Paul Broca : From Phrenology to Localization
Paul Broca 1861
Three association areas—the prefrontal, parietal temporal occipital, and
limbic—are involved in cognitive behavior planning, thinking, feeling,
perception, speech, learning, memory, emotion, and skilled movements.
Penfield on one occasion electrical stimulation of the temporal lobes
produced what he called an experiential response —a coherent
recollection of an earlier experience
But all of the patients Penfield studied had epileptic seizure foci in the
temporal lobe, and the sites most effective in eliciting experiential
responses were near those foci.
The medial temporal lobe and memory storage
More convincing evidence that the temporal lobes are important in memory
emerged in the mid 1950s from the study of patients who had undergone
bilateral removal of the hippocampus and neighboring regions in the
temporal lobe as treatment for epilepsy (Brenda Milner)
The Distinction Between Explicit and Implicit Memory
Rehearsal Enhances the Transference of Short-Term Memory
into Long-Term Memory
New Memories Are Codified During Consolidation
Similar types of information are pulled from the memory
storage bins and used to help process the new information.
The new and old are compared for similarities and
differences, and part of the storage process is to store the
information about these similarities and differences, rather
than to store the new information unprocessed.
Thus, during consolidation, the new memories are not
stored randomly in the brain but are stored in direct
association with other memories of the same type.
This is necessary if one is to be able to “search” the
memory store at a later date to find the required information.
Structural Changes Occur in Synapses During the Development of
1. Increase in vesicle release sites
for secretion of transmitter
2. Increase in number of transmitter
3. Increase in number of
4. Changes in structures of the
dendritic spines that permit
transmission of stronger signals.
Explicit Memory Is Stored in Association Cortices
Semantic (Factual) Knowledge Is Stored in a Distributed Fashion in the
Selective lesions in the posterior parietal cortex produce selective defects in
Face recognition is from posterior temporal cortex
Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge
Episodic (Autobiographical) Knowledge About Time and Place Seems to
Involve the Prefrontal Cortex
Source amnesia. : the ability to associate a piece of information with the
time and place it was acquired is at the core of how accurately we
remember the individual episodes of our lives, a deficit in source
information interferes dramatically with the accuracy of recall of episodic
Explicit Knowledge Involves at Least Four Distinct Processes
The Importance of Association in Information Storage
Implicit Memory Is Stored in Perceptual, Motor, and Emotional Circuits
Certain Forms of Implicit Memory Involve the Cerebellum