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10e posture and balance


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10e posture and balance

  1. 1. Vestibular System
  2. 2. Overview of Vestibular System <ul><li>Detects motion of head in space to control head and body posture and eye movement </li></ul><ul><li>Provide subjective sense of movement and orientation in space </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Vestibular system <ul><li>The Maculae are responsible for ( linear acceleration forces) Detecting Orientation of the Head with Respect to Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>The Maculae are in the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saccule : is responsible for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vertical acceleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utricle: Is responsible for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>horizontal acceleration </li></ul></ul>Saccule Utricle
  4. 4. Vestibular Hair Cells
  5. 5. Macule and Hair Cell
  6. 6. Vestibular transduction of Mechanical Stimuli
  7. 7. Morphological polarization of hair cells in the utricular and saccular maculae
  8. 8. Forces acting on the head and the resulting displacement of the otolithic membrane of the utricular macula
  9. 9. Response of a vestibular nerve axon from an otolith organ
  10. 10. Vestibular Navigation
  11. 12. The Semicircular Canals Detect Angular Accelerations
  12. 14. The ampulla is responsible for the change in rotational movement
  13. 15. Vestibular Inputs
  14. 20. Posture and Balance
  15. 21. Postural adjustments require anticipatory motor actions.
  16. 22. Anticipatory maintenance of body posture
  17. 23. Anticipatory motor action in response to postural disturbance
  18. 24. Appropriate anticipatory responses to postural disturbances can be learned
  19. 25. Adaptive Postural Control Is Learned During Locomotion
  20. 27. The vestibular contribution to postural adjustment depends on whether the primary perturbation is to the feet or the head
  21. 29. Decerebrate Rigidity
  22. 31. Upper Motor Neurons That Maintain Balance and Posture