05b motor system upper motor neuron


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05b motor system upper motor neuron

  1. 1. Voluntary Motor Control
  2. 2. Motor Cortex
  3. 3. Functional Organization of the Primary Motor Cortex
  4. 4. The major inputs to the motor cortex in monkeys
  5. 5. Corticospinal Tract
  6. 6. Convergence of Motor Control on the Anterior Motor Neuron
  7. 7. Experimental apparatus developed to record the activity of single neurons in awake primates trained to perform specific movements : Ed Evarts 1960
  8. 8. Direct corticospinal control of motor neurons is necessary for fine control of the digits
  9. 9. Activity in Individual Neurons of the Primary Motor Cortex Is Related to Muscle Force and Direction of Movement
  10. 10. Spike Triggered Averaging 1970
  11. 11. Motor Cortical Cell Firing with Force Generated
  12. 12. Directional tuning of an upper motor neuron in the primary motor cortex
  13. 13. Corticomotoneuronal (CM) cell is active depends on the motor task
  14. 14. Different areas of cortex are activated during simple, complex, and imagined sequences of finger movements (Xenon PET)
  15. 15. Cell activity in the motor cortex depends on whether a sequence of movements is guided by visual cues or by prior training
  16. 16. A set-related neuron in the dorsal premotor area becomes active while the monkey prepares to make a movement to the left
  17. 17. The visuomotor transformations required for reaching and grasping involve two different pathways
  18. 18. Individual neurons in the ventral premotor area fire during specific hand actions only
  19. 19. An individual cell in the ventral premotor area is active whether the monkey performs a task or observes someone else perform the task
  20. 20. The Somatotopic Organization of the Motor Cortex Is Plastic
  21. 21. As a movement becomes more practiced, it is represented more extensively in primary motor cortex
  22. 22. Summary Primary Motor Cortex: – Codes force and direction of movement – Spinal motor neuron are directly under control for precise movement. Dorsal Premotor Cortex – Movement related neuron encodes sensorimotor transformation for visual and sensory cue – Fire before movement Ventral Premotor Cortex – Encodes learned motor act fire before movement All cortical neurons are adaptable and plastic
  23. 23. Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia
  24. 24. Motor components of the human basal ganglia
  25. 25. Anatomical Organization of Basal Ganglia Input
  26. 26. Output of Basal Ganglia
  27. 27. The somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit
  28. 28. Disinhibition
  29. 29. Organization of Cerebellum
  30. 30. Functional organization of cerebellum
  31. 31. Input of Cerebellum
  32. 32. Cerebellar Output
  33. 33. Vestibulocerebellum
  34. 34. Neocerebellum
  35. 35. The spinocerebellum contains two somatotopic neural maps of the body
  36. 36. Cerebellar Pathway