Amy Yu Shi Chia * Choo Yin Yin
Feyza Kaya * Loo Ke Sin
Low Chiao Yie * Marina Melissa Ng
Nermin Tunci * Sharon Pang Xie Mei
Tan Chung Szuan * Tan Kai Chur
Tan Shin Yen * Tian Zhong Weng
DR. JESSIE GRACE U. RUBRICO, Supervisor
TESL Program, Department of Language and Literacy Education
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya
Semester 2, AY 2009-2010
1. Introduction to CALL
1. What is CALL
2. History - Behavioristic CALL
- Communicative CALL
- Integrative CALL- Multimedia
3. Types of CALL - CALL Specific Software
- Generic Software
- Web-based Learning Program
- Computer-Mediated Communication
4. Types of CALL Activities
5. Advantages of using CALL
6. Barriers of using CALL
It started in the 1960s
Types of CALL
View of language: Structural
English Teaching Paradigm:
Principle of computer use :
Drill and Practice
Principal Objective: Accuracy
repeated exposure to the same material
ideal for carrying out repeated drills,
since the machine
(i) does not get bored with presenting
the same material and
ii) it can provide immediate non-judgmental
Computer is used as a tutor
View of language: Cognitive
English teaching paradigm:
Communicative Language Teaching
Principle of computer use:
Principal objective: Fluency
Grammar is taught implicitly rather than explicitly.
Computers are used to stimulate discussion, writing
or critical thinking.
The programs avoid telling students that they are
Flexible to a variety of student responses.
Computers are used as a tool (e.g., word processors,
spelling and grammar checkers) and the target
language is used exclusively.
View of language: Sociocognitive
English teaching paradigm: Content-based
Principle of computer use : Authentic
Principal objective: Agency
2 types: Multimedia CALL (CD-ROMs)
Web-based CALL (CMC &
Creates a more authentic learning
environment using different media.
Integrates language skills through
Allows students to have a high degree of
control over their learning through
Facilitates a principle focus on the content.
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
-provides authentic synchronous and
asynchronous communication channels.
-can be carried out in several forms:
Students can search through millions of
files around the world within minutes
Students can use the Web to publish their
texts or multimedia materials to share with
partner classes or with the general public.
applications that designed to develop
and facilitate the language learning
such as CD-ROMs, web-based
interactive language learning
-Applications that designed for general
purposes like Words, Powerpoint,
Excel that can be used to support the
language learning and teaching.
- online dictionaries, online encyclopedias,
online concordances, news/magazine sites,
e-texts, web-quests, web publishing,
blog, wiki, etc.
7) Independence from
a single source of information
6) Global understanding
7) Adapting learning to the students
8) Critical thinking skills
*Availability of computer hardware
*Technical and theoretical knowledge
* Acceptance of technologies
* Lack of human interaction during study
* Wrong perception of teachers and
*Teachers lack of training on creating CALL
* Lack of unified theoretical framework for
designing and evaluating CALL systems
Theory of language:
Functional view of language. It puts emphasis on the
functions of language. It is the meaningful and interactive
purposes within a social context. It is suitable for CALL.
Theory of learning:
Constructivism- includes the following principles:
Learning is an active, social process;
The learner is viewed as a unique individual;
Learner’s background and culture are focused;
Instructors act as facilitators;
Authentic social context materials are used.
1) To facilitate experiential learning;
2) To motivate students to learn the language
structure and grammar;
3) To enhance students’ achievement-(i.e., score
better in exam);
4) To expose students to real life situation context
(learning something they can use in daily life);
5) To bring about greater interaction by enabling
students to share their opinion with their
facilitator and classmates.
We use four main web-based modalities:
Types of learning techniques and
Interesting learning activities
Introduction to Blog
• A type of website maintained by an
individual with regular entries
Commentary Descriptions of events
• Getting popular nowadays a tool to
impressed with its function
suitable as a tool for
Our group’s thought… (in consultation with Dr. Jessie)
Sight-seeing Regular exercise Playground
What say you? Forum
* All pictures shown are for illustration only
Visit our blog site at:
This blog is created especially
for this group project as required
by the facilitator/supervisor.
The section where :
• we post some images which we will use as
tools to teach in the classroom.
• we post all the students’ work so that they
will find meaning in doing their work.
• a section where we post exercises for
improving the four skills (writing, reading,
speaking and listening).
• designed for students to practice the 4 skills
• answers are provided for them.
• if there is anything they do not understand,
they can ask during class or post a comment
on the blog
• a section for the students to relax and
read some interesting news and
• all the news and information will be
What Say You?
• for polls
• where students freely vote on issues
and we will let them know the results
• for sharing something new with the
• a discussion board where issues are
posted weekly for students to
• students can discuss among
themselves or with us.
Extra Application in the Blog
• link to a free online dictionary.
i. check any words that they do not know
• mini games to play such as Hangman, Match-
up and Spelling bee
• chat box named “Interaction Path”
i. for students to chat with us personally
ii. They can use a nickname or real name to chat
iii. We will try our best to answer any queries from
It enables anyone with an Internet connection
and a camera to engage their audience in a
meaningful, instantaneous way.
