Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved.
Cities that don’t go bump in the night
Rick Robinson, Executive Architect, Smar...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 2
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 3
What do we want?
02/07/2014
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 4
What is a Smart City?
• A Smart City is one that is fully exploiting developm...
Hard Infrastructures
Spaces and buildings
Transport and Utilities network
Information and Communication Technology
Soft In...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 6
Smarter Return on Investment
02/07/2014
Positioning the
organization for
futu...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 7
Will it work?
02/07/2014
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 8
Delivery cultures
02/07/2014
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 9
Delivery methods
02/07/2014
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 10
Will things work together?
02/07/2014
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 1102/07/2014
• Organization
• Definition: A group of persons organized for a pa...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 12
Information models for city systems
02/07/2014
http://www.ibm.com/developerw...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 13
Authoritative
•Aligned with standards (CAP, NIEM,
MISA/MRM, UCore)
•Validate...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 14
Smarter City platform architectures:
EPIC (BCU / IBM / Deloitte), DCE (Imper...
Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 15
Cautionary tales
• The EJB specification does not provide a
standard mechani...
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Smart Cities that don't go "bump" in the night: delivering interoperable smart city systems using Open Standards

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I gave this presentation at the launch of the British Standards Institute's development of standards for interoperability between Smart Cities systems. It draws on my experience delivering large-scale, standards-based technology architectures. Whilst Open Standards will be absolutely crucial to the delivery and operation of interoperable, open Smart Cities systems, they are not a panacea, and it's vital that we're aware of their limitations as well as their value.

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Smart Cities that don't go "bump" in the night: delivering interoperable smart city systems using Open Standards

