09a memory


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09a memory

  1. 1. Memory
  2. 2. Paul Broca : From Phrenology to Localization Paul Broca 1861
  3. 3. Association Cortices Three association areas—the prefrontal, parietal temporal occipital, and limbic—are involved in cognitive behavior planning, thinking, feeling, perception, speech, learning, memory, emotion, and skilled movements.
  4. 4. Penfield on one occasion electrical stimulation of the temporal lobes produced what he called an experiential response —a coherent recollection of an earlier experience But all of the patients Penfield studied had epileptic seizure foci in the temporal lobe, and the sites most effective in eliciting experiential responses were near those foci.
  5. 5. The medial temporal lobe and memory storage More convincing evidence that the temporal lobes are important in memory emerged in the mid 1950s from the study of patients who had undergone bilateral removal of the hippocampus and neighboring regions in the temporal lobe as treatment for epilepsy (Brenda Milner)
  6. 6. The Distinction Between Explicit and Implicit Memory
  7. 7. Priming
  8. 8. Multi-store (Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model 1968)
  9. 9. Sensory Memory
  10. 10. Short Term Memory The Percentage of Information Maintained in the Short-Term Store Over 18 Seconds (Fernald, 1997, p. 237).
  11. 11. The working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch 1974)
  12. 12. Working Memory Is a Short-Term Memory Required for Both the Encoding and Recall of Explicit Knowledge
  13. 13. Consolidation of Memory
  14. 14. Rehearsal Enhances the Transference of Short-Term Memory into Long-Term Memory
  15. 15. New Memories Are Codified During Consolidation Similar types of information are pulled from the memory storage bins and used to help process the new information. The new and old are compared for similarities and differences, and part of the storage process is to store the information about these similarities and differences, rather than to store the new information unprocessed. Thus, during consolidation, the new memories are not stored randomly in the brain but are stored in direct association with other memories of the same type. This is necessary if one is to be able to “search” the memory store at a later date to find the required information.
  16. 16. How Much Information Can We Remember?
  17. 17. Structural Changes Occur in Synapses During the Development of Long-Term Memory 1. Increase in vesicle release sites for secretion of transmitter substance. 2. Increase in number of transmitter vesicles released. 3. Increase in number of presynaptic terminals. 4. Changes in structures of the dendritic spines that permit transmission of stronger signals.
  18. 18. Long Term Memory
  19. 19. Characteristics of Long-Term Memory
  20. 20. Hippocampus is the seat of Consolidation
  21. 21. The anatomical organization of the hippocampal formation.
  22. 22. The role of the hippocampus in memory
  23. 23. The Long-Term Storage of Information
  24. 24. Explicit Memory Is Stored in Association Cortices
  25. 25. Semantic (Factual) Knowledge Is Stored in a Distributed Fashion in the Neocortex
  26. 26. Selective lesions in the posterior parietal cortex produce selective defects in semantic knowledge
  27. 27. Face recognition is from posterior temporal cortex
  28. 28. Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge
  29. 29. Episodic (Autobiographical) Knowledge About Time and Place Seems to Involve the Prefrontal Cortex Source amnesia. : the ability to associate a piece of information with the time and place it was acquired is at the core of how accurately we remember the individual episodes of our lives, a deficit in source information interferes dramatically with the accuracy of recall of episodic knowledge
  30. 30. Explicit Knowledge Involves at Least Four Distinct Processes 1. Encoding 2. Consolidation 3. Storage 4. Retrieval
  31. 31. The Importance of Association in Information Storage
  32. 32. Implicit Memory Is Stored in Perceptual, Motor, and Emotional Circuits
  33. 33. Certain Forms of Implicit Memory Involve the Cerebellum
  34. 34. Emotional Memory stored in Amygdale
  35. 35. Savant Syndrome usually diagnosed as severely retarded individuals special talent may be in calculation, history, art, language, or music—are
  36. 36. Memory Aging and Brain Size
  37. 37. Forgetting
  38. 38. Alzheimer's Disease
  39. 39. Tip of the Tongue (TOT)
  40. 40. Thank you