Voluntary Motor Control<br />
Brain vs. Heart<br />Hippocrates 460-377 BC,  <br />“Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise o...
Brain as hollow organ: 335-280 BC Herophilus<br />Ventricles are seat of human intelligence<br />
Galen 130-200 AD<br />177 - Galen lecture On the Brain<br />
Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519 <br />
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)<br />
Descartes, Brain and Mind<br />1649 - Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind<br />
1664 - Thomas Willis<br />1664 - Publishes Cerebrianatome (in Latin)<br />1681 - coins the term Neurology<br />
Bioelectricity<br />1791 - Luigi Galvani publishes work on electrical stimulation of frog nerves<br />1809 - Luigi Rolando...
Phrenology  Franz Joseph Gall 1806<br />The theory of Gall and Spurzheim is ... an instance of a theory which, while essen...
1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens<br />
1825 - Jean-BaptisteBouillaud<br />Presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions<br />
Pierre Gratiolet<br />
Phinease Gage (1848)<br />On 13th Sept 1848 a railroad worker   hard working, diligent, reliable, responsible, intelligent...
Lobar Localization<br />Paul Broca 1868<br />1861 -  discusses cortical localization<br />
1870, Hitzig and Fritsch<br />Electrically stimulated various parts of a dog's motor cortex. <br />They observed that depe...
1870 - David Ferrier<br />
John Hughlings Jackson<br />Described seizure as cerebral event not medulla on clinicopathological observation of  head in...
Discovery of Neuron<br />Ramony Cajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble<br />
Brodmann’sarea: 1909<br />
1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington<br />1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington publishes The Integrative Action of the Ner...
1957 - W. Penfield<br />
Control of voluntary movement<br />Execution<br />Planning<br />Basal Ganglia<br />Association cortex<br />Premotor + Moto...
Organization of Motor system<br />
Organization of Motor Nervous System<br />
Cortical Motor Areas<br />
Functional Organization of the Primary Motor Cortex<br />
The major inputs to the motor cortex in monkeys<br />
Motor Cortex Afferent<br />
Corticospinal Tract<br />
Convergence of Motor Control on the Anterior Motor Neuron<br />
 Experimental apparatus developed to record the activity of single neurons in awake primates trained to perform specific m...
Direct corticospinal control of motor neurons is necessary for fine control of the digits<br />
Motor Cortical Cell Firing with Force Generated<br />
Corticomotoneuronal (CM) cell is active depends on the motor task<br />
Activity in Individual Neurons of the Primary Motor Cortex Is Related to Muscle Force and Direction of Movement <br />
Spike Triggered Averaging 1970<br />
Directional tuning of an upper motor neuron in the primary motor cortex<br />
Different areas of cortex are activated during simple, complex, and imagined sequences of finger movements (Xenon PET)<br />
Cell activity in the motor cortex depends on whether a sequence of movements is guided by visual cues or by prior training...
A set-related neuron in the dorsal premotor area becomes active while the monkey prepares to make a movement to the left<b...
The visuomotor transformations required for reaching and grasping involve two different pathways<br />
Individual neurons in the ventral premotor area fire during specific hand actions only<br />
Mirror Neurons<br />A. Activity in the neuron as the monkey observes another monkey make a precision group.B. Activity in ...
Different areas of cortex are activated during simple, complex, and imagined sequences of finger movements (Xenon PET)<br />
The Somatotopic Organization of the Motor Cortex Is Plastic<br />
As a movement becomes more practiced, it is represented more extensively in primary motor cortex<br />
Summary<br />Primary Motor Cortex:<br />Codes force and direction of movement<br />Spinal motor neuron are directly under ...