It uses a one-to-many model, which means that
the user can broadcast everything from high
school sporting events to Hollywood movie
premieres in a ground-breaking way from an
audience to infinite size of audiences.
, the website was used by nearly all the
major candidates to help their campaigns, by
allowing a greater number of voters to ask
became the first candidate ever to
stream an alternate on Ustream that
allowed Sen. Gravel to respond to all of the
questions being asked, as well as comment on
the responses from the other candidates
throughout a nationally televised debate.
The website has over 2,000,000 registered
users who generate 1,500,000+ hours of live
streamed content per month with over 75
million unique hits per month.
It opens up a new world of possibilities and
experiences to broadcasters and viewers alike,
which the pre-recorded static video that's
predominated the Internet to date just can't
It presents great advantages to students who are
now expected to develop skills valued by the
international work community such as
communication skills and global and cultural
• Ability to interact in real time via Social
Stream like Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, AIM
• Embeddable player and interactive tool
• Customizable background image
• Ability to record footage streamed live and
• Facebook integration and preferred partner
for live events; Ustream on Facebook
application development includes customized
areas for graphics driving to websites of your
choice like Twitter, websites, Itunes, blogs and
• Featured shows are available on the Ustream
iPhone viewing application (available through
App Store), downloaded more than 1.5 million)
• Ability to broadcast live from mobile devices
with the free Ustream Live Broadcaster
available for iPhone, Nokia and Android.
• Ability to notify your audience that you are
live via Twitter.
• Ustream producer and Producer Pro desktop
enables highest quality broadcasting and
additional features with ease and simplicity;
optimized for viewing on iPhone and Android
live viewing application.
Register for the Ustream.TV Developer
Write a call to return Ustream.TV content.
Check for some simple calls.
Develop your application.
Share your application through Ustream.TV.
Allows users to stream live video from the
internet around the world totally free.
Ranges from people life casting to showing
sports events and even live TV shows as
they go out on broadcast around the world.
Provides an interactive video with a chat
room facility for the viewers to interact with
the caster. (real life audience).
User friendly-Navigation is easy as links are
arranged in a neat order.
Various categories including sports, music,
animals, gaming, shows on news, politics and
Great features which are not found in YouTube.
Ex: placing your mouse pointer on a thumbnail
on Ustream will produce a pop-out window with
a short description of the video.
-number of people who has viewed the video
and the username of the person who uploaded
or broadcasted the video.
24/7 option that allows live streams 24 hours a day,
seven days a week.
Easy to share a video you are watching.
Serves as a tool to enable us to watch what we may
not have been able to otherwise.
Interact with other users, either as a broadcaster to
many, or through live-broadcast discussions with
other viewers or broadcasters.
Anyone with an Internet connection can simply and
quickly broadcast to a huge audience across the
Learning and entertainment opportunities from
real people sharing real-life experiences and tips.
Chat facility can be abused by spammers.
It does not have as many videos as YouTube.
Low streaming-the quality of visuals and
sound depends on the streamers internet
A software that
allows free video
calls over the
Has room for
What is Allows file
• Easy to install; it’s not
• The slogan of Skype says it
all: “The whole world can
talk for free.”
• Allows communication with
Pros a large, authentic audience
– more sharing of
• Easy file transfer
• Language is optional
• Extras (Online Games)
• Slow internet connection
may hinder the use of
voice calls. In that case,
the sound may be
unclear, shaky and
transmission is delayed.
Cons • Some school district IT
personnel block the
“port” used for
programs like Skype to
free, popular, user-friendly.
an information sharing platform for
an attention grabber with the visual aids
and authentic audience.
interactive as it allows students to
express themselves (ideas and
Skype allows world-wide communication.
Using Skype once a week in the English
Language Learning Classroom.
Live video-conferencing using Skype - native
speaker being the teacher.
Students can ask questions or give comments
after the video-conference.
Students learn the correct pronunciation
from the native speakers.
Exchange of different cultural perspectives
Students learn better via SKYPE as they get to
participate actively in class through
conversation with people.
Active participation in class enhances learning.
SKYPE acts as a worldwide information sharing
platform – students will get out of their
geographical or cultural boundaries and get a
broader view of the world outside.
Therefore, SKYPE is an effective tool in
language learning classes especially in
enhancing one’s listening and speaking skills.
bring about a more student-centered learning and
engagement in the learning process;
lead to a more active processing resulting in higher-order
thinking skills and better recall;
develop students’ confidence in directing their own learning;
make learning more interesting;
create motivation for the students;
give a new perspective to teaching materials;
make students learn faster and better with computer-
This is true for both language
and non-language classrooms.
This project is done in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the course
Language Learning and Language Use
Department of Language & Literacy Education
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya
By Group 7
For: Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, Facilitator
& the participants of PBET 2113
Semester 2, AY 2009-2010
08 April 2010