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Vaisesika philosophy


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Vaisesika philosophy

  1. 1. Vaisesika (VA)Philosophy <br />Analysis of Aspect of Reality<br />By Sage Kanada<br />
  2. 2. Origin<br />
  3. 3. Key Philosophy<br />
  4. 4. Vaiseskika vs. Nyaya Similarities<br />
  5. 5. Vaiseskika vs. Nyaya Difference<br />
  6. 6. Vaisesika Sutra <br />
  7. 7. Epistemology <br />Theory of Knowledge<br />
  8. 8. Source of Valid Knowledge <br />
  9. 9. Source of Invalid Knowledge<br />
  10. 10. Vaisesika Ontology<br />Categories<br />
  11. 11. Padartha<br />A padartha is an object which can be thought (artha) and named (pada). <br />All objects of experience, and not merely the things of the physical world, are padarthas. <br />Include not only things predicable of another, but also subjects capable of having things predicated of them. <br />The intimate relationship between name and thing is recognized <br />
  12. 12. Seven Padarth (categories of Reality )<br />
  13. 13. 1. Dravya: Substance<br />Substance, is that in which a quality or an action can exist but which in itself is different from both quality and action<br />A cloth is formed by the combination of a number of threads of certain colors. <br />The threads are the material or constitutive causes of the cloth because it is made of the threads that subsist in the cloth<br />
  14. 14. Substance: eternal and non-eternal<br />Compound substances (Murt)<br />Dependent, transitory and non eternal<br />Are caused and destroyed not by themselves but by something different from themselves<br /> Simple substances (Bhut)<br />They are eternal, independent and ultimate individuality<br />They are neither caused nor destroyed.<br />
  15. 15. Substance Types<br />
  16. 16. Parmanu<br />The smallest particle of earth, water, fire and air<br />The most indivisible state of matter.<br />The atoms of water, earth, fire and air are eternal because an atom is part less and cannot be produced or destroyed <br />The common elements of air, water, fire and air are noneternal because they are produced by a combination of atoms and therefore can disintegrate and change<br />The existence of atoms is proved by inference not by perception<br />All composite parts of the world can be broken into smaller parts. But when one comes to the part which cannot be broken further that minutest part in VA is called atom. <br />Atoms can neither be produced nor destroyed they are eternal.<br />
  17. 17. 1.5 Akas<br />Akasa, is the substratum of the quality of sound, is not made up of atoms. <br />Sound can be perceived, but akasa cannot be perceived because it lacks two conditions for the perception of an object i.e. perceptible dimension and manifest color. <br />Therefore, Akasa cannot be perceived but can be inferred from the perception of the quality of the sound that it contains. <br />Akasa is the one and eternal because it is not made up of parts and does not depend on any other substance for its existence. <br />It is all pervading in the sense that it has an unlimited dimension and that its quality (sound) is perceived everywhere.<br />
  18. 18. 1.6 Direction and 1.7 Time <br />Imperceptible substances and they are likewise single, eternal, and all pervading. <br />Direction is inferred on the basis of such concepts such as here, there and so on. <br />Time is inferred from the concepts now, today, tomorrow and so forth. <br />Although all pervading space, direction and time are spoken of as many due to certain limiting conditions known as Upadhis. <br />E.g. when the indivisible space is limited by a jar, that space is known as the space of the jar. In the same way time is referred to as one hour, two hours and direction as east, west, north etc.<br />
  19. 19. 1.8 Atman or soul<br />Atman is also considered to be eternal and all pervading. <br />There are two kinds of souls, individual and supreme. <br />The former is known as jivatman and the latter as Iswara. <br />The Supreme Soul is inferred to be the creator of the world in the same manner as has been explained in Nyaya. <br />Conversely the individual soul is perceived to possess mental qualities like I am happy.<br /> <br />
  20. 20. 1.9 Mind or Manas<br />It is the eternal sense faculty of the individual soul. <br />Like the soul, the mind is indivisible. <br />Its existence is not perceived from inferred from the following propositions. <br />First, like an external sense facility is required to perceive the outer world, an internal sense facility is required to perceive the inner objects like soul, pleasure and pain. <br />Second it is apparent that the five external senses may all be in contact with their respective objects simultaneously but not all perceptions are received at the same time. <br />Attention is focused on one object, which means that there is a coordination of the mind with the senses. <br />We must thus admit the existence of the mind as an internal sense facility<br />
  21. 21. 2. Guna or Quality <br />While substance is capable of existing independently by itself, quality or guna cannot so exist. It abides in substance and has itself no qualities<br />color (rupa), <br />taste (rasa), <br />smell (gandha), <br />touch (sparsa), <br />number (samkhya), <br />size (parimana), <br />individuality (prthaktva), <br />conjunction (samyoga), <br />disjunction (vibhaga), <br />priority (paratva), <br />posterity (aparatva), <br />knowledge (buddhi), <br />pleasure (sukha),<br />pain (dukha), <br />desire (iccha), <br />aversion (dvesa), <br />effort (prayatna), <br />heaviness (gurutva), <br />fluidity (dravatva), <br />viscidity (sneha), <br />merit (dharma),<br /> demerit (adharma), <br />sound (sabda), and <br />faculty (samskara).<br />
