Reform Movements and  Utopian Societies
<ul><li>Questions for today: </li></ul><ul><li>How did 19 th -century Americans seek to improve their society?  </li></ul>...
1. Growing Middle Class <ul><li>Work ethic: sober, reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of Domesticity: Women as moral guardian...
Godey’s Lady’s Book (1850, 1851)
2. Second Great Awakening Charles B. Finney, Evangelical preacher <ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity throu...
3. Middle Class Reform:  Temperance Movement <ul><li>Alcoholism causes domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques of r...
“ The Temperance  “The Drunkard’s Home” (1850)  Home”
The Bottle  (1848)
 
Successes of Temperance Movement: <ul><li>Reduced alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Helped fight violence against wome...
Crusade against Prostitution <ul><li>Female Moral Reform Society </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked the sexual double standard </l...
4. Utopian communities
1820-1860: wide range of experiments <ul><li>Liberal: reform can reduce the worst aspects of capitalism (poverty) </li></u...
New Harmony, Indiana, 1825-1827 Robert Owen  Frances Wright
New Harmony, Indiana <ul><li>Cooperation, not competition </li></ul><ul><li>Full racial equality </li></ul><ul><li>No marr...
Brook Farm, Mass., 1841-1846 <ul><li>Both intellectual and manual labor </li></ul><ul><li>Transcendentalism: </li></ul><ul...
Ralph Waldo Emerson <ul><li>Mystical unity of nature </li></ul><ul><li>An original relation to the universe </li></ul><ul>...
Henry David Thoreau <ul><li>“ To live deliberately”  </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism: a different drummer </li></ul><ul><l...
Oneida Community, NY, 1848-1881 John Humphrey Noyes <ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Complex marriages </li></ul><u...
Oneida: children’s house
Oneida: mansion
Oneida: group photo
Noyes in later years
Oneida Silverware
A vast array of proposals <ul><li>Middle-class values: self-discipline, work </li></ul><ul><li>Self-determination (free lo...
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Reform and utopian movements

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Reform and utopian movements

  1. 1. Reform Movements and Utopian Societies
  2. 2. <ul><li>Questions for today: </li></ul><ul><li>How did 19 th -century Americans seek to improve their society? </li></ul><ul><li>How were their efforts at odds with one another? </li></ul><ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>1) Growing Middle Class </li></ul><ul><li>2) Second Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><li>3) Middle-class reform: </li></ul><ul><li>- Temperance </li></ul><ul><li>- Stop prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>4) Utopian communities: </li></ul><ul><li>New Harmony, Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>Brook Farm, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Oneida, NY </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Growing Middle Class <ul><li>Work ethic: sober, reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of Domesticity: Women as moral guardians </li></ul><ul><li>Separate spheres </li></ul>
  4. 4. Godey’s Lady’s Book (1850, 1851)
  5. 5. 2. Second Great Awakening Charles B. Finney, Evangelical preacher <ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity through reform </li></ul><ul><li>Only moral standard: Protestant middle class </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Middle Class Reform: Temperance Movement <ul><li>Alcoholism causes domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques of revivalism </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ The Temperance “The Drunkard’s Home” (1850) Home”
  8. 8. The Bottle (1848)
  9. 10. Successes of Temperance Movement: <ul><li>Reduced alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Helped fight violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>Women engaged in public activity </li></ul>
  10. 11. Crusade against Prostitution <ul><li>Female Moral Reform Society </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked the sexual double standard </li></ul><ul><li>Homes of Refuge </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: poverty and male demand </li></ul>
  11. 12. 4. Utopian communities
  12. 13. 1820-1860: wide range of experiments <ul><li>Liberal: reform can reduce the worst aspects of capitalism (poverty) </li></ul><ul><li>Radical: capitalism has flaws that reform cannot fix. A new society is needed. </li></ul>
  13. 14. New Harmony, Indiana, 1825-1827 Robert Owen Frances Wright
  14. 15. New Harmony, Indiana <ul><li>Cooperation, not competition </li></ul><ul><li>Full racial equality </li></ul><ul><li>No marriage. “Free love” </li></ul><ul><li>Make birth control and divorce available </li></ul>
  15. 16. Brook Farm, Mass., 1841-1846 <ul><li>Both intellectual and manual labor </li></ul><ul><li>Transcendentalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality above everyday lives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul>
  16. 17. Ralph Waldo Emerson <ul><li>Mystical unity of nature </li></ul><ul><li>An original relation to the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reliance (not organized religion) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Henry David Thoreau <ul><li>“ To live deliberately” </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism: a different drummer </li></ul><ul><li>What is a life well lived? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Oneida Community, NY, 1848-1881 John Humphrey Noyes <ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Complex marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the law </li></ul><ul><li>Strict rules about sex </li></ul>
  19. 20. Oneida: children’s house
  20. 21. Oneida: mansion
  21. 22. Oneida: group photo
  22. 23. Noyes in later years
  23. 24. Oneida Silverware
  24. 25. A vast array of proposals <ul><li>Middle-class values: self-discipline, work </li></ul><ul><li>Self-determination (free love, no racism) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian structures </li></ul><ul><li>Competing assumptions about human nature </li></ul>

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