06a sleep and wakefullness

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06a sleep and wakefullness

  1. 1. Integration of Nervous System
  2. 2. Anatomical planes Posterior Lateral Anterior Medial Anatomical Planes
  3. 3. Cerebrum
  4. 4. Thalamus
  5. 5. Hypothalamus
  6. 6. Basal Ganglia
  7. 7. Limbic System
  8. 8. Organization of Cerebellum
  9. 9. Brain Stem
  10. 10. Ventricular System
  11. 11. Spinal Cord
  12. 12. Peripheral Nerves
  13. 13. Cranial Nerve
  14. 14. Neurons
  15. 15. Types of Neurons
  16. 16. Supporting cells
  17. 17. Functional Organization
  18. 18. Functional Organization of NS
  19. 19. Somatic Sensory Sensation
  20. 20. Muscle Spindle
  21. 21. Golgi Tendon Organ
  22. 22. Sensory signal Processing
  23. 23. Motor Control Voluntary Involuntary
  24. 24. Reticular Activating System
  25. 25. Organization of Reticular Neurons
  26. 26. General Characteristics of RAS
  27. 27. Noradrenergic neurons in the pons
  28. 28. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain stem and hypothalamus
  29. 29. Serotonergic Cell Groups
  30. 30. Cholinergic Cell Groups
  31. 31. Cortico-Reticulo-Spinal Projections
  32. 32. Effects of stimulation of reticular formation on spinal reflexes •Stimulation of the facilitory zone (+) (shown in green) of the reticular formation causes a dramatic increase in the patellar reflex as determined by EMG measurements, •Marked suppression of this reflex follows stimulation of the inhibitory zone (-) (shown in red) of the reticular formation.
  33. 33. Pain Is Modulated by Descending Monoaminergic Projections
  34. 34. Arousal and Ascending RAS
  35. 35. The ascending connections of the reticular formation
  36. 36. The electroencephalogram measures electrical activity in the cerebral cortex.
  37. 37. Electrical stimulation of the reticular formation
  38. 38. Thalamic relay neurons have transmission and burst modes of signaling activity
  39. 39. Damage to Either Branch of the Ascending Arousal System May Impair Consciousness
  40. 40. Sleeping and Dreaming
  41. 41. The duration of sleep
  42. 42. The consequences of total sleep deprivation in rats
  43. 43. The Circadian Cycle of Sleep and Wakefulness
  44. 44. Stages of Sleep
  45. 45. Physiological changes in a male volunteer during the various sleep states
  46. 46. Anatomical underpinnings of circadian rhythms
  47. 47. Circadian rhythm physiology SCN SCG Eye Melatonin Sleep Wake Pineal cycle Temperature rhythm
  48. 48. Melatonin secretion at night Melatonin secretion 2.00 P.M. 8.00 P.M. 3.00 A.M 7.00 A.M. Time Of Day
  49. 49. Melatonin and Sleep
  50. 50. Melatonin levels sleep and age Melatonin Secretion Sleep Duration 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age in Year
  51. 51. Neural Circuits Governing Sleep
  52. 52. Thalamocortical Interactions
  53. 53. The patterns of activity of key cell groups during waking and slow wave and REM sleep
  54. 54. Cellular Mechanisms that Govern Sleep and Wakefulness Neurotransmitter involved Activity state of the relevant brainstem Brainstem nuclei responsible neurons WAKEFULNESS Cholinergic nuclei of pons-midbrain Acetylcholine Active junction Locus coeruleus Norepinephrine Active Raphe nuclei Serotonin Active NON-REM SLEEP Cholinergic nuclei of pons-midbrain Acetylcholine Decreased junction Locus coeruleus Norepinephrine Decreased Raphe nuclei Serotonin Decreased REM SLEEP ON Cholinergic nuclei of pons-midbrain Acetylcholine Active (PGO waves) junction Raphe nuclei Serotonin Inactive REM SLEEP OFF Locus coeruleus Norepinephrine Active
  55. 55. The major regions of the brain stem and forebrain involved in sleep control are shown in this sagittal section
  56. 56. Possible connections of the key neuronal groups that control REM sleep
  57. 57. Cortical regions whose activity is increased or decreased during REM sleep.
  58. 58. Thank You

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