your body of toxins by causing you to perspire. You get the benefit of a stronger immune system, better cardiovascular health, and a faster ability to heal from soft tissue injuries such as tears, pulls, and sprains.8/5/2014 17Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  18. 18. LASER • Light Amplification from the Stimulated Emission of Radiation .  It increase healing rate in wounds and burns  Decrease inflammatory edema  Increase healing response of fractures  Increase regeneration of damaged nerve by stimulating axon sprouting 8/5/2014 18Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  19. 19. Russian Currents  Russian stimulation is a form of electrical stimulation that uses electricity to contract muscle tissue. After injury or surgery, you may be experiencing muscle weakness. Often, muscles are inhibited after an injury and are unable to generate a forceful contraction. Russian stimulation is used to help improve the contraction of your muscles. 8/5/2014 19Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  20. 20. Shoulder wheel Exercise:- To improve the Range of motion of shoulder joint Finger ladder Exercise:- 8/5/2014 20Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  21. 21. Parallel Bars:- For gait training & posture correction 8/5/2014 21Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  22. 22. Stairs & Ramp:- Stair climbing training Wobble Board :- for Balance exercise 8/5/2014 22Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  23. 23. Suspension Therapy To improve ROM 8/5/2014 23Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  24. 24. Quadriceps Chair For Quadriceps Strengthening Static Bicycle 8/5/2014 24Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  25. 25. Gym Ball Exercise For Back exercise , Neck & trunk control in Baby 8/5/2014 25Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  26. 26. Overhead Pulley Supinator/ pronator Exerciser 8/5/2014 26Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  27. 27. Finger Exerciser  Finger Exerciser 8/5/2014 27Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  28. 28. Walking Aids 8/5/2014 28Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)
  29. 29. Physiotherapy keeps you Moving……………. 8/5/2014 29Dr.Sadaf Shaikh ( PT)