  22. 22. 3. Karma or Action<br />Karma, or movement, is regarded as an irreducible element of the universe. <br />It is neither substance nor quality, but an independent category itself. <br />All movements belong to the substances as much as their qualities. <br />Unlike a quality of substance, its activity is a transitory one. Thus the heaviness of the body is a quality, while its falling is an accident. <br />Qualities which continue to exist are called guna, while those that cease to exist are called karma. <br />Karma in all its forms is transient, and comes to an end either by a subsequent conjunction or destruction of its basic substance. <br />Akasa, time, space, soul -- though substances -- are devoid of action, since they are incorporeal.<br />
  23. 23. 4. Samanya or Generality<br />The idea of samanya is motivated by the desire to distinguish the unchanging from the changing<br />Generality relates to abstract characteristics that is singular and eternal and yet pervades many. <br />Samanya is the essence of the common characteristics that unites different entities into one class.<br />Generality is regarded as the eternal, one, and residing in many things belonging to the group of substance, quality or action<br />
  24. 24. Types of Samanya<br />Higher and Lower<br />Satta or being (existence) is a different object from substance, quality and action, <br />It possesses the highest generality. <br />It covers the largest number of things. <br />It includes all and is not included in anything. <br />While being is the only true universal, the true particulars are the individuals themselves and between the two there are universal-particulars. <br />This extension determines the grade of generality. <br />The universal is eternal and one, while the individuals come and go. Men are born and die, but man remains. <br />Universals, individuals and relations do not exist in the sense in which substances, qualities and actions do. <br />The distinction between the universal and the particular is real, since the relation is said to be one of intimate union (samavaya).<br />
  25. 25. 5. Visesa or Particular<br />By means of visesa (or particularity) one is able to perceive things as different from one another<br />Empirical objects are distinguished by means of the parts of which they are composed<br />Atoms, time, space, akasa, souls and manas all have their particularities, which are not qualities of classes but only of individuals<br />
  26. 26. 6. Samavya or Inherence<br />The relationship subsisting among things that are inseparable, standing to one another in the relation of the container and the contained, and being the basis of the idea, "This is in that." <br />The relation between cause and effect<br />Generally the relation which binds a substance and its qualities, a whole and its parts, motion and the object in motion, individual and universe, cause and effect, is that of samavaya (inherence). <br />
  27. 27. Samyoga (Nearness) vsSamavya (Inherence)<br />Nearness is temporary, allows two more things to exist together without being affected by each other. <br />This nearness is an external relationship existing as an accidental quality of the substances related to it. <br />Inherence, on the other hand, is a permanent relation between two entities, one of whom inheres in the other. <br />Here one of the entities depends for its existence on the other. <br />Inherence is said to be eternal. <br />
  28. 28. 7. Abhav or Non Existence<br />Abhava is different from the first six categories in the sense that it is negative. <br />Nonexistence is not found in any of the six positive categories, and yet according to VA philosophy nonexistence exists, just as, for instance, space and direction do. <br />e.g., how does not one know that there is no chair in the room? Answer by looking at the room. Thus nonexistence also exists as such.<br />the non-existence was there all the time, though it was hidden when the jar was on the ground. <br />Thus the absolute non-existence of everything is at all times present everywhere, though it is hidden for the time and in the place the thing happens to be.<br />
  29. 29. Types of Abhav or Non Existence<br />Antecedent nonexistence<br />nonexistence of a thing prior to its creation for e.g. in the sentence ‘A book will be written using this paper’ the book is nonexistent in the paper. <br />But when a book is written its previous nonexistence comes to an end<br />Nonexistence of a thing after its destruction <br />there is something in existence, which shall cease to exist after its destruction for e.g. when a jar is broken into pieces, and then there is nonexistence of that jar<br />Absolute nonexistence<br />the type of nonexistence that does not belong to time and space is called absolute nonexistence. <br />
  30. 30. Mutual Nonexistence<br />Mutual nonexistence is the difference of one thing from another. <br />When one thing is different from another, they mutually exclude each other, and there is the nonexistence of either as the other. For e.g., a pen is different from a book, so there is nonexistence of the book in the pen and of the pen in the book.<br />
  31. 31. VA Cosmology<br />