Rubrospinal Tract<br />
Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia<br />
Motor components of the human basal ganglia<br />
Anatomical Organization of Basal Ganglia Input<br />
Output of Basal Ganglia<br />
Disinhibition in the direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia<br />
Organization of Cerebellum<br />
Input of  Cerebellum<br />
Cerebellar Output<br />
Vestibulocerebellum<br />
Neocerebellum<br />
The spinocerebellum contains two somatotopic neural maps of the body<br />
Motor modulation by the cerebrocerebellum<br />
Cerebellar Pathway<br />
Spinal Motor Neuron<br />
Spinal Cord: Grey matter <br />
Motor Unit<br />
Neuromuscular Junction<br />
Mechanism of Muscle contraction<br />
Muscle Spindle<br />
Stretch Reflex<br />
Muscle Stretch Reflexes<br />
Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
Feedback Inhibition: Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
Alpha and gamma motor neurons are coactivated during voluntary movements<br />
Spinal Animal<br />
Sensory Feedback for walking<br />
Locomotor Center in Cat<br />
Thanks<br />
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Motor system overview

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Motor system overview

  1. 1. Voluntary Motor Control<br />
  2. 2. Brain vs. Heart<br />Hippocrates 460-377 BC, <br />“Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears”. <br />Aristotle 384-322 B.C <br />“the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,”<br />“brain could cool the passion of heart”<br />387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process<br />
  3. 3. Brain as hollow organ: 335-280 BC Herophilus<br />Ventricles are seat of human intelligence<br />
  4. 4. Galen 130-200 AD<br />177 - Galen lecture On the Brain<br />
  5. 5. Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519 <br />
  6. 6. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)<br />
  7. 7. Descartes, Brain and Mind<br />1649 - Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind<br />
  8. 8. 1664 - Thomas Willis<br />1664 - Publishes Cerebrianatome (in Latin)<br />1681 - coins the term Neurology<br />
  9. 9. Bioelectricity<br />1791 - Luigi Galvani publishes work on electrical stimulation of frog nerves<br />1809 - Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex<br />
  10. 10. Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall 1806<br />The theory of Gall and Spurzheim is ... an instance of a theory which, while essentially wrong, was just enough right to further scientific thought…Edwin Boring<br />
  11. 11. 1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens<br />
  12. 12. 1825 - Jean-BaptisteBouillaud<br />Presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions<br />
  13. 13. Pierre Gratiolet<br />
  14. 14. Phinease Gage (1848)<br />On 13th Sept 1848 a railroad worker hard working, diligent, reliable, responsible, intelligent, good humored, polite god fearing, family oriented foreman<br />Following an explosion iron bar drove into frontal lobe<br />1. He becomes unreliable and fails to come to work and when present he is "lazy." <br />2. He has no interest in going to church, constantly drinks alcohol, gambles, and "whores about." <br />3. He is accused of sexually molesting young children. <br />4. He ignores his wife and children and fails to meet his financial and family obligations. <br />5. He has lost his sense of humour. <br />6. He curses constantly and does so in inappropriate circumstances. <br />7. Died of status epilepticus in 1861<br />
  15. 15. Lobar Localization<br />Paul Broca 1868<br />1861 - discusses cortical localization<br />
  16. 16. 1870, Hitzig and Fritsch<br />Electrically stimulated various parts of a dog's motor cortex. <br />They observed that depending on what part of the cortex they stimulated, a different part of the body contracted. <br />Then they found that if they destroyed this same small area of the cortex, the corresponding part of the body became paralyzed. <br />This is how it was discovered that every part of the body has a particular region of the primary motor cortex that controls its movement. <br />
  17. 17. 1870 - David Ferrier<br />
  18. 18. John Hughlings Jackson<br />Described seizure as cerebral event not medulla on clinicopathological observation of head injury patients.<br />
  19. 19. Discovery of Neuron<br />Ramony Cajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble<br />
  20. 20. Brodmann’sarea: 1909<br />
  21. 21. 1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington<br />1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington publishes The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex<br />