  1. 1. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. Cities that don’t go bump in the night Rick Robinson, Executive Architect, Smarter Cities, IBM rick_robinson@uk.ibm.com twitter.com/dr_rick theurbantechnologist.com 02/07/2014
  2. 2. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 3 What do we want? 02/07/2014
  4. 4. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 4 What is a Smart City? • A Smart City is one that is fully exploiting developments in science and technology to enable a successful future of equitably distributed, sustainable growth.
  5. 5. Hard Infrastructures Spaces and buildings Transport and Utilities network Information and Communication Technology Soft Infrastructures Networks and Community organisations Innovation forums Leadership and governance City Systems Transport Services Health Culture Economy City Admin Utilities Social Care Public Safety Education Others... ? Public Sector Community Private Sector Others ... ? Schools Emergency Services Council 3rd Sector Others ... ? Social Enterprises Not-for-profits Charities Others ... ? SMEs Retailers Employers Others ... ? Neighbourhoods Cultural & Religious Independence Choice Sustainability Others ... ? Wealth Opportunity SafetyHealthGoals Citizens, Employees, Innovators, Visitors ...People Ecosystem Family & Social http://theurbantechnologist.com/2012/09/26/the-new-architecture-of-smart-cities/
  6. 6. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 6 Smarter Return on Investment 02/07/2014 Positioning the organization for future success and competitive advantage. Strategic value Brand value Operation value Societal value Strengthening perception, reputation and influence. Improving existing operations and creating new capabilities. Creating social, cultural and environmental benefits. http://www.ibm.com/smartercities/
  7. 7. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 7 Will it work? 02/07/2014
  8. 8. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 8 Delivery cultures 02/07/2014
  9. 9. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 9 Delivery methods 02/07/2014
  10. 10. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 10 Will things work together? 02/07/2014
  11. 11. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 1102/07/2014 • Organization • Definition: A group of persons organized for a particular purpose • Examples: Police department, public housing department, bus department, transportation agency, water agency, electric utility • Key attributes: Name, type of organization, description, identification, website • Key relationships: Organizations (parent-child), assets, location • Standards assessment: National Information Exchange Model (NIEM): NIEM-Core (nc:)OrganizationType, UCore (Universal Core) organization • Alert • Definition: A warning or alarm for an imminent event • Examples: Road repair advisory • Key attributes: Sender, description, urgency, severity, certainty, onset time, location, supporting resources • Key relationships: Sender (organization or person), location, incident, work orders • Standards assessment: The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) has extensive support for the alert concept. The UCore Event concepts are also applicable. • Incident • Definition: An occurrence or an event that may require a response • Examples: Road repair, automobile accident, water main bursting, criminal activity • Key attributes: Date and time of the incident, description, ID • Key relationships: Location, alerts, work orders, owner (organization or person) • Standards assessment: NIEM:nc:IncidentType, CAP:alert:incidents, UCore Event, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Ontology Event • Person • Definition: A human being, an individual • Examples: James, Bob, Sally • Key attributes: Full name, given name, family name, gender, date of birth, place of birth, citizenship, country of birth • Key relationships: Employer, location, address, organization, role (such as operator, supervisor, responder, analyst, asset manager) • Standards assessment: NIEM:nc:PersonType, UCore Person, SOA Ontology Human Actor • Asset • Definition: A tangible object that can be tracked over time • Examples: Road, water pipe, electric capacitor, bus, building • Key attributes: Description, ID • Key relationships: Organization, person, manufacturer, location, work order, incident • Standards assessment: NIEM:ip: AssetType, UCore Entity • Work order • Definition: An order to do some work; to fix, repair or replace • Examples: Road repair, utility maintenance on a main valve, re-routing of buses • Key attributes: Description, ID, comment, priority, status, location, start date/time, stop date/time • Key relationships: Work steps, work orders (parent-child), incident, alert, organization, maintenance history, specification, person, assets • Standards assessment: No relevant standards identified at this time. • Process and procedure • Definition: A series of actions to accomplish a goal • Examples: Road repair notification and coordination • Key attributes: Process document • Key relationships: Process steps, work orders, incident, alert, organization, person, assets • Standards assessment: SOA Ontology Process • Key Performance Indicator • Definition: A measurement or criteria to assay the condition or performance of a person, process, or thing • Examples: Response time, time to closure, cost to city, savings to city, impact to city services • Key attributes: Description, metrics, thresholds • Key relationships: KPI (parent-child), organization, incident, alert, process and procedure, asset • Standards assessment: No relevant standards identified at this time. • Location • Definition: A geographic place, point, position, or area identified by its coordinates in an earth based coordinate system, name, or address • Examples: Road repair location: city intersection, water pipe location • Key attributes: Geographic coordinates, postal address, TimeStamp • Key relationships: Person, organization, asset, incident, alert • Standards assessment: NIEM:nc:LocationType, UCore Location, Geography Markup Language (GML) Point, OpenGIS® Open Location Service (OpenLS) Location • Time • Definition: Measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects • Examples: Start time, end time • Key attributes: Years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds, milliseconds • Key relationships: Duration • Standards assessment: NIEM:nc:DateTime, W3C DateTimeDescription
  12. 12. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 12 Information models for city systems 02/07/2014 http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/industry/library/ind-smartercitydatamodel1/index.html Standard Examples of supported concepts Current deployments Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) Category, status, scope, certainty, severity, urgency, onset time, expiration time, response type, instructions International standard (OASIS plus ITU-T Recommendation X.1303) with deployments primarily in the U.S., which include: Department of Homeland Security, National Weather Service, United States Geological Survey, California Office of Emergency Services, Virginia Department of Transportation, and Oregon RAINS. National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Activity, address, case, date and time, document, item, incident, location, organization, person U.S. specific, with deployments that include: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Law Enforcement Information Sharing Program, Logical Entity eXchange Specifications, OneDOJ, and the Department of Health and Human Services. OpenGIS Geography Markup Language (GML) Point International standard (OGC) that is widely used in the industry, and considered the reference in its space. OpenGIS Location Services (OpenLS) Location International standard (OGC)that is used for location based applications such as cell phone apps. SOA Ontology Service, process, task, event, human actor, effect, system, policy, service contract, service interface, element International standard (TOG) that encapsulates SOA vocabulary and relationships and is used to describe and model SOA solutions. Universal Core Entities and assets, events and alerts, people, organizations, locations, collections U.S. specific standard that is jointly managed by Department of Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security, and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Within the DoD, the Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force appear to be committed to supporting UC. W3C Time Ontology in OWL Interval, DurationDescription, DateTimeDescription, DayOfWeek International standard (W3C) with and uncertain adoption. Our web search revealed no concrete deployments.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 13 Authoritative •Aligned with standards (CAP, NIEM, MISA/MRM, UCore) •Validate with customer scenarios •Validated with open city data Simple language •Classes + Inheritance + Relations + Inferencing •Based on standards (OWL-QL, SPARQL) •Mappable to UML •Metadata annotations and Tagging SCRIBE Core Model City Customization Common building blocks Extension Weather Water Transportation BuildingAndParcel AssetManagement Simple language •Classes + Inheritance + Relations + Inferencing •Based on standards (OWL-QL, SPARQL) •Mappable to UML •Metadata annotations and Tagging Organization/Operation profile Features Authoritative •Aligned with standards (CAP, NIEM, MISA/MRM, UCore) •Validate with customer scenarios •Validated with open city data Simple language •Classes + Inheritance + Relations + Inferencing •Based on standards (OWL-QL, SPARQL) •Mappable to UML •Metadata annotations and Tagging Authoritative •Aligned with standards (CAP, NIEM, MISA/MRM, UCore) •Validate with customer scenarios •Validated with open city data SCRIBE: a non-normative, authoritative, modular, extensible semantic model for Smarter Cities. http://researcher.ibm.com/view_project.php?id=2505
  14. 14. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 14 Smarter City platform architectures: EPIC (BCU / IBM / Deloitte), DCE (Imperial), IOC (IBM), UoS (Living PlanIT) ... 02/07/2014 From the European Platform for Intelligent Cities project http://www.epic-cities.eu/
  15. 15. Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. 15 Cautionary tales • The EJB specification does not provide a standard mechanism to let the container check if the bean's state has changed within a unit of work. • The specification assumes that all beans accessed during a transaction are "dirty," and must have their state written back to the persistent store at the end of a transaction. • WebSphere provides an extension to the EJB specification with the const method flag in the deployment descriptor of entity beans. It lets the developer tell the container which methods are const or read-only--in other words, it doesn't change the state of the bean. For these methods EJB container does not call ejbLoad at the end of the method call. J2EE vendor documentation, approx. 2002 02/07/2014

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