  32. 32. Vaiseskia: Creation and Anhilation<br />The entire universe is composed of eternal atoms. But at the same time, VA does not ignore the moral and spiritual laws that govern the process of union and separation of atoms<br />the functioning of atoms is guided by the creative or destructive will of the Supreme Being. This will of the Supreme Being directs the operation of atoms according to the past Samskaras of individual beings<br />
  33. 33. VaCosmology<br />There is no creation or annihilation but rather than orderly and morally systematized composition and decomposition of compounds. An individual self or soul is involved in the universe because of Adrsta. <br />The karma of each soul is its own earnings, deposited in the safe of the Supreme Being, which back to the self with interest<br />
  34. 34. Concept of Iswara of God<br />God (Isvara) is the efficient cause of the world, while the atoms are the material cause<br />The eternal and uncreated nature of souls and atoms, and accounts for their varying states by the principle of adrsta (under God's will)<br />Vedas are authored by intelligent beings, under the guidance of an eternal omniscient, all-holy spirit.<br />There is only one God and his intelligence, desire and effort are eternal. <br />God is distinguished from souls by his omniscience and omnipotence, which qualify him for governing the universe. <br />He is never entangled in the cycle of existence. <br />He sets the world under certain laws, lets it go, and does not interfere with its course<br />
  35. 35. VA Ethics<br />Two types of Karma or Action : Voluntary and Involuntary<br />Acts due to organic life are involuntary, while those which spring from desire and aversion are voluntary. <br />The former have organic ends in view, while the latter aim at realization of human values. <br />Dharma, according to the Vaisesika, treats of the attainment of worldly prosperity as well as spiritual good. <br />While the former is the product of ceremonial piety, the latter is the result of spiritual insight. <br />The highest kind of pleasure is the pleasure of the wise, which is independent of all such agencies as the remembrance of the object, desire, reflection, and is due to their knowledge, peacefulness of mind, contentment, and the peculiar character of their virtue.<br />
  36. 36. Thirteen universal duties<br />faith (sraddha), <br />non-violence (ahimsa), <br />kindly feeling for all beings (bhutahitatva), <br />truthfulness (satyavacana), <br />integrity (asteya), <br />sexual purity (brahmacarya), <br />purity of mind (anupadha-bhavasuddhi), <br />renunciation of anger (krodhavarjana), <br />personal cleanliness through bathing (abhisecana), <br />the use of purifying substances (sucidravyasevana), <br />devotion to the deity (visistadevatabhakti), <br />fasting (upavasa), and <br />non-neglect of duties (apramada).<br />
  37. 37. Sanyas<br />sannyasin (hermit or swami) is not one who gives up the world to itself, but one who takes the vow of universal benevolence. <br />The observance of above duties results in virtue (dharma) when they are done, without a desire for gaining thereby any visible results (as wealth, etc.), and with the utmost purity of motive. <br />Spiritual growth requires suppression of self. <br />It is said: "to the unrestrained (ayatsya), exaltation (or abhyudaya) does not accrue from eating what is pure, since there is no self-restraint." Yoga as a means of self-control is allowed. <br />It is not mechanical conformity to the rules but inner goodness that counts.<br />
  38. 38. Dharma<br />Dharma is not only the content of morality to the Vaisesika, but also the power or quality which resides in the human being and not in the action performed. <br />A selfless insight into the truth of things can secure the final release (moksa). <br />So long as a person is dominated by desire and aversion, he stores up dharma and adharma or adrsta, and the results of his deeds force on him an embodied existence. <br />
  39. 39. Moksa or Liberation<br />The body is the seat of enjoyment (bhogayatanam). Union with adrsta and its effect of body is samsara; separation from it is moksa. <br />Soul in the state of liberation is absolutely free from all connection with qualities, and subsists like the sky free from all conditions and attributes, while according to the Nyaya, the state of freedom is one of bliss and wisdom.<br />Activity motivated by the feeling of separate self-existence is based on ignorance of the truth of things. <br />When it is realized that the objects which look so attractive and repulsive are only temporary compounds of atoms, they cease to be significant and having power over the person. <br />Similarly, when he realizes the true nature of the atman, which is distinct from this or that form of its existence, he shall know that all souls are alike. <br />
  40. 40. Liberation<br />When the true knowledge dispels the motive of self-interest, self-activities cease, no potential worth is produced, and there will be no more birth. <br />The bliss of deliverance is regarded as the result of divine grace, and the rules of dharma as the expression of the will of God.<br />All the time the soul is in samsara, it is incarnate in some body or other, which is subtle in pralaya (dissolution) and gross in creation, and there is never a state when the atman is devoid of adrsta, since there is no beginning for the series of incarnations. <br />The time, place, and circumstances of birth, etc., are determined by the adrsta. Each soul is allowed the chance to reap the harvest of its past deeds. Note, like other Hindu systems, the Vaisesika admits that it is possible for a person to rise to a superior order of existence through good effort or fall into a subhuman one through neglect.<br />
  41. 41. Cycle<br />