  22. 22. 1957 - W. Penfield<br />
  23. 23. Control of voluntary movement<br />Execution<br />Planning<br />Basal Ganglia<br />Association cortex<br />Premotor + Motor cortex<br />Movement<br />Idea<br />Lateral cerebellum<br />Intermediate Cerebellum<br />
  24. 24. Organization of Motor system<br />
  25. 25. Organization of Motor Nervous System<br />
  26. 26. Cortical Motor Areas<br />
  27. 27. Functional Organization of the Primary Motor Cortex<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. The major inputs to the motor cortex in monkeys<br />
  30. 30. Motor Cortex Afferent<br />
  31. 31. Corticospinal Tract<br />
  32. 32. Convergence of Motor Control on the Anterior Motor Neuron<br />
  33. 33.  Experimental apparatus developed to record the activity of single neurons in awake primates trained to perform specific movements : Ed Evarts 1960 <br />
  34. 34. Direct corticospinal control of motor neurons is necessary for fine control of the digits<br />
  35. 35. Motor Cortical Cell Firing with Force Generated<br />
  36. 36. Corticomotoneuronal (CM) cell is active depends on the motor task<br />
  37. 37. Activity in Individual Neurons of the Primary Motor Cortex Is Related to Muscle Force and Direction of Movement <br />
  38. 38. Spike Triggered Averaging 1970<br />
  39. 39. Directional tuning of an upper motor neuron in the primary motor cortex<br />
  40. 40. Different areas of cortex are activated during simple, complex, and imagined sequences of finger movements (Xenon PET)<br />
  41. 41. Cell activity in the motor cortex depends on whether a sequence of movements is guided by visual cues or by prior training<br />
  42. 42. A set-related neuron in the dorsal premotor area becomes active while the monkey prepares to make a movement to the left<br />
  43. 43. The visuomotor transformations required for reaching and grasping involve two different pathways<br />
  44. 44. Individual neurons in the ventral premotor area fire during specific hand actions only<br />
  45. 45. Mirror Neurons<br />A. Activity in the neuron as the monkey observes another monkey make a precision group.B. Activity in the same neuron as the monkey observes the human experimenter make the precision grip.C. Activity in the same neuron as the monkey itself performs a precision grip. (From Rizzolotti et al 1996.)<br />
  46. 46. Different areas of cortex are activated during simple, complex, and imagined sequences of finger movements (Xenon PET)<br />
  47. 47. The Somatotopic Organization of the Motor Cortex Is Plastic<br />
  48. 48. As a movement becomes more practiced, it is represented more extensively in primary motor cortex<br />
  49. 49. Summary<br />Primary Motor Cortex:<br />Codes force and direction of movement<br />Spinal motor neuron are directly under control for precise movement.<br />Dorsal Premotor Cortex<br />Movement related neuron encodes sensorimotor transformation for visual and sensory cue<br />Fire before movement<br />Ventral Premotor Cortex<br />Encodes learned motor act fire before movement<br />All cortical neurons are adaptable and plastic<br />
  50. 50. Rubrospinal Tract<br />
  51. 51. Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia<br />
  52. 52. Motor components of the human basal ganglia<br />
  53. 53. Anatomical Organization of Basal Ganglia Input<br />
  54. 54. Output of Basal Ganglia<br />
  55. 55. Disinhibition in the direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia<br />
  56. 56. Organization of Cerebellum<br />
  57. 57. Input of Cerebellum<br />
  58. 58. Cerebellar Output<br />
  59. 59. Vestibulocerebellum<br />
  60. 60. Neocerebellum<br />
  61. 61. The spinocerebellum contains two somatotopic neural maps of the body<br />
  62. 62. Motor modulation by the cerebrocerebellum<br />
  63. 63. Cerebellar Pathway<br />
  64. 64. Spinal Motor Neuron<br />
  65. 65. Spinal Cord: Grey matter <br />
  66. 66. Motor Unit<br />
  67. 67. Neuromuscular Junction<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. Mechanism of Muscle contraction<br />
  70. 70. Muscle Spindle<br />
  71. 71. Stretch Reflex<br />
  72. 72. Muscle Stretch Reflexes<br />
  73. 73. Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
  74. 74. Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
  75. 75. Feedback Inhibition: Golgi Tendon Organ<br />
  76. 76. Alpha and gamma motor neurons are coactivated during voluntary movements<br />
  77. 77. Spinal Animal<br />
  78. 78. Sensory Feedback for walking<br />
  79. 79. Locomotor Center in Cat<br />
  80. 80. Thanks<br />

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